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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2021, Vol.16, No.1

  • 1.

    Reliability and Validity of the Side-lying Instability and Prone Instability Tests in Patients with Lumbar Segmental Instability

    Bo-Eon Kim | Kwan-Woo Lee | Park Dae-Sung | 2021, 16(1) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to conduct inter-rater and intra-rater reliability tests in patients with low back pain (LBP) using the prone instability test (PIT) and side-lying instability test (SIT). We have analyzed the Korean version Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) correlations and radiograph finding (RF) for validity. METHODS: Individuals (n = 51) (mean age of 40.27 ± 13.28) with LBP for at least over a week were recruited, together with two participating physical therapist examiners. The measurement consisted of PIT, PST, K-ODI, and RF. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value, negative predictive value, prevalence index, agreement %, Cohen's kappa, and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) were calculated. The PIT and SIT were compared with RF for validity analysis, while PIT, SIT, K-ODI, and RF were calculated for the correlation analysis. RESULTS: The intra-rater reliability test measured for the PIT (kappa = .79, PABAK = .88) and SIT (kappa = .73, PABAK = .84), and inter-rater reliability test measured for the SIT (kappa = .80, PABAK = .88) showed good agreements. The PIT (Sn = .65, Sp = .63) and SIT validities (Sn = .68, Sp = .70) were compared with RF, showing a significant correlation in PIT and RF (r = .69), SIT and RF (r = .73), and PIT and K-ODI (r = .53). CONCLUSION: The SIT is a more comfortable position test than the PIT in patients. Both PIT and SIT have acceptable reliability and validity.
  • 2.

    The Effect of the Change in Neck Position on Muscle Activity during Arm Flexion Exercise

    Sunghak Cho | Chi-Hwan Kim | 2021, 16(1) | pp.9~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the effect of applying neck flexion during elbow flexion exercise on muscle activity of the biceps brachii, the anterior deltoid and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). METHODS: Twenty healthy adults participated in this study. The subjects measured %MVIC (Maximal volumetric control) and collected the maximum electromyography (EMG) values in the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, SCM. The first action was to sit in a sitting position with the eyes facing front and maintained the weight of each section by performing elbow flexion using a tension gauge. The second action was to sit in a sitting position with the head down and maintained the weight of each section by performing elbow flexion using a tension gauge. Paired T-test was used for comparison of the before-and-after neck flexion to analyze the muscle activity of the Biceps brachii of next flexion andextension, the SCM, and the Anterior deltoid during elbow flexion exercise. The Repeated measured ANOVA was used for comparing %MVIC in each muscle. The significance level (?) was set at .05. RESULTS: Neck flexion during elbow flexion increased the muscle activity of the Biceps brachii and Anterior Deltoid muscle in the maximal muscle strength 50 ~ 60%, 70 ~ 80% and decreased the muscle activity of the SCM (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The applic has been confirmed to reduce the mobilization of the SCM and increase the mobilization of the Biceps brachii and Anterior Deltoid to increase the mobilization. Therefore, it seems effective to apply neck flexion when elbow flexion exercise.
  • 3.

    Relationship between Gait, Static Balance, and Pelvic Inclination in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Choe Yuwon | Kyu-Ryeong Kim | Kim Meung Kwon | 2021, 16(1) | pp.17~22 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the correlations between gait, static balance, and pelvic inclination in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-two chronic stroke patients were included in this study. The subjects participated in gait, static balance, and pelvic inclination tests. In the gait measurement, the cadence and gait velocity were measured, and the average of three trials was calculated and recorded. The static balance was measured using a force platform. The data was captured for ten seconds, and five successful trials were recorded. Pelvic inclination in the sagittal plane was measured using a palpation meter. For data processing, a KolmogorovSmirnov test was used to determine the type of distribution for all variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis. The correlations among the gait, static balance, and pelvic inclination was calculated. The level of significance was .05. RESULTS: Significant negative correlations were observed between the gait variables (cadence, velocity) and static balance variables (COP path length, COP average velocity, and 95% confidence ellipse area) (p < .05). On the other hand, there was no significant correlation between pelvic inclination and gait or between the pelvic inclination and static balance variables. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were observed between the gait function and static balance. On the other hand, there were no significant correlations between the pelvic inclination and gait and static balance. These results suggest that the pelvic inclination is not an important consideration for increasing the gait function and static balance.
  • 4.

    Effects of Altering Foot Position on Quadriceps Femoris Activation during Wall Squat Exercises

    Yongjun Qiao | Kyu-Ryeong Kim | Kim Meung Kwon | 2021, 16(1) | pp.23~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify the effects of altering foot position on quadriceps femoris including vastus medialis obliques (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) activation during wall squat exercises. METHODS: All subjects (n = 15) were selected and randomly performed three kinds of wall squats: 1) GWS (General Wall Squat), 2) WSS1/4 (Wall Squat Short 1/4), and 3) WSS1/2 (Wall Squat Short 1/2). Each subject completed all three kinds of wall squatting exercises at three different times and recorded the muscle activity data of vastus medialis obliques, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris. RESULTS: Compared with GWS exercise, VMO and RF muscle activity significantly increased under WSS1/2 exercise (p < .05), while only RF muscle activity significantly increased under WSS1/4 exercise (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that moving the foot toward the wall during wall squats has a positive effect on quadriceps activation. The exercise of wall squat short can not only be used as the lower limb muscle strengthening training for normal people, but also as the recovery training for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients in the rehabilitation stage. Besides, Anterior cruciate ligament patients can also try this exercise according to the advice of doctors and therapists.
  • 5.

    Analysis of Body Composition according to Short Distance and Middle & Long Distance of Youth

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Ki-Jun Park | 2021, 16(1) | pp.33~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the body composition according to the sport of short-distance and middle & long-distance athletes to identify the factors that affect the body composition. METHODS: Forty-eight athletes selected as youth national athletes in 2019 participated in the study. The study participants measured the length of the lower extremities, body composition, and anaerobic ability. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare the body composition according to the event. In addition, the Pearson correlation was performed to identify the factors that influence the body composition. RESULTS: The leg length of the Short and Middle & long-distance athletes were similar (p = .584). On the other hand, there were differences in the body fat percentage (p =.001), lean percentage (p = .001), and BMI (p = .001). In addition, the body fat percentage was correlated with the lean body mass (r = .419) and BMI (r = .447). Furthermore, the lean body mass was correlated with the BMI (r = .849) and the peak power (r = .662) and mean power (r = .686) of the anaerobic capacity. Moreover, the BMI was correlated with the peak power (r = .490) and mean power (r = .543) of the anaerobic capacity. The peak power of the anaerobic ability was correlated with the mean power (r = .931). CONCLUSION: The body composition differed according to the sport. The body fat percentage correlated with the lean body mass and the BMI. The lean body mass correlated with the BMI, peak power of anaerobic ability, and mean power. The BMI correlated with the anaerobic capacity.
  • 6.

    Effect of Squat Exercise Combined with Whole Body Vibration Exercise on Muscle Activity and Muscle Fatigue of Quadriceps in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Kang Jeong Il | Moon, Young Jun | Jeong Dae Keun | 2021, 16(1) | pp.41~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental clinical data to be used in therapeutic approach to patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome by administrating the squat exercise combined with whole body vibration exercise to them and investigating the effect of such exercise to leg muscle activity and muscle fatigue. METHODS: The patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned to experimental group I (n = 9) where only squat exercise was administered and experimental group II (n = 9) where the squat exercise combined with whole body vibration exercise was provided. The intervention program was administered for two weeks, four days a week, one session a day, three set a session, and 20 reps a set. The pre- and post-test were performed to measure muscle activity and muscle fatigue of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The muscle activity significantly changed in both group (p < .05, p < .01, respectively) and the muscle fatigue showed significant change only in group I (p < .05). In addition, there was significant difference between groups in change of muscle fatigue of both muscles (p < .05) but not in change of muscle activity. CONCLUSION: The results showed that both exercise are effective in improving muscle activity, however, that the squat exercise combined with whole body vibration exercise is more effective in preventing muscle fatigue.
  • 7.

    Effects of Active and Passive Hamstring Stretching on Pelvic Mobility in Low Back Pain Patients

    Jung, Seung-Hwa | Park Dae-Sung | 2021, 16(1) | pp.49~61 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Hamstring muscle shortening is related to low back pain, and it is important to check the hamstring muscle flexibility and pelvic mobility to analyze the effects of the intervention. This study examined the effects of hamstring muscle shortening on flexibility and pelvic mobility according to the method of stretching the hamstring muscle in patients with low back pain. METHODS: Forty Low Back Pain Patients participated. The subjects performed the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire (FABQ), Korean version of Oswestry Disability Index (KODI), Myovision, and sensbalance therapy cushion (pelvic mobility, proprioception). The subjects were divided into two groups to perform the passive and active stretching protocol. The intervention was conducted three times a week for four weeks. RESULTS: Hamstring muscle flexibility was increased significantly in both groups (p < .05), and there was no difference between the groups. VAS, FABQ was decreased significantly in both groups (p < .01), and there was no difference between the groups. The left lower back muscle impedance was decreased significantly in both groups (p < .05). The passive stretching group showed a significant increase in the pelvic anterior, posterior, and left tilt ROM (p < .05). The active stretching group showed a significant increase in the pelvic anterior, posterior tilt ROM (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Both stretching methods may be useful intervention methods for pelvic mobility and pain recovery and can assess back pain recovery.
  • 8.

    Effect of Trigger Finger on Pain, Grip Strength and Function of Upper Limb of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study

    Kim Meung Kwon | 윤다은 | 2021, 16(1) | pp.63~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trigger finger on pain, muscle strength and function in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. METHODS: A total of 60 subjects (30 carpal tunnel syndrome with trigger finger and 30 carpal tunnel syndrome without trigger finger) were assessment for pain, muscle strength (power grip, key pinch , tip to tip pinch, three jaw pinch) and function. The effect sizes of the two groups were compared, and the correlation between the trigger finger and each variable was analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that there were significantly difference in the pain, muscle strength excluding three jaw pinch and function (p < .05). The results also showed correlation between trigger finger and pain (r = .552), muscle strength excluding three jaw pinch (power grip r = -.296, key pinch r = -.260, tip to tip pinch r = -.285), and function (r = .375). The function of carpal tunnel syndrome patients was related to pain (r = .550) and power grips (r = -.324) of muscle strength. CONCLUSION: In carpal tunnel syndrome patients with trigger finger compared to carpal tunnel syndrome, muscle weakness, pain increase, and function reduction were shown. In addition, trigger finger are correlated with muscle strength, pain and function, and muscle weakness and increased pain affect the daily living of carpal tunnel syndrome patients with triggers finger. Therefore, physical therapy interventions of carpal tunnel syndrome patients with trigger finger should be combined with treatment for muscle strength enhancement as well as pain reduction.
  • 9.

    Effect of the Untact Trunk Stabilization Exercise Program on Muscle Thickness, Trunk Strength, Maximal Expiratory Flow, and Static Balance

    leedongwoo | Mo-Beom Jeong | 2021, 16(1) | pp.73~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined effects of the untact trunk stabilization exercise program on muscle thickness, trunk strength, maximal expiratory flow, and static balance. METHODS: The subjects were 20 normal adults divided into 10 in the contact exercise group and 10 in the untact exercise group. The trunk stabilization exercise program was conducted for four weeks. The muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound. The maximal expiratory flow was measured using Personal Best Full Range Peak Flow Meter. The static balance was measured through Bio-rescue; and the trunk muscle strength was measured by bending the upper body forward and measuring the time for maintaining the posture. RESULTS: Both contact and untact exercise groups showed significant differences in muscle thickness, musclestrength, maximal expiratory flow, and static balance (p < .05). A significant difference in muscle thickness on ultrasound was observed between the contact and untact exercise groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Activation of the transverse abdominal muscle requires accurate instructions of the contact exercise, but despite environmental constraints, the untact exercise program is as effective as the contact exercise for improving muscle strength, maximum expiratory flow, and static balance.
  • 10.

    Effect of Kinesio Taping Method on Ankle Muscle Tone, Balance Ability and Range of Motion in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Park YoungHan | Young-Sun Eo | 2021, 16(1) | pp.83~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined whether ankle joint stabilizing taping and muscle control taping influenced the ankle range of motion (ROM), muscle tone, and balance ability in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Ten stroke patients were assigned randomly to experimental group 1 (joint stabilization taping n = 5) and experimental group 2 (Muscle control taping n = 5). After general physical therapy in both groups, ankle stabilization taping was applied to experimental group 1, and muscle control taping was applied to experimental group 2 three times a week for a total of six weeks (18 times). RESULTS: The muscle tone and stiffness of the gastrocnemius (GCM) showed significant differences between the experimental 1 and experimental 2 groups (p < .05). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and ROM also showed significant differences within the experimental 1 and experimental 2 groups (p < .05). The BBS and ROM also showed no significant differences between the experimental 1 and experimental 2 groups (p > .05). CONCLUSION: This study examined the muscle tone, balance, and ROM on the paraplegic side of stroke patients using kinesio taping, and the effect of the taping application method was confirmed from the preceding study. Therefore, it can decrease the paralysis side muscle tone and improve the ROM and balance ability.
  • 11.

    Effects of Myofascial Release Technique with Preservation Physical Therapy on the Low Back Pain and Range of Motion and Body Function of Patients in Acute Traffic Accidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Kin YoungMin | Tae-Wook Kim | 2021, 16(1) | pp.93~101 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a myofascial release technique with preservation physical therapy on low back pain, range of motion, and physical function of patients in acute traffic accidents. METHODS: Twelve patients with traffic accidents were divided randomly into two groups of six patients each who met the selection criteria. The training was conducted for 45 minutes each time, for two weeks and four times per week. The experimental group received four myofascial release techniques and with preservation physical therapy. The control group received only preservation physical therapy. RESULTS: The VAS test result was statistically significant after the intervention in both groups (p < .05). After the intervention, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and control group. The Schober test result was statistically significant after the intervention in both the experimental and control groups (p < .05), and there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control group after the intervention (p < .05). The KODI assessment result was significant after the intervention in both the experimental and control groups (p < .05), and there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control group after the intervention (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The myofascial release technique with preservation physical therapy had a positive effect on low back pain, range of motion, and body function in acute traffic accident patients.
  • 12.

    Effects of the Visual Analog Scale and Knee Function Index on the Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance of the Knees of Male National Field-Hockey Athletes

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Ki-Jun Park | 2021, 16(1) | pp.103~109 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and knee function index on the knee strength and endurance in the national male field-hockey athletes. METHODS: Twenty-four male field-hockey athletes with a painful knee who trained at the national training center in 2019 were enrolled. The VAS and knee function index questionnaire were used to evaluate the degree of pain and functional state of the knee. The muscle strength and endurance of the knee were measured by Biodex (System 4, USA). The Pearson product moment correlation was performed to examine the effects of the VAS and knee function index the of knee on the strength and endurance. In addition, the VAS and knee function index and muscle strength and muscle endurance were examined to determine the relationship using Simple Linear Regression. The statistical significance level was α=.05. RESULTS: An analysis of the correlation between VAS and knee function index and muscle strength and muscle endurance revealed the VAS and knee function index to be statistically significant (r = .700). In addition, the extensor muscle strength, knee VAS (r = -.457), and knee function index (r = -.414) were also statistically significant. A 1-point increase in the VAS and knee function index was associated with an approximately 9.881 and 1.006 extensor muscle strength. CONCLUSION: The VAS and knee function index of field-hockey athletes are related to the strength of the knee extensors. Therefore, field-hockey athletes should develop a program to strengthen the extensor muscle strength of the knee.
  • 13.

    Effects of Core Stability Exercise on Strength, Activation of Trunk Muscles and Pulmonary Function in a Guillain-Barre Syndrome Patient: Case Report

    EumYoungbae | Yoo Kyung Tae | Lee Yun Hwan and 1other persons | 2021, 16(1) | pp.111~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of core stability exercise on the strength, activation of the trunk muscle, and pulmonary function in a Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) patient. METHODS: A 38-year-old male with GBS was enrolled in the study. A core stability exercise program was implemented for four weeks with a duration of 30 min/day and a frequency of three days/week. The program consisted of abdominal crunch, Swiss ball crunch, bicycle crunch, medicine ball sit-up with a toss, medicine ball rotational chest pass, raised upper body and lower body, and dead bug. Measurements of the strength of the trunk muscle (trunk flexion and hip flexion), activation of trunk muscles (rectus femoris; RA, external oblique abdominal; EOA, internal oblique abdominal; IOA, erector spinae; ES), and pulmonary function (forced expiratory capacity; FVC, forced expiratory volume at one second; FEV1) were taken before and after four weeks of core stability exercise. RESULTS: The strength of trunk muscles increased in the trunk and hip flexion after four weeks of core stability exercise, respectively, compared to the baseline levels. Activation of the trunk muscles increased in RA, EOA, and IOA after four weeks of core stability exercise compared to baseline levels, but decreased in ES after four weeks of core stability exercise compared to the baseline levels. The pulmonary function increased in FVC and FEV1 after four weeks of core stability exercise compared to the baseline levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that core stability exercise improves strength, Activation of the trunk muscle, And pulmonary function in patients with GBS
  • 14.

    Comparison of Domestic and International Government Policies in Pandemic Circumstances and Crises: Based on COVID-19, SARS, MERS

    Suk-Man Kim | park sang young | Min Woo Lee and 1other persons | 2021, 16(1) | pp.123~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Focusing on the factors that influence the infectious disease emergency response policy (approached by dividing the factors into health policy management and economic policies), both SARS and MERS cases were based on the legal system, manpower, and budget, but there has not been enough learning from the epidemic. This study focused on infectious disease emergency governance, which various studies have neglected despite its social and academic importance. METHODS: The research is based on an analysis of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 and compares global policies. In this study, infectious disease emergency governance was divided into health policy management and economic factors. This study focused on planning and leadership before and after the outbreak of infectious diseases and how cooperation was achieved to monitor and respond to infectious diseases successfully. RESULTS and CONCLUSION: The limit of this study was that COVID-19 is a currently ongoing infectious disease with high uncertainty. Because it is an ongoing problem, only some data and statistics are reflected, and many limitations prevent a proper comparison under the same criteria as other infectious diseases. In addition, because continuous changes are expected, there is also room for infectious diseases to develop in a completely different pattern from the current situation, and continuous research must be accompanied in the future.