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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2021, Vol.16, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Head Direction on Electromyographic Activity of Quadriceps, Center of Pressure and Foot Pressure during Squat Exercise

    Yao Xu | Kyu-Ryeong Kim | Kim Meung Kwon | 2021, 16(2) | pp.1~8 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of changes in the head direction (forward, upward 10° and downward 10°) on the quadriceps, center of pressure (COP), and foot pressure during squat exercises. The aim was to determine if the head direction could better activate the quadriceps muscle and provide a safer and stable squat posture during squat exercise. METHODS: Fifteen healthy college students were asked to stand on a Zebris, and three electrodes for sEMG were attached to their vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The participants then performed squatting exercises under three head directions (forward, upward 10°, and downward 10°). Surface electrodes were then used to record the EMG data during exercise. The Zebris FDM-SX was used to measure the foot pressure and COP of the participants. RESULTS: In squat exercise, the upward head direction group showed significantly higher VL activation than the downward head direction group (p < .05). The upward head direction group showed a significant backward change in the deviation of the COP than the downward and forward groups (p < .05). The upward head direction group showed a significant decrease in forefoot pressure than the downward and forward groups (p < .05) and an increase in the hindfoot pressure compared to the downward and forward groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The head direction upward in squat exercise has a positive effect on the quadriceps.
  • 2.

    Eight Weeks Twenty Meters Walk Aerobic Exercise Improve Cardio-respiratory Fitness and Muscular Strength of Stroke Survivor Outpatients in Tertiary Hospitals in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Israel Arogundade Ojo | Olufunmilola Leah Dominic | Wale Johnson Adeyemi | 2021, 16(2) | pp.9~21 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of an eight weeks twenty meters walk on the cardiorespiratory fitness and strength of the shoulder extensor, hip extensor, and dorsiflexor of stroke survivor outpatients in two tertiary hospitals in Osogbo, Nigeria. METHODS: A purposive sampling technique was used to select 21 registered right or left outpatient hemiplegic stroke survivors in a pre- and post-test experimental research design. The research questions were presented using the descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The differences between the mean of the cardio-respiratory indices and the muscle strength were tested by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: No significant differences in heart rate were observed at week 0 compared to week 4. A significant decrease was recorded in the parameter at week 8, compared to week 4. Moreover, there were significant decreases in blood pressure and respiratory rate in week 0, compared to week 4, and in the respiratory rate, compared to week 8. In contrast, significant elevations in VO2 max were observed in week 0, compared to week 4, and in the week 4, compared to week 8. Furthermore, significant elevations in muscular strength were documented when comparisons were made at weeks 0, 4, and 8. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of twenty meters walk aerobic exercise improve the cardio-respiratory fitness and muscular strength of stroke survivor outpatients.
  • 3.

    Anxiety and Depression in Physical Therapists during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Survey in Gwangju, South Korea

    Se-Ju Park | Jeong Ho Jin | Byeong Geun Kim | 2021, 16(2) | pp.23~30 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Physical therapists are at risk of becoming infected because they are in contact with or within 2 meters of the patient while treating them. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anxiety and depression of physical therapists during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify the factors that affect anxiety and depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the pandemic. The survey were completed by 84 physical therapists in 24 local hospitals in Gwangju, South Korea. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to evaluate their anxiety and depression status. Logistic regression models were used to identify the general characteristics factors related to anxiety or depression. RESULTS: It was found that 40 (47.6%) respondents had anxiety, and 37 (44%) had depression. If there was a child under the age of seven in the physical therapist’s family, a high probability of anxiety (p < .05) prevailed. Physical therapists in their 30s had a higher risk of depression than those in their 40s (p < .05). The risk of anxiety and depression in physical therapists who were with patients who did not wear masks was higher than for those who were with patients who wore masks (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The anxiety and depression status of physical therapists in Gwangju, South Korea, during the pandemic of COVID-19 was poor. It is necessary to wear a mask for all people during physical therapy.
  • 4.

    Study on the Awareness and Demands of Korean University Students Majoring in Physical Therapy: Focus on Women’s Health Physical Therapy

    Jin-Su Kim | Lee, Han-Suk | Mi-Rim Song and 2other persons | 2021, 16(2) | pp.31~43 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the awareness and demands for Women’s Health Physical Therapy (WHPT) of university students majoring in physical therapy. METHODS: From September to October 2020, questionnaire surveys were distributed to students majoring in physical therapy using a convenience sampling method. Data were collected via an internet form from 300 students in eight universities. The survey consisted of three parts consisting of five general characteristics, four questions for awareness, and five questions for the demands. The numerical values for the questions were calculated using a Likert-type scale and descriptive statistics. An independent T-test, ANOVA, and Dunnett T3 test were performed, and the significance level was .05. RESULTS: The demands (3.88) level of the WHPT was higher than the awareness (2.32). The awareness was similar in both genders (p > .05), but there was a significant difference in the demand between genders (p < .05). Female students knew better and had more demands of WHPT than male students. Similarly, a difference in the awareness level by grade was found. The 4 th grade had the highest awareness comparing the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd grades, but there was no significant difference in awareness and demand according to clinical practice (p > .05). CONCLUSION: The students have high demands compared to awareness, suggesting that the university and association need to prepare diverse and deeper education on WHPT
  • 5.

    Reliability study of the Pectoralis Minor Muscle Thickness Measurement using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging

    Ji Young Lim | Se-Yeong Lee | Jung, Seung-Hwa and 1other persons | 2021, 16(2) | pp.45~52 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the imaging procedure of pectoralis minor muscle thickness and assessed the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the muscle thickness measured by two raters using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) in healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifteen participants (aged 21 - 28, seven females, and eight males) were involved in the study. The primary rater palpated the coracoid process and the fourth rib, defined as the width of the index finger lateral to the sternum to avoid breast tissues, and lined the two landmarks. The second examiner checked 1 / 3 (1st point) and 1 / 2 (2nd point) of the line length as measurement points. The two raters obtained right side muscle images of the participants at a standardized sitting position using RUSI with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer at 40mm depth. For intra-rater reliability, the principal rater took three images per point and tried to take one more with an interval. For the inter-rater reliability, the other rater performed the same tasks as the principal rater on the same day. The reliability was analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of the measurement (SEM), and Bland and Altman plots. RESULTS: The reliability at all points was excellent for the same rater (ICC 3,1 = .973 - .978, SEM = .042 - .046), and between raters (ICC 2,1 = .939 - .959, SEM = .059 - .097). CONCLUSION: These findings show that the RUSI could be reliable for examining the pectoralis minor muscle thickness in healthy individuals at all measurement sites.
  • 6.

    Participation and Activities of Daily Living, Cognition, And Motor Function According to Residential Area in Stroke Survivors

    Park Eun young | Kim, Won-ho | 2021, 16(2) | pp.53~62 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Social participation is essential for stroke survivors. Although participation restrictions are affected by several factors, a few studies have focused on the effects of living in a particular residential area (urban versus rural) on the participation restrictions after a stroke. This study examined the factors affecting participation restrictions in stroke survivors according to the residential area. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six stroke patients (including 130 living in urban areas and 36 living in rural areas) were recruited for this study. The Korean Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) was used to assess the activities of daily living (ADL). The Korean Mini-Mental Examination Status (MMSE-K) was used to assess cognition. The motor function was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer function assessment (FMA). Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model of participation restriction. RESULTS: The proposed path model showed good fit indices. In rural and urban areas, the direct effects were significant between the ADL and participation restrictions (β = -.673 and -.457, respectively). For urban areas, the direct effects were significant between cognition and participation restrictions (β = -.252). In both area types, motor function and cognition had a significant direct effect on the ADL. CONCLUSION: For urban community-dwelling stroke survivors, the ADL and cognition had direct effects on participation restrictions. For rural area stroke survivors, the ADL had direct effects on participation restrictions. Activity level exercise programs help reduce the participation restrictions. Moreover, it is essential to address cognition training to improve participation in urban communitydwelling stroke survivors.
  • 7.

    Effect of Weight Shift Exercises on Leg Global Synkinesis and Gait in Patients with Stroke

    Seung-Yun Baek | 2021, 16(2) | pp.63~70 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the factors influencing the improvement of global synkinesis (GS) and gait in stroke patients by the weight shift exercise. METHODS: Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to experimental group I (n = 10) and experimental group II (n = 10). In experimental group I, weight shift with upper extremity exercises in a standing position were mediated and in experimental group II, upper extremity exercises in a standing position were mediated. These interventions were conducted in both groups for three sessions per week, 30 minutes per session over four weeks. Before the interventions, leg GS was measured using surface electromyography and the 10m walk test (10MWT). The same parameters were measured four weeks later. RESULTS: The GS and 10MWT of the experimental group I showed that there was a statistically significant difference between dorsiflexion (p < .05) and plantarflexion (p < .01) and 10MWT (p < .01). In experimental group II, there was a statistically significant difference only in 10MWT (p < .01). The comparison between the changes in both groups showed that in the case of GS, there was a statistically significant difference in the dorsiflexion (p < .01) and plantarflexion (p < .05), and in the 10MWT too (p < .05). CONCLUSION: GS of the lower extremities was decreased by improving posture control and enlarging soft tissues due to the symmetrical weight shift in experimental group I, which turned out to be effective in improving the gait speed.
  • 8.

    Correlation between the Oswestry Disability Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Kinematic Data during Gait Analysis in Elderly People with Chronic Back Pain

    YoungIn HWANG | Ki Song Kim | 2021, 16(2) | pp.71~79 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain is one of the main factors that affect the quality of life and cause problems of gait and balance in elderly people. This study investigated the correlation between the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Berg balance scale (BBS), and kinematic data measured while analyzing the gait of elderly people with chronic back pain. METHODS: A total of 29 subjects participated in this study. The ODI, BBS, and kinematic data of lower extremities were measured while walking. All data were analyzed using Pearson`s correlation coefficients and the significance was measured at .05. RESULTS: ODI had a significant correlation with 1, 13, and 14 items of BBS (p < .05), and left hip external rotation and right ankle abduction respectively in the stance and swing phase of gait (p < .01). 13 items of BBS had a significant correlation with the right ankle abduction in the stance phase of gait (p < .01). In addition, 14 items of BBS had a significant correlation with right and left ankle abduction in the stance and swing phase of gait (p < .01). CONCLUSION: While attempting to predict chronic low back pain and balance issues, it may be useful to check the right ankle abduction in the stance and swing phase of gait. In the future, it would be helpful if some simple tests could be designed to assess balance in elderly people with chronic low back pain.
  • 9.

    The Effects of Forest Healing Anti-aging Program on Physical Health of the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    백지은 | 신호진 | 김성현 and 6other persons | 2021, 16(2) | pp.81~90 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Aging causes a decrease in muscle mass and a change in posture, which reduces motor function and makes it difficult to perform daily activities independently. As these factors are closely related to the deterioration of the quality of life, it is very important to prevent and manage negative changes in the musculoskeletal system. Forest healing is a nature therapy course that maintains and promotes health using various environmental factors in a forest. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the forest healing anti-aging programs on the physical health of the elderly. METHODS: Ten elderly people participated in this study, as part of a forest healing anti-aging program for two days. Functional fitness, muscle strength, gait function, and balance were evaluated before and after the program. RESULTS: The number of arm curls, chair stands, and steps in a 2-min walk significantly increased (p < .05). 8-feet up & go time was significantly decreased (p < .05). Biceps brachii, quadriceps femoris, and calf muscle strength were significantly increased (p < .05). Gait velocity and cadence were significantly increased (p < .05). Step length, stride length, step time, swing time, stance time, and cycle time were significantly decreased (p < .05). Reaching distance in the lateral directions was significantly increased (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The forest healing anti-aging program improves the physical health of the elderly.
  • 10.

    The Research Trends and Keywords Modeling of Shoulder Rehabilitation using the Text-mining Technique

    Jun-hee Kim | Sung-hoon, Jung | Hwang ui-jae | 2021, 16(2) | pp.91~100 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study analyzed the trends and characteristics of shoulder rehabilitation research through keyword analysis, and their relationships were modeled using text mining techniques. METHODS: Abstract data of 10,121 articles in which abstracts were registered on the MEDLINE of PubMed with 'shoulder' and 'rehabilitation' as keywords were collected using python. By analyzing the frequency of words, 10 keywords were selected in the order of the highest frequency. Word-embedding was performed using the word2vec technique to analyze the similarity of words. In addition, the groups were classified and analyzed based on the distance (cosine similarity) through the t-SNE technique. RESULTS: The number of studies related to shoulder rehabilitation is increasing year after year, keywords most frequently used in relation to shoulder rehabilitation studies are ‘patient’, ‘pain’, and ‘treatment’. The word2vec results showed that the words were highly correlated with 12 keywords from studies related to shoulder rehabilitation. Furthermore, through t-SNE, the keywords of the studies were divided into 5 groups. CONCLUSION: This study was the first study to model the keywords and their relationships that make up the abstracts of research in the MEDLINE of Pub Med related to ‘shoulder’ and ‘rehabilitation’ using text-mining techniques. The results of this study will help increase the diversifying research topics of shoulder rehabilitation studies to be conducted in the future.
  • 11.

    Changes in Body Composition, Exercise Performance and Problem Behavior Based on Playing Football during Childhood

    Kim Ah-Ram | 2021, 16(2) | pp.101~113 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences and correlation between body composition, exercise performance, and behavior based on playing football in childhood. METHODS: 16 subjects who played football in childhood participated in the study. Body composition and exercise performance were measured, and problem behavior was assessed for each of them. All subjects were asked to play football 50 min/day, one day/week for 8-weeks. RESULTS: Muscle mass, muscular strength, balance, and cardiopulmonary endurance, anxiety depression, atrophy depression, attention problems, rule violations, DSM somatization problems, DSM rebellious behavior problems, and sociality significantly increased after 8-weeks. There was a negative (-) correlation between anxiety depression and atrophy depression, and DSM somatization problem and muscular strength, attention problem and balance, and rule violation and cardiopulmonary endurance, after playing football. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that playing football in childhood had a positive effect on body composition, and that exercise performance and problem behavior were related.
  • 12.

    Effects of Trunk Stability Exercises and Thoracic Manipulation on Spine Flexibility in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    Park Sunja | Kim Eun-gyeong | Kim, YoungMi and 1other persons | 2021, 16(2) | pp.115~123 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the benefits of thoracic manipulation and the trunk stability exercises on spine trunk flexibility and the pain index of chronic low back pain patients. METHODS: The study included 44 patients suffering from chronic low back pain. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was assigned for trunk stability exercises (TSE), and the second group was randomly assigned TSE and thoracic manipulation at the same time (TSE+TM). Both groups carried out each assigned treatment thrice a week for 8 weeks. The study outcome was based on assessment of spine trunk flexibility and the pain index. Spine trunk flexibility was measured by spine flexion and extension through a range of motion and thoracic cage circumference. The pain index was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Spine flexion and extension range of motion showed a significant difference within each group and between the groups before and after the treatment. The measurement of the thoracic cage circumference also showed a notable difference within each group and between the groups before and after the treatment. There was no change in the pain index. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that thoracic manipulation with the trunk stability exercises is an efficient treatment for improving the spine trunk flexibility and soothing pain for chronic low back pain patients.