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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2020, Vol.15, No.3

  • 1.

    Effect of Muscle Fatigue on the Proprioception by the Taekwondo Training Type

    Byoung-Do Seo | Hui-Jae Kim | Ju Joung Youl | 2020, 15(3) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of muscle fatigue on proprioception in the type of taekwondo training, causing injury to taekwondo athletes. METHODS: The subjects were divided into Taekwondo Kyorugi athletes (n = 14) and Taekwondo Poomsae athletes (n = 14). After inducing muscle fatigue to the subjects, the joint position sense (JPS) and the force reproduction sense (FRS) were measured before and immediately after the induction of muscle fatigue. RESULTS: Studies have shown no significant impact on the JPS and FRS caused by muscle fatigue induced by Poomsae and Kyorugi (p > .05). The JPS, however, showed a significant difference before and after Kyorugi (p < .05). The FRS showed significant differences before and after Poomsae (p < .05). Through this study, the injuries to taekwondo athletes appear to be influenced by the joint position and force reproduction. Moreover, the injury appears to affect the joint position sense in Kyorugi athletes and the force reproduction sense in Poomsae athletes. CONCLUSION: The results will contribute to injury prevention and athlete protection. In addition, the information can be used as basic data for the development of sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation programs for Taekwondo athletes. Research is needed on the customized management of sports methods and self-care to prevent sports damage, considering the athletic characteristics of the taekwondo athletes in the future.
  • 2.

    Effects of Reciprocal Inhibition Using Thera-band on Scapular Muscle Activities During Arm-lifting Exercises in Subjects with Rounded Shoulder Posture

    Chi-Hun Lee | Heon-seock Cynn | A-reum Shin and 1other persons | 2020, 15(3) | pp.11~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Excessive activity of the upper trapezius (UT) muscle contributes to a rounded shoulder posture (RSP) through abnormal rotation of the scapula that weakens the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles. This study compared the effects of two arm-lifting exercises with and without the use of a Thera-band on the activities of LT, SA, and UT muscles, and the LT/UT and SA/UT activity ratio in subjects with a rounded shoulder posture. METHODS: Sixteen subjects with RSP participated in this study. All subjects performed arm-lifting (AL), diagonal arm-lifting (DAL), arm lifting with isometric adduction (ALIA), and diagonal arm-lifting with isometric adduction (DALIA) exercises. The surface electromyography data, LT, SA, UT, and the LT/UT and SA/UT activity ratios were measured. A paired t-test was used to compare the differences between two arm-lifting exercises and two arm lifting with isometric adduction exercises. RESULTS: In ALIA and DALIA exercises, the UT muscle activity decreased significantly, whereas the LT/UT, SA/UT activity ratio increased significantly. The activity of SA muscle increased significantly more with DALIA than that with DAL. CONCLUSION: Arm-lifting exercises using a Thera-band can be implemented as an effective way to reduce the UT overactivity and increase the SA activity and LT/UT, SA/UT activity ratio in subjects with RSP.
  • 3.

    Effects of Interferential Current Treatment on Pain, Disability, and Balance in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study

    kyoung-sim, Jung | In Tae Sung | 2020, 15(3) | pp.21~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the efficacy of interferential current (IFC) treatment on the improvement of pain, disability, and balance in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHODS: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted with 40 patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: the IFC treatment group (n = 20) and the placebo treatment group (n = 20). The IFC group received 30 minutes of IFC treatment on the lumbar region, while the placebo group received IFC treatment without real electrical stimulation. The intervention was administered five days a week for two weeks. RESULTS: The primary outcomes of resting pain and pain during functional movement were measured by a visual analogue scale. The secondary measurements included the Oswestry disability index (ODI) for low back pain and postural sway. The measurements were performed before and after the two-week intervention period. Compared to the placebo treatment group, the IFC treatment group showed significantly greater improvement in pain during anterior trunk flexion in the standing position (p = .029), ODI (p = .039), and postural sway when subjects stood with their eyes closed (p = .010) at the end of the intervention. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that IFC treatment can improve pain, disability, and postural sway, thus, highlighting the benefits of somatosensory stimulation from IFC.
  • 4.

    Effects of Posture Correction Exercise on Muscle Activity and Onset Time during Arm Elevation in Subject with Forward Head and Rounded Shoulder Posture

    Sun-Wook Park | Lee, Han-Suk | 2020, 15(3) | pp.29~41 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for the treatment of Forward Head and Rounded Shoulder Posture (FHRSP) using posture correction exercises by comparing muscle activity and onset time around the neck and shoulder area during an arm elevation task. METHODS: The subjects were divided into FHRSP (21 persons) and non-FHRSP (19 persons) groups to measure muscle activity and onset time of muscle contraction. Wireless surface electromyography was used to assess the muscle activity and onset time of the right and left sternocleidomastoid (SCM), splenius capitis, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid, serratus anterior, upper trapezius, pectoralis major, and infraspinatus during an arm elevation task. After the pre-measurement, the participants performed the postural correction exercises, and then the post- measurement was conducted. RESULTS: After the posture correction exercises, there were significant differences in the muscle activity and onset time of all muscles in the FHRSP group. The results of the comparison of the muscle onset time during an arm elevation task demonstrated that after the postural correction exercises, the muscle onset time was significantly reduced in the right and left SCM and left splenius capitis, but there were no significant changes in the onset time of other muscles. CONCLUSION: The results of this study help us understand the change in muscle activities and muscle contraction onset time in a person with FHRSP when lifting the arm and suggest the relevant basis to apply the posture correction exercise in clinical settings.
  • 5.

    Correlation between Neck and Shoulder Pain, Neck and Shoulder Disability, Headache and Smartphone Addiction in Adults with Sleep Disorders

    Sei-Youn Park | CHOI TAESEOK | KIM DAE HUN and 2other persons | 2020, 15(3) | pp.43~50 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between sleep quality, neck and shoulder pain, neck and shoulder disability, headache, and smartphone addiction in adults, as well as factors affecting sleep disorders in adults. METHODS: A total of 112 adults in their 20s were recruited for participation in this study. This study measured Pearson’s correlation of sleep quality, neck and shoulder pain, neck and shoulder disability, headache and smartphone addiction. Logistic regression analysis (sleep disorder, without sleep disorder adults), was performed to analyze factors affecting sleep disorders. RESULTS: Sleep quality index was positively correlated with shoulder pain and disability index(SPADI)-pain score, SPADI-global score and smartphone addiction score. There was a significant difference in SPADI-pain score between the group with sleep disorders and the group without sleep disorders. Shoulder pain and disability were identified as factors affecting sleep disorders. The group with sleep disorders showed 1.088 times more shoulder pain than the group without sleep disorders, and the group with sleep disorders showed 1.006 times higher frequency of shoulder disorders than the group without sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that as sleep quality worsens, shoulder pain , disability, and smartphone addiction get worse. The group with sleep disorders had significantly increased shoulder pain compared to the group without sleep disorders. We also found that shoulder pain and disability were factors affecting sleep quality. Comparison between intervention method is warranted to better understand adults with sleep disorders
  • 6.

    Effect of Self-Stretching Exercises on Postural Improvement in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain Caused by Forward Head Posture

    Kang Jeong Il | Jeong Dae Keun | park seungkyu and 4other persons | 2020, 15(3) | pp.51~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide clinical basic data to reduce pain and improve function by comparing neck muscle activity and neck alignment using self-stretching and passive stretching exercises for chronic neck pain caused by forward head posture. METHODS: The subjects were divided into 15 subjects assigned to perform self-stretching exercise and 15 subjects assigned to perform passive stretching exercise. The intervention was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. The muscle activity in the neck was measured by surface electromyography (EMG) before intervention, and craniovertebral and cranial rotation angles were measured by X-ray. The 4-week intervention was conducted and the above items re-measured in the same manner and analyzed. RESULTS: Muscle activity within both groups after intervention using self-stretching or passive stretching exercise was significantly different (p < .05)(p < .01). Neck alignment of both groups was significantly different (p < .001)(p < .01). Further, muscle activities of the upper trapezius and splenius capitis muscles showed significant differences (p < .05). Lastly, neck alignment showed statistically significant difference (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Self-stretching exercise activated motor nerves as a posture correction exercise, thereby improving inhibition of muscle activity, muscle contraction delay, and pathological conditions of the muscle. For future research, interventions of self-stretching exercise will be needed for patients with chronic back pain accompanied by forward head posture, and various clinical studies on postural improvement of forward head posture by maintaining a normal muscle tone state are needed.
  • 7.

    Rapid Weight Loss and Physical and Psychological Difficulties in National Combat Sports Athletes

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2020, 15(3) | pp.61~68 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current state of rapid weight loss and physical and mental complaints among elite combat athletes who were selected and trained as national representatives. METHODS: A total of 127 combat athletes who had trained at the national training center in 2019 were enrolled. The questionnaire used as the survey tool was interpreted as words that Korean athletes could easily understand based on the Portuguese version of the 'Rapid Weight Loss Questionnaire' (RWLQ). χ2tests was performed to determine the differences in physical and mental changes according to sports and weight loss method. RESULTS: Combat athletes in Korea regularly undergo rapidly weight loss within a short period of time prior to competition. There were statistically similar results in terms of weight loss method, physical and mental changes and information about weight loss according to the sport. Weight loss methods often limit food and water intake and dehydrate. The physical complaints associated with them are symptoms such as “no energy”, “dizziness”, and “muscle spasms”. The mental complaints include “irritability”, “concentration loss” and “anxiety”. These symptoms can be caused by side effects such as food intake limitation, water restriction and dehydration. Information sources for weight loss were in the order of “senior or colleagues”, “supervisor or coach”, and “Internet”. No information was obtained from a doctor or dietitian. CONCLUSION: These results provide a baseline for predicting proper weight loss in athletes and provide useful information for developing performance enhancement as well as weight loss.
  • 8.

    Three-dimensional Analysis of the Spine using Formetric 4D according to Upper Limb Movement and Resistance Application

    Hyun-Jin Kim | Shin Won Seob | 2020, 15(3) | pp.69~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure changes in spine inclination and thoracolumbar structure and morphology according to upper-extremity movements with and without resistance in order to evaluate the spine stability in workers. METHODS: Forty-eight middle-aged male workers (mean age, 40.48 ± 6.27 years) participated in this study. Using the spine analysis system, changes in the inclination of the spine and structure as well as shape of the thoracolumbar spine were measured. For posture measurement, the postures of standing, lifting the right and left arms (shoulder joint 90° flexion), and lifting with both arms were measured in random order. In addition, variables were measured using a resistance of 3 kg for each posture. The statistical significance level was set at α = .05 for all variables. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the front and back inclinations of the spine, kyphotic curve of the thoracic spine, lordotic curve of the lumbar spine, rotation changes in the thoracolumbar spine, and rotation changes in the T4 vertebra (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference in the left and right tilts of the spine. In the post-hoc analysis, rotation changes in the T4 vertebra showed a significant difference in posture when resistance was applied to the left and right sides CONCLUSION: Causes of musculoskeletal diseases include excessive thoracic spine rotation, torsion, and hyperlordosis of the lumbar spine. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the working environment in order to ensure a healthy posture and prevent musculoskeletal diseases that can reduce the ability to carry various and/or excessive loads.
  • 9.

    Effectiveness of Kinesio-Taping on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms of the Wrist of a Physical Therapist: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study

    Sung-Hyeon Kim | Sang-Hun Lee | Ho-Jin Shin and 2other persons | 2020, 15(3) | pp.79~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Physical therapists are always exposed to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Although kinesio taping can support the joints and assist movement, studies of the effects of kinesio taping on these physical therapists are lacking. This study examined the effects of Kinesio-taping on pain, grip strength, range of motion and daily living skills in physical therapists with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Pain was measured using a 100 mm VAS. The grip strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. The range of joint motion was measured using a goniometer. Living skills were measured by patient-rated wrist evaluation. METHODS: Twenty physical therapists with wrist pain (Kinesio taping: n = 10, Sham taping: n = 10) received taping for each group, and measured the pain, grip strength, range of motion and daily living skills before (Baseline) and after taping (Nine hours). RESULTS: All data were analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA (p < .05). In the Kinesio group, resting pain (-14.9), movement pain (-20.5), and daily living skills (-9.55) were improved significantly compared to the baseline (p < .05). The grip strength and range of motion were not changed (p > .05). The sham group showed no significant change in all variables (p > .05). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist should apply kinesio- taping to improve the occupational tasks.
  • 10.

    Effects of Unilateral Static Stretching on Flexibility and Symmetry of Lower Leg, and Temporal Gait Variables in Gait Asymmetry People

    Young-Ae Kwon | Yoo Kyung Tae | Lee Hoseong | 2020, 15(3) | pp.89~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of unilateral static stretching on the flexibility and symmetry of the lower leg, and temporal gait variables in gait asymmetry people. METHODS: Twenty gait asymmetry people were divided into a unilateral static stretching group (USG, n = 10) and control group (CON, n = 10). The USG performed unilateral static stretching for 60 minutes, three times a week, and eight weeks. The flexibility of the lower leg (SR), and symmetry (BR), and temporal gait variables (Step length; SL, gait speed; GS) were measured before, after four and eight weeks of unilateral static stretching. Moreover, SI (symmetry index; SI) was calculated from the measured SL value. Statistical analyses were conducted using one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, a paired t-test, and multiple comparisons according to Scheffe. RESULTS: SR and BR in the dominant and non-dominant side, and GS were increased significantly at USG after eight-weeks compared to before unilateral static stretching (p < .05). The difference in BR in the dominant and non-dominant side, and step length (SI) decreased significantly at USG after eight-weeks compared to before unilateral static stretching (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Unilateral static stretching improves the flexibility and symmetry of the lower leg, and temporal gait variables in gait asymmetry people.
  • 11.

    Effect of the Confusion Level of Dual-Tasks Using a Smartphone on the Gait of Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability While Walking

    Woo-Sung Choi | Jong-duk Choi | 2020, 15(3) | pp.99~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the confusion level in performing dual tasks using smartphones while walking in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). METHODS: Twenty subjects with CAI and 20 healthy subjects participated in the study. The spatial, temporal, spatial-temporal, and variability gait parameters were measured using GAITRite under four different conditions: general gait, web surfing during gait, texting during gait, and gaming during gait. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the interaction according to the group (2) and confusion level in dual-tasks (4). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes within the group according to the confusion level in dual-tasks. The changes between groups were compared using an independent t-test. The statistical significance level was set to p = .05. RESULTS: Significant interactions in the temporal and spatial-temporal gait parameters were found between the dual-task conditions and the other groups (p < .05). Significant within-group differences in the spatial, temporal, and spatial-temporal gait parameters were found according to the confusion level in dual tasks (p < .05). Significant between-group differences were observed in the temporal and spatial-temporal gait parameters according to the confusion level in dual tasks (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The effect of the confusion level in dual tasks was greater in subjects with CAI than in healthy individuals. This study suggests that to prevent reinjury to the ankle, subjects with CAI should avoid dual tasks such as using smartphones while walking.
  • 12.

    Effects of Activity Limitations on the Health-Related Quality of Life and Depression in Osteoarthritis Patients

    Lee, Do-Youn | Nam Seung Min | 2020, 15(3) | pp.109~116 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to provide a basis for the need to apply psychological factors-based rehabilitation programs to osteoarthritis patients by understanding how the limitations on the activities of osteoarthritis patients relate to the health-related quality of life and depression. METHODS: This study assessed 1,994 osteoarthritis patients from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2016-2018). The subjects were divided into two categories: with activity limitation and without activity limitation. A Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: The EQ-5D index of subjects with activity limitation was .84 ± .16, it was .94 ± .12 in those with no activity limitation (p < .05). The diagnosis of depression was 16.8% and; 8.3% in those with and without activity limitation, respectively (p < .05). There was a significant difference in the odds ratio for each item in the EQ-5D. Moreover, the odds ratio for depression with an activity limitation was 2.171 (1.512 - 3.118) compared with no activity limitation. CONCLUSION: The activity limitation of osteoarthritis patients reduces the health-related quality of life significantly and increases the probability of depression. Therefore, the treatment of osteoarthritis patients should be approached considering the psychological conditions. Moreover, early diagnosis of depressive symptoms is needed to prevent symptom deterioration and increase the compliance with rehabilitation therapy.
  • 13.

    Relationship Between the Postural Alignments and Spatio-temporal Gait Parameters in Elderly Woman

    Sung-Hyeon Kim | Ho-Jin Shin | Suh Hye Rim and 2other persons | 2020, 15(3) | pp.117~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Aging causes changes in the postural alignment and gait due to changes in the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. On the other hand, the relationship between the changes in posture alignment and gait is unclear. This study examined the relationship between the postural alignment and spatiotemporal gait parameters in Korean elderly women. METHODS: Thirty-two-healthy elderly women participated in this study. All subjects were assessed for their posture alignment and gait ability. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to determine to what extent the postural alignments could explain the spatiotemporal gait parameters. RESULTS: Coronal head angle was moderately correlated with the velocity (r = -.51), normalized velocity (r = -.46) and gait-stability ratio (r = .58) (p < .05). The trunk angle was moderately correlated with the normalized velocity (r = -.32) and gait-stability ratio (r = .32) and weakly correlated with the velocity (r = -.28) (p < .05). The coronal shoulder angle was moderately correlated with the swing phase (r = -.57), stance phase (r = .56), single limb stance (r = -.56) and double limb stance (r = .51) (p < .05). The coronal head angle and trunk angle accounted for 36% of the variance in velocity, 33% variance in normalized velocity and 46% variance in the gait-stability ratio (p < .05). The coronal shoulder angle accounted for 32% variance in the swing phase, 32% variance in the stance phase, 31% variance in the single limb stance and 26% variance in the double limb stance (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Changes in posture alignment in elderly women may serve as a biomarker to predict a decrease in walking ability due to physical aging.
  • 14.

    Analysis of Correlation Between Knee Function Score and Knee Strength and Muscular Endurance According to the position of Elite Female Handball Athletes

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2020, 15(3) | pp.127~133 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The study examined the relationship between the knee function score and knee strength and muscular endurance of an elite female handball athletes according to their position in the team. METHODS: Thirty handball athletes participated on the study: 12 front positions, 12 back positions, and five goalkeepers. The knee function score consisted of symptoms, pain, daily activity, sports and recreation, and quality of life. In addition, CSMI (Cybex, USA) was used to measure the strength and muscular endurance of the knee. The muscular strength and muscular endurance were measured at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 180°/s, respectively. RESULTS: The overall items of the knee function score showed a significant difference (p = .017), and goalkeepers had significantly higher scores than the back positions. In addition, significant differences were observed in all five items depending on the position (p ≤ .05). On the other hand, both the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee strength and muscular endurance were not significant. Moreover, there was no correlation between the knee function score and the knee strength and muscle endurance. CONCLUSION: Elite female handball athletes have different knee functions score depending on their position in the team, but the, strength and muscular endurance of the knee were similar for each position. Furthermore, the knee function score showed no correlateion with the strength and muscular endurance of the knee
  • 15.

    Physiotherapy Management for COVID-19

    Yun-A Han | Hyo-Lyun Roh | 2020, 15(3) | pp.135~147 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of physiotherapy intervention for patients with COVID-19 during their hospital admission and post-discharge. METHODS: The recommendations and guidelines of physiotherapy management, medical management, and general information of the WHO, Australian Physiotherapist, European Respiratory Society, British Thoracic Society, and American Thoracic Society were reviewed. RESULTS: This paper contains general information on COVID-19, including medical management, and the importance of physiotherapy approaches including an assessment of the patients’ function, such as the 6-minute walking test, five sit to stand or sit to stand for one minute to measure their function as their recovery journey. The patients’ quality of life, anxiety, and depression should be considered. Physiotherapy management should be based on an assessment of the patient’s presenting impairments, including inclusion and exclusion of physiotherapy intervention. The paper also approaches step by step with the disease progress, from an intensive care unit, the general ward in the acute phase, through to the rehabilitation ward if needed, and post-discharge as an outpatient.. CONCLUSION: The paper has a limitation due to the unknown factor of the natural history of COVID-19. Depending on the patients’ recovery journey and the rehabilitation needed, any physiotherapy interventions should focus on what the patients’ need on their journey to recovery, e.g., pulmonary, cardiac, neurological, and general rehabilitation. In addition, applying personal protection equipment for treating physiotherapists is a mandatory requirement because this protects from the transmission of COVID-19.