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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2020, Vol.15, No.4

  • 1.

    Hamstring Foam Roller release and Sole Self Myofascial Release for Improving Hamstring Muscles Flexibility in Participants with Hamstring Shortness

    Geun-Woo Kim | Ji-hyun Lee | 2020, 15(4) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The current generation has shortened hamstrings due to a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in reduced flexibility of the hamstring and dysfunction. This study was undertaken to compare effects of three different release exercises on hamstring flexibility, in participants with short hamstrings. METHODS: Totally, 20 subjects having short hamstrings were involved in this study. The inclusion criterion for study participation was active knee extension test (AKET) less than 60°. All participants were subjected to 3 methods: hamstring foam roller release (HFRR), sitting self myofascial release (sitting SMR), and standing self myofascial release (Standing SMR). All participants randomly performed all three methods to avoid bias caused by learning or fatigue. Passive knee extension test (PKET), AKET, finger to floor distance test (FTFT), and pelvic tilting angle test (PTAT) were measured pre- and post-exercises. RESULTS: The PKET, AKET and FTFT were significantly increased after HFRR, sitting SMR, and standing SMR exercise (p < .05). However, PTAT was not significantly increased after the three exercises (p > .05). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between PKET, AKET, FTFT and PTAT subsequent to HFRR, sitting SMR, and standing SMR (p > .05). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HFRR, sitting SMR and standing SMR were immediately effective in improving hamstring flexibility in participants with short hamstrings.
  • 2.

    Effect of Nordic Walking on Depression and Physical Function in the Elderly with High-Risk of Depression

    Tae-Geun An | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park and 1other persons | 2020, 15(4) | pp.11~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of Nordic walking on depression and the physical function of elderly patients with a high risk of depression. METHODS: This study was a blinded randomized allocation study; 32 elderly were assigned to a Nordic walking group (n = 17), consisting of 60 min Nordic walking (including warming up 5 min, warming down 5 min, and Nordic walking 50 min) two days per week for 12 weeks and general leisure group (n = 15), consisting of 60 min leisure program community center. The pre and post 12-week program, depression test, muscle strength (including grip test, and 30sec sit to stand), and balance (including Functional Reach test, and One Leg Standing test) were measured. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare within the group, and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare between the groups. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, only the Nordic walking group showed significant improvement in depression, muscle strength, and balance (p < .05). In the general leisure group, however, the left grip strength and Functional Reach Test (FRT) showed a significant decrease. The Nordic walking program was better than the general leisure group, and a significant difference was observed in depression, muscle strength, and balance between the two groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Nordic walking was effective for the elderly with a high risk of depression. Therefore, Nordic walking may be an option for preventing elderly mental disorders and functional improvement.
  • 3.

    The Effect of Manual Physical Therapy on Neck Disability Index in Myofascial Pain Syndromes: A Systematic Review

    Chan-Myeong Kim | 2020, 15(4) | pp.21~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The main purpose of this meta-analysis study was to identify the degree-of-effect size and the variables for the effects of manual physical therapy on myofascial pain syndrome. METHODS: This study collected six studies published between 2015.01.01 and 2019.12.31. The analysis result verified nine effect size data. The random-effect model was chosen because of the heterogeneity of the data. RESULTS: First, the full case showed the largest mean effect size of 2.297 (p < .001). Second, the size of the effect based on the fascial distortion model (FDM) intervention showed an effect size of 4.654 (p < .001). Third, the number of participants showed a 15 or less effect size of 2.612 (p > .058). The number of treatments showed a 10 less effect size of 2.844 (p > .129). The publication type showed a thesis effect size of 3.095 (p < .002). CCONCLUSION: Manual physical therapy has a great effect on myofascial pain syndrome in the neck and shoulders, and that the effects differ according to the methods of intervention.
  • 4.

    The Immediate Effects of Graston Instrument-Assisted Soft-Tissue Mobilization and Self-Stretching on the Muscular Properties of the Gastrocnemius in Athletes

    Ho-Seong Kang | Lee Jung Hoon | 2020, 15(4) | pp.29~35 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the immediate effects of Graston instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (GIASTM) and self-stretching on the muscular properties of the gastrocnemius in athletes. METHODS: Thirty subjects (All in their 20 s) were distributed randomly and evenly into two groups of 15 each: GIASTM and stretching. The subjects had no history of gastrocnemius damage in the previous three months. The muscle tone, stiffness, elasticity, and mechanical stress relaxation time (MSRT) of the gastrocnemius were blind-tested. RESULTS: The GIASTM group showed significant changes in all categories, while only MSRT changed significantly in the self-stretching group after intervention. A comparison of the two groups revealed significant differences in stiffness, elasticity, and MSRT (Time required for the muscle to recover after distortion after intervention in the GIASTM group.CONCLUSION: In this study, significant decreases in muscle tone and stiffness, as well as significant increases in elasticity, were observed in the gastrocnemius of the GIASTM group. On the other hand, sSelf-stretching showed significant differences in MSRT. Therefore, GIASTM is more effective in the recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle from fatigue than self-stretching. This study suggests that GIASTM can help prevent damage to the gastrocnemius in athletes and contribute to their training and rehabilitation programs.
  • 5.

    The Immediate Effects of Neck and Trunk Stabilization Exercises on Balance and Gait in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Choe Yuwon | Kim Meung Kwon | 2020, 15(4) | pp.37~45 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of neck stabilization exercise combined with trunk stabilization exercise on balance and gait function in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-two chronic stroke patients were included in this study. The experimental group subjects (n = 11) performed neck stabilization (15 min) and trunk stabilization (15 min) exercises, while the control group subjects (n = 11) performed trunk stabilization exercise only for 30 min. Before and after the intervention, the subjects underwent static balance and gait testing. RESULTS: The 95% confidence ellipse area, center of pressure (COP) path length, and COP average velocity were significantly lower in both groups after the intervention compared to before intervention (p < .05). The average stance force on the affected side increased significantly in both groups after the intervention (p < .05). The changes in the static balance variables were larger in the experimental group than in the control group. The cadence, gait velocity, and single leg support increased significantly in both groups after intervention (p < .05). The changes in the gait variables were larger in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Trunk stabilization is a beneficial intervention, but the combination of neck stabilization with trunk stabilization is a more effective method to increase the gait and static balance in chronic stroke patients.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Two Treadmill Gait Training Techniques on the Gait and Respiratory Function in Stroke Patients

    Sung-Hun Park | Nan-Hyang Kim | Yong-Jun Cha | 2020, 15(4) | pp.47~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared two different techniques of treadmill gait training, and evaluated the outcomes on gait and respiratory function in patients with hemiplegic stroke. METHODS: This was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled, comparative study, enrolling a total of 21 stroke patients in a rehabilitation hospital. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treadmill walking training group with gradual speed increase (GSI group, n = 10), or treadmill walking training group with random speed changing (RSC group, n = 11). All participants performed 60 min of comprehensive rehabilitation therapy (5 × / week for 6 weeks). In additional, each group received either GSI or RSC treadmill walking training for 20 min (5 × / week for 6 weeks, total 30 sessions). Gait and respiratory function were measured before and after the 6-week training. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvementsin the 10-m walking test, 6-minute walking test, timed up and go test, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and maximal voluntary ventilation after training (p < .05). The GSI group showed a significantly greater increase in the FVC than the RSC group (+14.8 L vs. +12.5 L, p < .05). CONCLUSION: Both training methods can be effective for improving the walking and respiratory functions of stroke patients. However, our results indicate that treadmill walking training with gradual speed increase might be a more effective method for improving the respiratory function (FVC) than treadmill walking training with random speed changing.
  • 7.

    Effect of Breathing Exercises via Joint mobilization on the Lung Function and Spinal Alignment of Straight-necked Women

    Byung-Sun Kong | Beom-Cheol Jeong | Yoo Kyung Tae | 2020, 15(4) | pp.55~65 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of breathing exercises via joint mobilization on the lung function and spinal alignment of 30 straight-necked women in their 20 s and 30 s. METHODS: The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group who performed breathing exercises via joint mobilization, and a control group who performed general stretching exercises. The differences between the two groups were measured and compared at three points in time: during the pre-examination, after four weeks of intervention, and after a four-week maintenance period. The changes in each group were measured before and after the intervention and after a one-month maintenance period and compared. For data analysis, the SPSS 22 was used to obtain the mean and standard deviation with a significance level of ⍺ = .05. RESULTS: Eight weeks of breathing exercises via joint mobilization and general stretching exercises positively impacted the lung function and spinal alignment in straight- necked patients. In particular, the experimental group showed more significant differences in spinal alignment after four weeks period of intervention and four weeks of maintenance. CONCLUSION: Breathing exercises via joint mobilization can be considered an effective intervention that can improve the respiratory volume and spinal alignment for patients with straight necks.
  • 8.

    Correlation between Gait Speed and Velocity of Center of Pressure Progression during Stance Phase in the Older Adults with Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Study

    Seon Hee-Chang | Lee, Han-Suk | Mansoo Ko and 1other persons | 2020, 15(4) | pp.67~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The progression of the center of pressure (COP) velocity of the stance phase may have important roles for predicting gait speed in older adults with cognitive decline. This study was conducted to identify the correlation between gait speed and the velocity of COP progression during the stance phase in older adults with cognitive decline. METHODS: Forty adults aged 65 years or older (twenty participants without cognitive decline, 20 participants with cognitive decline) were recruited. The COP progression velocity was measured using an F-scan pressure-sensitive insole system. The stance phase was divided into four sub-stages. (loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing). Gait speed, double support phase, and cadence were also measured. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Gait speed was associated with the COP progression velocity in midstance (r = .719, p < .05), cadence (r = .719, p < .05) and the COP progression velocity in loading response velocity (r = .515, p < .05) in older adults with cognitive decline. However, no correlation was found in older adults without cognitive decline. In multiple regression analysis using gait speed as a dependent variable, the COP progression velocity in midstance and cadence were significant predictors of gait speed, with the COP progression velocity being the most significant predictor. CONCLUSION: The COP progression velocity is an important factor for predicting gait speed in older adults with cognitive decline, suggesting that the cognitive function influences gait speed and the velocity of COP progression.
  • 9.

    The Effect of a Program Combining Resistance Exercise and Group Exercise on Balance, Grip Strength, and Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Sung-Hyeon Kim | Ho-Jin Shin | Hahm Suk-Chan and 3other persons | 2020, 15(4) | pp.75~85 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Cerebral palsy is a common cause of disability in children, requiring constant rehabilitation. Improving balance in children with cerebral palsy helps to alleviate daily movement and the quality of life. This study examines a program that combines Resistance Exercise and Group Exercise, and investigates the effect on trunk control ability, balance ability, maximum grip strength, and quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Totally, 9 children with cerebral palsy participated in this study. Resistance exercise was performed for 8 weeks, 40 minutes every day. Group Exercise was conducted for 8 weeks, 40 minutes each Sunday. All participants were evaluated by the Korean version of the trunk control measurement scale, pediatric reach test, grip strength test, and KIDSCREEN-52. RESULTS: The trunk control ability was significantly improved in all subcategories (p < .05). In the pediatric reach test, the left and right directions were significantly improved (p < .05). Maximum grip strength was significantly improved in both hands (p < .05). The quality of life significantly improved in total score, physical well-being, general moods, self-perception, autonomy, relationship with parents, and home life (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Considering the encouraging results, we propose to use Resistance Exercise and Group Exercise as programs other than rehabilitation treatment in hospitals, to improve motor function and quality of life of children with cerebral palsy.
  • 10.

    Comparative Analysis of Pain Disorder Factors and Subjective Pain Reduction Effect after Functional Adjustment Procedure Therapy for Shoulder Pain Patients

    Hee-Hyeon Kim | Lim dong ho | 2020, 15(4) | pp.87~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examines the therapeutic effect of functional adjustment procedure therapy (FAPT), by comparatively analyzing behavioral disorders due to shoulder pain and subjective pain intensity subsequent to therapy, in patients with shoulder pain. METHODS: The intervention was performed on 48 employee patients with shoulder pain, Patients were administered 16 sessions of FAPT for 8 weeks, twice a week for 30 minutes per session. This study applied the neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) as a measurement tool, and used the questionnaire to measure subjective pain intensity to investigate the difference before and after administering FAPT to employee patients with shoulder pain. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was obtained between the mean difference in shoulder pain disorder, before and after FAPT. Assessing gender and age differences in the reduction effect of shoulder pain, showed significant difference in 8 of the 10 factors examined. Finally, examining the difference in the effect of reducing subjective shoulder pain by gender and age, we observed that gender‐based disability reduction was significant for all 12 factors examined. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results of this study, validate the therapeutic efficacy of FAPT for patients with shoulder pain. We believe that this data will provide basic information to understand the health conditions and psychological variables of patients with shoulder pain.
  • 11.

    Outcome of Rehabilitation Device Driven by Magnetic Force in Stroke Patients

    Park Jiwoo | MINSU KIM | 2020, 15(4) | pp.101~109 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigates the therapeutic effect of a prototype of a hand rehabilitation device based on magnetic forces. METHODS: Using an electromagnet and permanent magnets, we developed an end effector type device that induces various movements of the finger in accordance with the magnetic field direction. A total of 26 subacute stroke patients were enrolled and assigned to two groups in this randomized controlled trial. The intervention group received 30 minutes hand rehabilitation therapy per day for 4 weeks, using the device developed by us. Conventional physical therapies were conducted equally twice a day, 30 minutes per session, during the same period in both groups. RESULTS: After 4 weeks, rate of the Wolf Motor Function Test as a primary outcome measure showed significant improvement in the intervention group as compared to control group(p = .036). Scores of the Manual Function Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment of upper limb were also significantly increased in the intervention group as compared to control group(p = .038 and p = .042, respectively). Moreover, the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index tended to improve after subjecting to physical therapy in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the novel hand rehabilitation device developed using a magnetic force, improves the hand motor functions and activities of daily life in subacute stroke patients.
  • 12.

    The Effectiveness of Evjenth-Hamberg Stretching with regards to Muscle Tone and Flexibility in Adults with Hamstring Tightness

    Hyun-Ho Do | Seung-chul Chon | 2020, 15(4) | pp.111~119 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: In adults with hamstring tightness, stretching is considered a therapeutic exercise that improves flexibility. However, previous studies have reported efficacy of numerous methods, and are inconclusive in determining the most effective stretching techniques. This study aims to compare the outcomes of Evjenth-Hamberg stretching (E-HS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNFS), and static stretching (SS), on muscle tone and flexibility. METHODS: A total of 30 subjects were assigned to each of the three stretching groups:; E-HS (n1 = 10), PNFS (n2 = 10), and SS (n3 = 10). Muscle tone of the hamstring muscle, active knee extension (AKE), and passive knee extension (PKE) were assessed by range of motion. RESULTS: After the intervention, statistically significant differences were obtained between groups for muscle tone (p < .05). The post hoc test, showed statistically significant differences in muscle tone between the E-HS and PNFS groups (p < .05), and PNFS and SS groups (p < .05). Post hoc test after intervention, also revealed statistically significant differences in flexibility (p < .05) between the E-HS and PNFS groups (p < .05), E-HS and SS groups (p < .05), and PNFS and SS groups (p < .05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in PKE scores between the E-HS and SS groups (p < .05), and PNFS and SS groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that E-HS may be the most effective stretching technique for muscle tone and flexibility, in adults with hamstring tightness.
  • 13.

    Effects of Squat Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Vibration on the Pulmonary Function and the Quadriceps Femoris Activity of Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Kang Jeong Il | Jeong Dae Keun | 2020, 15(4) | pp.121~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to propose an exercise technique that helps improve the skeletal muscle function while suppressing the symptoms of respiratory distress, by mediating squat exercises in whole-body vibration for patients with severe COPD, and comparing the post intervention pulmonary function and activity of quadriceps. METHODS: Totally, 21 patients with severe COPD were randomly assigned to two groups through clinical sampling: experimental group I included 11 patients (Squat exercise combined with whole-body vibration exercise), and experimental group II included 10 patients (Only squat exercise). Before intervention, we measured pulmonary function using a pulmonary function tester, muscle activity of quadriceps using surface EMG, and gait ability using the 6MWT. RESULTS: Comparison of intra-group changes in both experimental groups showed a significant increase in the activity of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, and also in the 6MWT. Intra-group comparisons also revealed significant difference in the activity of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Squat exercise combined with whole- body vibration significantly increased the activity of the quadriceps muscle, suggesting that this intervention helps maintain the function of skeletal muscles and prevent muscle atrophy. Therefore, studies to develop protocols using whole body vibration in clinical practice as an exercise method can safely be performed in severe COPD patients, as considered necessary.
  • 14.

    Effect of Exercise with Vertical Vibration on the Balance, Walking Speed, Muscle Strength and Falls Efficacy in the Elderly

    Jin-Hwan Park | Kin YoungMin | 2020, 15(4) | pp.131~143 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise program with vertical vibration can improve balance, walking speed, muscle strength and falls efficacy in the healthy elderly. METHODS: A total of 28 elderly were randomly divided into two groups: vertical vibration exercise group (exercise with vertical vibration) (N = 14) and control group (exercise without vibration) (N = 14). The exercise program, comprising calf raise, deep-squat, semi-squat, front lunge, and leg abduction was conducted with or without vibration, respectively. Subjects in each group participated in the 30 minutes training program, 2 times per week for 6 weeks. In both groups, the balance evaluation system (BT4) was used to evaluate standing balance, and walking speed was measured using the 10MWT. The manual muscle test system was applied to evaluate the knee extensor and ankle planter flexor muscle strength of the subjects, whereas the Korean falls efficacy scale (K-FES) evaluated the falls efficacy. RESULTS: After intervention, the vertical vibration group showed significantly higher changes compared to the control group, in the parameters of standing balance (P < .05), 10MWT (P < .05), left knee extensor (P < .05), right knee extensor (P < .01), both ankle plantar flexors (P < .05), and K-FES (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The exercise program with vertical vibration has the potential to improve balance, walking speed, muscle power and falls efficacy in the elderly.
  • 15.

    Effect of Visual Feedback Training of Core Strength on Coordination, Balance and Walking Ability of Stroke Patients

    Sam-Won Yoon | Ho-Hee Son | 2020, 15(4) | pp.145~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compares the effects of HUBER rehabilitation and general rehabilitation treatment on the coordination, balance, and walking ability of stroke patients. METHODS: This study enrolled 38 randomized stroke patients, and data was collected for 6 weeks. All participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 19) or control group (n = 19). The experimental group were administered Huber rehabilitation and general rehabilitation treatment. The control group was given only general rehabilitation treatment. Both treatments were conducted for 30 minutes during each training session, 3 training sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The coordination, balance, and walking ability were evaluated before and after the intervention, to compare the intergroup and intragroup changes. RESULTS: Change in the right LOS (limit of stability) (p < .001) and forward LOS (p < .02) following intervention were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group, but no significant group difference was observed between left LOS (p > .1) and backward LOS (p > .2). Alterations in coordination (p < .02) and TUG (p <. 05) were significantly greater after intervention in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HUBER rehabilitation is effective in improving the coordination, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients. To strengthen and validate the results of this study, future studies related to HUBER rehabilitation are required.
  • 16.

    Effect of the Virtual Reality Cognitive Rehabilitation Program on Cognition Ability and Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Hyeok-Jun Kang | Sang-Ryul Kim | Jeong-Heon Kim and 4other persons | 2020, 15(4) | pp.155~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of a head-mounted display (HMD) based virtual reality (VR) cognitive rehabilitation program on the cognitive ability and activities of daily living in patients with mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: This study enrolled 5 mild cognitive impairment patients at the G welfare center in Gwangju metropolitan city. Patients were examined using the MMSE- DS (Mini mental state examination-dementia screening). The VR cognitive rehabilitation program was applied twice a week for four weeks. The functional independence measure (FIM) and Loewenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment-geriatric population (LOTCA-G) were compared before and after applying the VR cognitive rehabilitation program. RESULTS: Subsequent of application of the VR cognitive rehabilitation program, significant increase was observed in the LOTCA-G score. The FIM score was also perceived to increase, after the intervention, but was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Application of the VR cognitive rehabilitation program as a therapy is effective in improving the visual perception, and upper extremity executive ability, especially orientation, thinking organization, attention, and concentration.
  • 17.

    Comparison of Robotic Tilt-table Training and Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Lower Extremity Strength, Balance, Gait, and Satisfaction with Rehabilitation, in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Seung-Chul Kwon | Shin Won Seob | 2020, 15(4) | pp.163~174 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of Robot Tilt-table Training (RTT) on the lower extremity strength, balance, gait, and satisfaction with rehabilitation, in patients with subacute stroke (less than six months after stroke onset), and requiring intensive rehabilitation. METHODS: A total of 29 subacute stroke patients were divided into an RTT group (n = 14) and a Body Weight Support Treadmill Training (BWSTT) group (n = 15). The mean age of patients was 62 years. RTT and BWSTT were performed for four weeks, three times a week, for 30 minutes. Isometric strength of the lower extremities before and after intervention was compared by measuring the maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lower extremity muscles. To compare the balance function, the center of pressure (COP) path-length and COP velocity were measured. Timed Up & Go test (TUG) and 10 Meter Walking Test (10 MWT) were evaluated to compare the gait function. A satisfaction with rehabilitation survey was conducted for subjective evaluation of the subject's satisfaction with the rehabilitation training imparted. RESULTS: In the intra-group comparison, both groups showed significant improvement in lower extremity strength, balance, gait, and satisfaction with rehabilitation, by comparing the parameters before and after the intervention (p < .05). Comparison of the amount of change between groups revealed significant improvement for all parameters in the RTT group, except for the 10 MWT (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Both groups are effective for all variables, but the RTT group showed enhanced efficacy for variables such as lower extremity strength, balance, gait, and satisfaction with rehabilitation, as compared to the BWSTT group.