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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2021, Vol.16, No.3

  • 1.

    Analytical Approach to the Literature of Cupping Therapy

    Serhat Koran | Arzu Irban | 2021, 16(3) | pp.1~14 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study aims to reveal the prevalence, therapeutic efficacy and undesirable side effects of cupping therapy all over the world from past to present. METHODS: This meta-analysis is based on the data obtained by scanning the keyword “cupping therapy” from the Pub-Med system, which is an international database. The date range has been set as 1950-2019. Local databases were not included. Cupping therapy studies combined with other complementary therapies such as acupuncture, moxa and hirudotherapy are also included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 381 scientific studies were found on cupping therapy. Of these studies 127 wererandomized controlled trials (RCSs). Cupping treatment has been found effective in studies of painful conditions such as herpes zoster pain, fibromyalgia, back pain, neck pain, headache and acute injury pain. In addition, the effectiveness of cupping therapy was found to be high in studies related to bone / muscular system diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, carpal tunnel syndrome, cervical spondylosis. In addition, cupping treatment is also promising in studies on skin diseases, neurological diseases, respiratory system diseases and cardiovascular system diseases. CONCLUSION: Recently, there has been an increase in the number of RCSs related to cupping therapy. The vast majority of this increase has been made in European and American countries rather than in Far Eastern countries. Studies on cupping therapy, which have been and will be carried out in the future, will provide evidence-based indication of whether cupping therapy is effective. and it will allow more patients to benefit from this treatment, which has a very low rate of side effects and complications.
  • 2.

    Effect of Acute Phase Pain Control Using TENS on Pain Relief in Knee Osteoarthritis in a Rat Model

    Chang-Da Chen | Seung-Kyu Kim | KAK HWANGBO | 2021, 16(3) | pp.15~20 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the influence of treadmill exercise with initial pain control using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on induced pain of knee osteoarthritis in rats. METHODS: Thirty adult male Sprague - Dawley rats were divided randomly into the TENS Group (TG, n = 10), Treadmill Exercise Group (TEG, n = 10), and Treadmill with TENS Group (TTG, n = 10). In the TG, TENS was performed for 20 min per day for two weeks with a TENS program at the knee joint. The TEG performed treadmill exercise 15 m/min for 20 min per day for two weeks. The TTG performed initial pain control by TENS program during the 1st ~ 3rd days, and treadmill exercise was performed using the TEG methods from the 4th day. The lumbar spine was extracted and processed using western blot analysis to evaluate pain (c-fos expression). RESULTS: The results showed that c-fos expression wasdecreased significantly in all groups after each intervention (p < .05). In particular, TTG produced the most significant decrease compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that treadmill exercise with initial pain control using TENS is a suitable method for relieving pain in knee osteoarthritis.
  • 3.

    Relationship between Hallux Valgus Severity and 3D Ground Reaction Force in Individuals with Hallux Valgus Deformity during Gait

    Kim Yong-wook | 2021, 16(3) | pp.21~27 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the severity of a hallux valgus (HV) deformity and the kinetic three-dimensional ground reaction force (GRF) through a motion analysis system with force platforms in individuals with a HV deformity during normal speed walking. METHODS: The participants were 36 adults with a HV deformity. The participants were asked to walk on a 6 m walkway with 40 infrared reflective markers attached to their pelvic and lower extremities. A camera capture system and two force platforms were used to collect kinetic data during gait. A Vicon Nexus and Visual3D motion analysis software were used to calculate the kinetic GRF data. RESULTS: This research showed that the anterior maximal force that occurred in the terminal stance phase during gait had a negative correlation with the HV angle (r = -.762, p < .01). In addition, the HV angle showed a low negative correlation with the second vertical maximal force (r = .346, p < .05) and a moderate positive correlation with the late medial maximal force (r = .641, p < .01). CONCLUSION: A more severe HV deformity results in greater abnormal translation of the plantar pressure and a significantly reduced pressure force under the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
  • 4.

    Correlations between the Respiratory Function and Cervical and Lumbar Range of Motion in Elderly People

    Du-Jin Park | Jun-Seok Kim | YoungIn HWANG | 2021, 16(3) | pp.29~36 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: The respiratory function and range of joint mobility deteriorate due to aging, respectively, and the respiratory function may be related to the range of joint mobility. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there has been little research on how the deterioration of the range of joint mobility caused by aging is related directly to the respiratory function. This study investigated the relationship between the respiratory function and the range of joint motion in the cervical and lumbar regions of older adults. METHODS: Thirty-two older adults participated in the study. The forced vital capacity (peak expiratory flow: PEF and forced expiratory volume in 1 second: FEV1) and the range of cervical joint motion were assessed in all subjects. The results were analyzed using the Pearson`s correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The respiratory function moderately correlated with age. A moderate correlation was observed between FEV1 and right cervical lateral flexion. PEF was moderately correlated with the lumbar lateral flexion. In addition, FEV1 correlated strongly with lumbar lateral flexion. CONCLUSION: The respiratory function was correlated with the cervical and lumbar lateral flexion. Therefore, rehabilitation of the respiratory function should involve improving the limited range of motion of the joints, and a stretching program is needed for older adults.
  • 5.

    Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) on the Temporal-spatial Gait Parameters and Activities of Daily Living in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    Dong-Gun Oh | Yoo Kyung Tae | 2021, 16(3) | pp.37~44 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) on temporal-spatial gait and the activities of daily living in hemiplegic stroke patients. METHODS: The subjects were 29 hemiplegic stroke patients (57.7 ± 10.3). The patients walked at a self-controlled speed in four states: (1) walking without FES (non-FES), (2) walking with FES on the gluteus medius in the stance phase (GM), (3) walking with FES on the common peroneal nerve and tibialis anterior in the swing phase (PT), (4) walking with both GM and PT. A GAITRite system, Timed-Functional Movements battery, and Timed UP and Go test were used to measure the variables. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed in all variables of the GM+PT, GM, and PT states compared to the non-FES state (p < .05). There were significant improvements in the GM+PT state compared to GM and PT states (p < .05). Moreover, significant improvements were noted in the single support time on the affected side, backward walking 10ft, and side stepping 10ft on the affected side of the GM state compared to the PT state (p < .05). There were significant improvements in the stride length on the affected side and side stepping 10ft on the unaffected side of the PT state compared to the GM state (p < .05). CONCLUSION: FES is effective in improving the temporal-spatial gait and activities of daily living in hemiplegic stroke patients.
  • 6.

    Effect of Physiotherapeutic Intervention Using TECAR Therapy on Pain Self-Awareness and Hip Joint Function in Hip Impingement Syndrome: A Case Study

    Dong-Gun Oh | Seon-Ki Kim | Yoo Kyung Tae | 2021, 16(3) | pp.45~53 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: The current case study focuses on identifying the effects of the independent application of TECAR therapy and physiotherapeutic intervention using TECAR therapy on pain self-awareness and hip joint function in patients with hip impingement syndrome caused by nonstructural changes. Subjects: The research subject was a 34-year-old woman struggling with acute pain in her left hip, difficulty in actively moving the hip, and a problem in its overall function. METHODS: The subject’s pain awareness and hip joint function were measured using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and passive range of motion (PROM), respectively. The experimental intervention was carried out in 24 sessions of 16 minutes each, three times a week, for eight weeks. RESULTS: The VAS score decreased to 0 cm on the post-test from 4.3 cm, 6.5 cm, and 7.2 cm in the pre-test at the rest, standing, and gait positions, respectively. The index of PROM measured hip joint flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation, and passive straight leg raise. The values increased to 122.5°, 24.5°, 78°, 33°, 65°, 42°, and 96.5° in the post-test compared to 88.5°, 15°, 39°, 21.5°, 23°, 22°, and 46.5° in the pre-test, respectively. CONCLUSION: TECAR therapy and physiotherapeutic intervention using TECAR can help reduce pain and enhance the hip joint function in patients with hip impingement syndrome.
  • 7.

    The Effect of Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) on the Respiratory Function of Subjects with Forward Head Posture (FHP)

    Won-Sik Bae | 2021, 16(3) | pp.55~64 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to apply dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS) to subjects with forward head posture (FHP) and to compare its effects on respiratory function as against the conventional neck stabilization exercise and neck stretching and extensor strengthening exercises. METHODS: The whole-body posture measurement system was used to measure the degree of FHP, and a spirometer and a respiratory gas analyzer were used to measure the respiratory function. After the intervention was completed, the changes over time were analyzed in the DNS group, the neck stabilization exercise group, and the neck stretching and extensor strengthening exercise group. The inter-group difference in the changes was also analyzed. A repeated ANOVA was performed to compare the respiratory function according to the period between the three groups, and the least significant difference (LSD) method was used for the post hoc test. RESULTS: After the 6-week exercise period, respiratory functions, such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume for 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), maximum oxygen intake (VO₂max), and the volume of expired gas (VE), significantly improved according to the period (p < .05), but no inter-group differences were found. CONCLUSION: DNS is an effective training method, and can be applied along with neck stabilization exercise and neck stretching and extensor strengthening exercises, which are widely used in clinical practice, to people with FHP who cannot directly perform neck exercises to improve their respiratory function.
  • 8.

    A Review of Domestic Research Trends Related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): 2015-2020

    Song Ju-min | 2021, 16(3) | pp.65~80 | number of Cited : 1
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted as a literature review to analyze the research trends related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Korea from 2015 to 2020. METHODS: Precedent studies were searched with the search term “ICF” or “international classification of functioning, disability and health” from the databases of RISS, KISS, DBpia, and Pubmed. The inclusion criteria are that the studies have been carried out in Korea from 2015 to 2020 using ICF by researchers consisting of one or more Koreans and have been peer-reviewed. RESULTS: Of the total 269 studies, 107 that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. It was found that these studies were published at a similar frequency each year. The most common area of expertise was identified as the clinical area (n = 67), followed by special education (n = 21) and social welfare (n = 13). The study subject groups were mostly patients (n = 39), disabled people (n = 25), and related experts (n = 13). The most common research topic was functioningevaluation (n = 49) and followed by a literature review (n = 29), and the most frequently used components in all the areas of expertise were activity and participation (n = 98), body function and structure (n = 73), and environmental factors (n = 61). CONCLUSION: For the past six years, domestic ICFrelated research has been conducted in a wider range of expertise areas on more subdivised subject groups. Continuous research, development of standardized curricula and contents, and development of coding tools are considered to be important in vitalizing the use of the ICF.
  • 9.

    Comparison of Cross-sectional Areas using Computerized Tomography of the Cervical Muscles between Straight Neck Patients and Normal Participants during Cranio-cervical Flexion Exercise

    Joo-Hee Park | One-bin Lim | 2021, 16(3) | pp.81~87 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study compared the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the cervical muscles of straight neck patients and normal participants during a craniocervical flexion exercise (CCFE) using computerized tomography (CT) to investigate the effects of CCFE on the cervical curve. METHODS: Eighteen subjects were recruited for this study. Nine subjects were allocated to the straight neck group (subjects with pain and a cervical lordosis angle of less than 20°); the remainder formed the control group (subjects with a cervical lordosis angle greater than 20°). The CSA of the subjects’ neck flexors (longus colli, longus capitis, and sternocleidomastoid) were measured by CT during rest and CCFE in the supine position, and the range of motion (ROM)of neck flexion was measured using a C-ROM instrument in a sitting. RESULTS: The straight neck group had a significantly smaller CSA of the longus colli, longus capitis, and sternocleidomastoid than the control group (p < .05). Both the straight neck and control groups showed statistically significant increases in the CSA of the neck flexors during CCFE compared to that at rest (p < .05). In addition, the straight neck group showed a significantly smaller ROM of neck flexion than the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide more concrete evidence for therapists by demonstrating that CCFE improves the neck function by strengthening the neck flexors and increasing the neck stability for straight neck patients. Therefore, it is necessary to perform CCFE and neck extension exercises to rehabilitate straight neck patients.
  • 10.

    Effect of Coordinative Locomotor Training on Spine Appearance and Quality of Life in Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Single Subject Study

    Jin-Cheol Kim | OHEUNJU | 2021, 16(3) | pp.89~97 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of coordinative locomotor training on the spine appearance and quality of life of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: This study included two patients with idiopathic scoliosis: one with a thoracic and lumbar type scoliosis and the other with thoracic type scoliosis. The study design was a single case study (A-B-A’), with a baselineintervention/phase-post-intervention. The baseline (A) was designed and measured five times, intervention phase (B) ten times, and post-intervention (A’) five times. The coordinative locomotor training program was divided into 10 minutes of warm-up exercise, 30 minutes of the main exercise, and 10 minutes of the finishing exercise, for 50 minutes each time. The primary outcome measurements were measured using the Cobb's angle, Adam's test, and Gait view pro 2.0 to determine the changes in the spine appearance. The secondary outcome measurements were compared before and after using the SRS-22 questionnaire to determine the quality of life of the scoliosis patients. A statistical test analyzed the mean and standard deviation, and the rate of change was presented by a visual analysis method using descriptive statistics and graphs. RESULTS: The findings showed that the spine appearance and quality of life of the two subjects were improved compared to the baseline measurements during the intervention phase, and the improved state was maintained during the post-intervention period. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that coordinative locomotor training may help improve the spine appearance and quality of life of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
  • 11.

    Effects of Whole Body Vibration Exercise on the Pulmonary Function, Gait Ability and Quality of Life of Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Kang Jeong Il | Jeong Dae Keun | Jun-Su Park | 2021, 16(3) | pp.99~106 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide supporting data for the clinical use of breathing exercise with a WBV stimulation as a sustained and safe intervention program, by examining the effect of breathing exercise with WBV stimulation on the pulmonary function, gait ability, and life quality in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who have difficulty performing exercise. METHODS: For this study, after collecting the samples from 20 patients with severe COPD, they were placed randomly in an experimental group to perform breathing exercises with a WBV stimulation (n = 10) and a control group to perform breathing exercises only (n=10). Before the intervention, pulmonary function, six-minute gait distance and health-related life quality were measured as pre-tests. After applying the intervention program to the patients for 30 minutes once a day, for four days a week, for six weeks, the post-test items were remeasured in the same way as the pre-tests, and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: In the within-group comparison, both the experimental and control groups showed significant differences in the forced expiratory volume in one second, six-minute gait distance, and health-related life quality (p < .01) (p < .05). In the intergroup comparison, there were significant differences in the forced expiratory volume in one second and the six-minute gait distance (p < .05). CONCLUSION: WBV stimulation was more effective for the patients by improving the muscular strength and muscular endurance through the reflexive contraction of muscles, and increasing the exercise tolerance. This result could serve as an alternative means to clinically improve the physical function of patients with severe COPD, who have difficulty performing breathing exercises in the future.
  • 12.

    Comparison of the Abdominal Muscle Thickness during Abdominal Hollowing Exercise According to the Visual Feedback Method

    Ha-Rim Kim | Ho-Hee Son | 2021, 16(3) | pp.107~113 | number of Cited : 1
    PURPOSE: Selective strengthening of the transverse abdominis muscle (TrA) during abdominal hollowing makes an important contribution to the stability and control of the spine. This study examined the effects of abdominal hollowing exercise (AHE) according to the visual feedback method on the external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were assigned randomly to an AHE with visual feedback from real-time ultrasound image (group A, n = 10), AHE with visual feedback with pressure biofeedback unit (group B, n = 10). Both groups underwent 20 min of AHE with visual feedback once daily, five days/week for two weeks. The changes in the muscle thickness of the TrA, internal oblique abdominal muscle (IO), and external oblique abdominal muscle (EO) were measured by ultrasonography. RESULTS: The thickness of TrA was changed significantly in both groups (p < .05). However, the lowest minimal detectable changes were achieved in Group A. The thickness of the IO and EO muscles in group A was changed significantly, but there were no significant changes in group B. CONCLUSION: Both visual feedback methods were effective for strengthening the TrA muscles selectively. Nevertheless, AHE with visual feedback using real-time ultrasound images may be more useful in trA muscle contraction.
  • 13.

    Correlation Analysis between Plantar Pressure and Body Alignment According to the Dominant Hand of Elementary School Baseball Players

    Mo-Beom Jeong | 2021, 16(3) | pp.115~121 | number of Cited : 1
    PURPOSE: This study analyzed the correlation between the plantar pressure and body alignment according to the dominant hand of elementary school baseball players. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 32 elementary school baseball players. The 32 players were classified in the right-hand dominant group (Rt. Group, n = 22) and left-hand dominant group (Lt. group, n = 10). The plantar pressure was measured using a pedoscan to determine the maximum pressure and pressure distribution. The body alignment was measured using a fometric 4D to measure the trunk imbalance angle (TI), pelvic tilt angle (PTi), pelvic torsion angle (PTo), pelvis rotation angle (PR), kyphotic angle (Ky), lordotic angle (Lo), and trunk torsion angle (TT). RESULTS: Participants showed correlations in the Rt. group, according to the left maximum pressure, Lo (r = .592, p < .05), and TT (r = .514, p < .05); according to the right maximum pressure, PR (r = .539, p < .05), and Lo (r = .503, p < .05). In the left pressure distribution, the PR (r = -.521, p < .05) showed a negative correlation. In the Lt. group, the PT (r = -.591, p < .05) showed a negative correlation in the left pressure distribution. CONCLUSION: These results can be used as basic data for a body analysis study of elementary school baseball players in the future.
  • 14.

    Effect of an End-effector Type of Robotic Gait Training on Stand Capability, Locomotor Function, and Gait Speed in Individuals with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    JONGSEOK HWANG | 2021, 16(3) | pp.123~130 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Robotic gait training is being used increasingly to improve the gross motor performance and gait speed. The present study examined the effectiveness of a novel end-effector type of robotic gait training (RGT) system on standing, walking, running, and jumping functions, as well as the gait speed in children with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Eleven children with spastic cerebral palsy Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I–III (6 males; age range, 15.09 ± 1.44 years) were examined. They underwent 24 sessions (30 minutes/sessions, one time/day, three days/week for eight consecutive weeks) of RGT. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 D domain (GMFM D), and GMFM E were assessed with a pretest and posttest of RGT. The setting was a one-group pretest–posttest design. RESULTS: A comparison of the pre-test and post-test show that the outcomes in post-test of GMFM-D (p < .01), GMFM-E (p < .05), and 10MWT were improved significantly after RGT intervention. CONCLUSION: The present study provided the first evidence on the effects of an eight-weeks RGT intervention in participants with spastic CP. The outcomes of this clinical study showed that standing performance, locomotion function, and gait speed increased in after 24 sessions of the end-effector RGT system in children with spastic cerebral palsy.