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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2021, Vol.16, No.4

  • 1.

    Effects of Flexible and Semirigid Lumbosacral Orthosis on Lower-Limb Joint Angles during Gait in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Sang-Cheol Im | Kim Kyoung | 2021, 16(4) | pp.1~11 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is often used to help manage low back pain because it is economical and effective. This study examined the effects of flexible and semirigid LSOs on the lower-limb joint angles in walking in patients with chronic low back pain. METHODS: The effects of the lumbosacral orthosis during gait on the sagittal, frontal, horizontal planes and the change in lower limb angle were examined in fourteen chronic low back pain patients who walked without wearing a LSO, wearing a flexible LSO, and wearing a semirigid LSO in random order for three-dimensional motion analysis. RESULTS: The flexion of the hip and knee joints decreased more significantly during walking with an LSO than without one. The genu valgum angles were reduced in the stance phase more during walking with an LSO than without one. The external rotation of the knee joints in the stance phase increased more during walking with an LSO than without one. CONCLUSION: The angles of the lower-limb joints of patients with chronic low back pain are affected by walking with an LSO, and the effects increased as the LSO stiffened.
  • 2.

    The Effect of Action Observation Training with Acoustic Stimulation on Balance and Gait in Stroke Patients

    Young-Mi Kim | Lee ho jeong | JongSu Lee | 2021, 16(4) | pp.13~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of action observational training with acoustic stimulation (AOTA) on the balance and gait ability in stroke patients. METHODS: Forty-five chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups. The AOTA group (n = 15) received training via a video that showed a normal gait with the sound of footsteps. The action observation training (AOT) group (n = 15) received AOT without acoustic stimulation. The control group (n = 15) received physical training. Each intervention was applied once per day, three times per week for six weeks. The participants in the AOTA and AOT groups had five minutes of AOT. The participants in the all group had 20 minutes of physical training. All participants were measured using the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up and Go Test, the Functional Reaching Test, 10 Meter Walk Test, six Minute Walk Test, and Dynamic Gait Index. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. The between- and within-group comparisons were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a paired t-test, respectively. For all statistical analyses, the significance level was set to .05. RESULTS: The one-way ANOVA test identified significant differences among the measurement results of the three groups (p < .05). Post hoc analyses indicated the AOTA group to undergo more significant balance and gait changes than the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The gait and balance abilities could be improved effectively for patients with stroke when action observation training and acoustic stimulation were applied simultaneously.
  • 3.

    Comparison of the Immediate Effect of Ankle and Hip Joint Thera-band Exercise on the Balance Ability

    Eunnarae Cho | Yeong-Seo Kwon | Dongyeop Lee and 4other persons | 2021, 16(4) | pp.23~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of training ankle joint and hip joint thera-band exercise on balance. METHODS: The participants were divided into two groups of 11 each. Group A performed hip exercise after ankle exercise, and Group B performed ankle exercise after hip exercise. Using a green thera-band, the dorsiflexion and plantarflexion and hip flexion and hip extension were exercised repeatedly for 15 seconds three times with a five-second rest between each set. After the exercise and measurement of one area were complete, the exercise and measurement of the other area were performed at one-day intervals. The balance ability was assessed using a Tetrax and Y-balance test and repeated three times; the best values were taken. RESULTS: In the stability index (ST) of the static balance, the hip joint exercise group (HTG) during the follow-up of normal eye open (NO) revealed notable improvement over the ankle joint exercise group (ATG), and in the follow-up of the normal eye closed (NC), the ATG showed significant improvement over the HTG. In the pillow with eye closed (PC) follow-up, the ATG showed significant improvements over the HTG. At the left (Lt) and Y-balance test (YBT), the ATG showed significant improvements in the follow-up over the HTG (p <.05). CONCLUSION: In static balance, the ATG showed significant improvement in the follow-up of NC and PC over the HTG. In the dynamic balance, the Lt. dynamic balance on the non-dominant side in the ATG showed significant improvement in the follow-up over the HTG
  • 4.

    Review on ICF-related Research Trends in Korean Clinical Field

    Song Ju-min | 2021, 16(4) | pp.33~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study analyzed the research trends related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) to suggest an ICF utilization plan in the Korean clinical field. METHODS: In the RISS, KISS, NSDL, and PubMed databases, papers published between 2016 and July 2021 were collected by applying the search terms, ‘ICF’, ‘international classification of functioning, disability and health’, ‘clinic’, ‘patient’, and ‘diagno’. The 44 papers selected were classified according to the analysis criteria, and the frequency and percentage were calculated. RESULTS: In domestic clinical trials, the frequency of ICF-related studies was in the order of physical therapy (n = 19) and occupational therapy (n = 14). The frequency of each study subject was observed in the order of studies related to a specific disease (n = 34) and prior studies (n = 7). The research topics were in the order of studies using ICF as a measurement tool (n = 21) and case studies with patients with specific diseases (n = 11). There were 18 studies using ICF codes and 14 papers applying the ICF domains. CONCLUSION: Over the last five years, ICF-related research in the domestic clinical field targeted patients with more diverse diseases in more expertise fields. Research for the unification of terms should be conducted for communication among various experts in clinical practice. To promote the use of ICF in the clinical field, it will be necessary to conduct research, such as the unification of terms, standardized education, development of ICF casebook, and development of ICF coding programs and guidelines.
  • 5.

    Path Analysis of Attitude Toward Health Checkup and Breast Cancer on the Application of Physical Therapy after Breast Cancer Surgery

    Mi-Joung Lee | RO, HYO-LYUN | 2021, 16(4) | pp.45~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined women’s attitudes toward the use of physical therapy in the treatment process after breast cancer surgery and the degree of interest in this application. Path analysis was conducted to discover the approaches to improve awareness of the necessity of physical therapy intervention after breast cancer surgery. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey of 230 women aged 20 years and over with no history of breast cancer. The measurement tool used in this study was a structured questionnaire, composed of 17 items in five fields: five items on the demographic characteristics, four items related to health checkups, four items involving the viewpoints on breast cancer, one item related to the interest in breast cancer, and four items related to physical therapy after surgery. RESULTS: Women’s attitudes toward regular health checkups were major factors in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. In addition, those with higher levels of interest in breast cancer showed stronger interest in using physical therapy after breast cancer surgery. CONCLUSION: Women believe that breast cancer can be prevented through the health checkups implemented by the government. Therefore, there is a need to utilize public relations to promote methods for the self-diagnosis of breast cancer in the health checkup system and the use of physical therapy after breast cancer surgery.
  • 6.

    Effects of Sit-to-stand Training with Various Foot Positions Combined with Visual Feedback on Postural Alignment and Balance in Stroke Patients

    Su-Jin Kim | Ho-Hee Son | 2021, 16(4) | pp.55~65 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of sit-to-stand training with various foot positions combined with visual feedback on the postural alignment and balance. METHODS: Thirty stroke patients were assigned randomly into three groups of standing with a symmetrical foot position (SSF) (n = 10), asymmetrical foot position with the affected foot at the rear (SAF) (n = 10), and visual feedback and asymmetrical foot position (SVAF) (n = 10). Sit-to-stand training with different foot positions was performed for 30 minutes a day, five times a week, for a total of four weeks, and the effects on postural alignment and balance were assessed. RESULTS: The angle between the midline and scapula peak of the affected side was decreased significantly at sitting and thigh-off in the SAF group and at sitting, thigh-off, and standing in the SVAF group (p < .05). The angle between the midline and scapula peak of the non-affected side was increased significantly at sitting and thigh-off in the SAF group and at sitting, thigh-off, and standing in the SVAF group, the difference in the angle between the scapular peaks of the left and right sides was decreased significantly at sitting and thigh-off in SSF group, and at sitting in SAF group (p < .05). In the SVAF group, the angle at sitting, thigh-off, and standing was decreased significantly (p < .05). A comparison of the balance ability showed that BSS in the SVAF group was improved significantly (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Based on these results, the postural alignment and balance ability were improved in stroke patients who participated in sit-to-stand with visual feedback and asymmetrical foot position training.
  • 7.

    Awareness of the Guidelines for Institutionalization of Physical Therapist Specialization

    RO, HYO-LYUN | 2021, 16(4) | pp.67~75 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the level of awareness of the guidelines of the physical therapist specialization system. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey of 364 clinical physical therapists working in hospitals. A structured questionnaire consisting of 17 questions was used. The questionnaire consisted of standards and management for the institutionalization of physical therapist specialization, intentions to acquire specialized physical therapist qualifications, specialized fields, and general information of the research subjects. RESULTS: At least five years of clinical experience and a bachelor’s degree or higher were required to obtain a specialized physical therapist qualification. Many physical therapists said they would accept the qualification of a specialized physical therapist. Training and examination were appropriate for acquiring specialized physical therapist qualifications, and it was desirable to manage qualifications at the national level or the association of physical therapists. As for the specialized fields of physical therapy, musculoskeletal physical therapy, pediatric physical therapy, and nervous system physical therapy were prioritized, and electrotherapy was not recognized as a specialized field. CONCLUSION: A detailed discussion is needed on the system and cost for acquiring a specialized physical therapist qualification and economic benefits after acquiring the qualification.
  • 8.

    Effects of Exercise using PNF Chopping and Lifting Pattern on the Respiratory Function of Chronic Stroke Patients

    Gyo-Im Kwon | Yongho Cho | 2021, 16(4) | pp.77~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the changes in the respiratory function when PNF chopping and lifting patterns were used in chronic stroke patients METHOD: The subjects were 30 patients diagnosed with chronic stroke. The respiratory function (FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC) were measured by spirometry. Thirty subjects were divided randomly into an experimental group to which 15 PNF chopping and lifting were applied and a control group to which chest breathing exercise was performed. The intervention was conducted three times a week for six 6 weeks. To examine the effects of intervention, the pre- and post-intervention values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. An independent t-test was used to compare the differences in the values of changes pre- and postintervention in the two groups. Statistical significance was set to .05. RESULTS: Satistically significant differences in FVC and FEV1 were observed in both the experimental group and control group according to the intervention (p < .05). A statistically significant difference was found in FVC and FEV1 compared to values of changes pre- and postintervnetion between the experimental and control groups. There was no difference in FEV1/FVC. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that PNF chopping and lifting can be applied as an excellent respiratory intervention program compared to general chest breathing exercises to improve respiratory function in stroke patients.
  • 9.

    Evaluation of Muscle Activity, Muscle Fatigue and Balance in Male High School Taekwondo Athlete with Deformity of Medial Longitudinal Arch

    Seong-Hwan Won | Yoo Kyung Tae | Lee Hoseong | 2021, 16(4) | pp.85~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the evaluation of muscle activity, muscle fatigue and balance in male high school Taekwondo athlete with a deformity of the medial longitudinal arch. METHODS: The 20 male high school Taekwondo athletes participated in the study they have been measured radiographic a medial longitudinal arch and divided into a medial longitudinal arch group (higher than 18.8°; MLA group, n = 12) and control group (lower than 18.8°; CON group, n = 8). All subjects were measured muscle activity (TA, PT, PL and PB), muscle fatigue (TA, PT, PL and PB) and balance (A-, AL-, L-, PL-, P-, PM-, M-, AM-direction and composite score; CS). RESULTS: The muscle activity of TP was significantly higher in MLA group compared to CON group (p = 031) and the muscle fatigue of TA was significantly lower in MLA group compared to CON group (p = .043). However, balance did not show significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that male high school Taekwondo athlete with a deformity of medial longitudinal arch increase TP and decrease TA, but there was no difference on balance.
  • 10.

    Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activation During Lifting with Stabilization Method

    Ha-Rim Kim | Ho-Hee Son | 2021, 16(4) | pp.95~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the muscle activity of the abdominal muscle when lifting with abdominal hollowing with visual feedback and lifting with a pelvic compression belt. This study suggests how to lift an object safely in the workplace for people who bend their backs repeatedly. METHODS: The study was conducted on healthy men in their 20s and 30s. When lifting a 7kg object, lifting with abdominal hollowing with visual feedback, and lifting an object with a pelvic compression belt were performed three times in random order. The muscle activities were measured rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique/transverse abdominis (IO/TrA) muscles, and abdominal hollowing exercises, and box lifting exercises were carried out in advance before the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare muscle activities, and a Tukey HSD was used for post-analysis. The level of significance was set to .05. RESULTS: According to the study, there was no significant difference in muscle activity of the RA muscle depending on the lifting method (p > .05). There were significant differences between the EO and IO/TrA muscle (p < .05). The IO/TrA muscle activity showed the largest increase in lifting an abdominal hollowing with visual feedback (p < .05). The EO muscle activity increased in pelvic compression belt lifting (p < .05). The muscle activity was increased in RA, but there was no significant difference (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Abdominal hollowing lifting with visual feedback increases the muscle activity of the IO/TrA muscle, which is higher than normal, and affects the core stability of the body.
  • 11.

    Task-oriented Approach using Percussion Instruments in Chronic Stroke Patients Effect on Upper Limb Function: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Ju-Hak Kim | Kim Meung Kwon | 2021, 16(4) | pp.103~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects on the upper extremity function, muscle strength, and hand function of a task-oriented training approach using a percussion instrument for patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-four chronic stroke patients accompanied with upper extremity hemiplegia were selected for research and were classified randomly into 12 experimental groups and 12 control groups. The experimental group performed a task-oriented approach, and the control group performed upper extremity occupational therapy. Stroke upper extremity test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test, upper extremity muscle strength test, and hand muscle strength test were measured before and after training in the evaluation process. RESULTS: In the upper extremity test and Jebsen-Taylor test, there were no significant differences between the groups. In the upper extremity muscle strength test, there were significant differences in shoulder flexion, internal rotation, and elbow flexion in the experimental group. In the hand muscle strength test, there were significant differences in the grip, tip Pinch, lateral Pinch, and 3-jaw chuck in the experimental group and significant differences in only grip, tip pinch, and lateral pinch in the control group. In addition, there were significant differences in the lateral pinch compared to the amount of change. CONCLUSION: Task-oriented approach using percussion instruments for upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients is effective in the upper extremity function and strength, hand function, and strength.
  • 12.

    Effect of Functional Latex Pillow on Muscle Thickness, Muscle Tonicity and Muscle Fatigue of Cervical Muscle in Patients with Chronic Cervical Pain

    Jang-Tae Lee | Chon Seung Chul | 2021, 16(4) | pp.117~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of muscle thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscle, muscle tonicity, and muscle fatigue of the superficial cervical flexor muscle by applying a functional latex pillow to patients with chronic cervical pain. METHODS: An experimental group using a functional latex pillow and a control group using a general pillow were assigned randomly to 30 people. Each pillow was applied in a comfortable lying position in the experimental group and control group. The deep cervical flexor muscle thickness was measured in the longus colli and longus capitus using ultrasonography. The muscle tonicity and muscle fatigue of the superficial cervical flexor muscle were measured separately in the sternocleidomastoid muscle using a myotonometer and electromyography. RESULTS: In the experimental group(functional latex pillow), the muscle tonicity of the superficial cervical flexor muscle like the sternocleidomastoid muscle was significantly lower than that of the control group (general pillow)(p < .01). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the functional latex pillow may effectively reduce the muscle tonicity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which is the superficial cervical muscle, in patients with chronic cervical pain. On the other hand, it was not effective on the muscle thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscle and muscle fatigue of the superficial cervical flexor muscles.
  • 13.

    Effect of Sensory Feedback Type on Correct Sitting Posture Learning on Healthy Adults

    Ho-Jin Shin | Sung-Hyeon Kim | Cho Hwi-young | 2021, 16(4) | pp.125~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The growing number of people exposed to a static sitting posture has resulted in an increase in people with a poor posture out of the optimally aligned posture because of the low awareness of a correct sitting posture. Learning the correct sitting posture by applying sensory feedback is essential because a poor posture has negative consequences for the spine. Therefore, this study examined the effects of the sensory feedback types on learning correct sitting posture. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy adult males were assigned to a visual feedback group, a tactile feedback group, and a visuotactile feedback group to learn the correct sitting posture by applying sensory feedback. The spine angle, muscle activity, and muscle thickness were measured in the sitting position using retro-reflexive markers, electromyography, and ultrasound immediately after, five minutes, and 10 minutes after intervention. RESULTS: The intervention time was significantly shorter in the visuotactile feedback group than the visual feedback group (P < .05). Compared to the pre-intervention, the repositioning error angles of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of all groups were reduced significantly immediately after intervention and after five minutes. After 10 minutes, there was a significant difference in the thoracic and lumbar repositioning error angles of the tactile feedback group and the visuotactile feedback group (P < .05). No significant difference was noted at any time compared to the pre-intervention in all groups (P > .05). CONCLUSION: The use of tactile and visuotactile feedback in intervention to correct the sitting posture is proposed.
  • 14.

    The Effect of Wall-squat with Short-Foot Exercise on Pain and Pelvic alignment of Chronic Low Back Pain with Pronated Foot

    Nam-Jun Kim | Lee, Han-Suk | 2021, 16(4) | pp.139~151 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of wall-squat with short-foot exercise on pain, dysfunction, and pelvic alignment in chronic low back pain patients. METHODS: Thirty outpatients diagnosed with chronic low back pain and pronated foot were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided randomly into a wall-squat with short-foot exercise group (WS; n = 15) and a normal wall-squat exercise group (NW; n = 15). These groups performed their respective exercises 15 times, for three sets, three times a week over six weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the subjects’ pain, and the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) was used to measure the subjects’ dysfunction. A navicular drop test (NDT) was used to measure the subjects’ arch height. To assess the patients’ pelvic alignment, their lordosis, sacral tilt, lumbar width, sacral width, ilium length, and ilium width were measured by X-ray imaging. RESULTS: Both the WS and NW groups exhibited significant decreases in their VAS and RMDQ scores after exercise (p < .05). The WS group exhibited significant increases in their arch height (p < .05). Significant differences in the VAS, sacral tilt, sacral width, and ilium length were observed between the WS and NW groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that wall-squat exercise is effective in decreasing the level of pain and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. In addition, the wall-squat with short-foot exercise is considered more effective in improving the pelvic alignment than without short-foot exercise. This can be an effective method for the non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatment of chronic low back pain