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2022, Vol.17, No.1

  • 1.

    Effects of Ankle Kinesio Taping on Balance Control Ability of Adults, Stroke Patients, and Musculoskeletal Patient: A Systematic Review

    박상현 | Dongyeop Lee | Hong Ji Heon and 3other persons | 2022, 17(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of ankle kinesio taping on the balanced control capabilities of normal adults, stroke patients, and musculoskeletal patients. METHODS: One thousand articles were searched, and 100 of them were selected as taping papers. Subsequently, 33 papers classified according to balance, muscle strength and pain were analyzed according to the effect size and age group. RESULTS: The effect of ankle kinesio taping on balance control was examined by dividing the effect size into three groups according to the type of disease. Studies with normal adults had a large effect size of 1.213, whereas the effect size of stroke studies was .377, which was small. Studies on musculoskeletal disorders had a large effect size of 1.429. All three groups did not include 0 in the 95% confidence interval, indicating a significant effect. CONCLUSION: The effect of kinesio taping on balance control was positive in all subjects, including normal adults, stroke patients, and musculoskeletal patients. On the other hand, in terms of the effect size of kinesio taping on balance control, musculoskeletal patients and normal adults had larger effect sizes than stroke patients.
  • 2.

    Can Observational Gait Assessment Tools be used to Assess Independent Walking in Stroke Patients?

    Sung-Kwang Ju | 2022, 17(1) | pp.11~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: A gait assessment is an important component of the rehabilitation process, and observational gait assessment (OGA) is used routinely in clinical settings. This study examined the association of OGA tools with the independent walking ability in stroke patients to determine a cutoff value of the OGA tool according to independence levels of stroke patient gait. METHODS: Two hundred ten hemiparetic stroke patients participated in the study. The independence of gait was identified using the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) classifications. The walking ability was assessed using OGA tools (Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment [RVGA], Wisconsin Gait Scale [WGS], Tinetti Gait Scale [TGS], and Functional Gait Analysis [FGA]). RESULTS: Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that among the OGA tools, the FGA correlated with the FAC. The FGA explained approximately 77% of the variance in FAC. In distinguishing the independence levels, the cutoff values were as follows: between FAC 1 and FAC 0 was .5 points; between FAC 2 and lower levels, 5.5; between FAC 3 and lower levels, 11.5; between FAC 4 and lower levels, 14.5; and between FAC 5 and lower levels, 18.5. Items 1, 2, 3, and 10 were identified as explaining most of the variance in the FGA in the stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSION: The present study found that the FGA is an assessment tool related to the level of gait independence after stroke. Furthermore, the FGA total score can serve as an index of the increase in independence level after stroke.
  • 3.

    Effect of Treadmill Training with Ankle Joint Taping on Gait Function and Balance Ability in Patients with Subacute Stroke: A Randomized, Controlled, Preliminary Trial

    길영진 | 오세정 | Yong-Jun Cha | 2022, 17(1) | pp.21~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of treadmill training with taping on the affected ankle joint on the gait and balancing ability in patients with sub-acute stroke. METHODS: Nineteen patients with sub-acute hemiplegic stroke in a rehabilitation hospital were assigned randomly to either the experimental group (n = 10), who received treadmill training with taping on the affected ankle joint or the control group (n = 9), who received general treadmill training. All participants performed 60 min of comprehensive rehabilitation therapy (five sessions per week for four weeks). Each group received treadmill training with or without taping on the affected ankle joint for 20 min (three sessions per week for four weeks). The gait and balancing ability were measured before and after the four-week training. RESULTS: Post-training scores of 10-meter walk test (10 MWT), timed up and go (TUG) test, and center of pressure (COP) path length and velocity for the experimental group increased significantly compared to that pre-training (p < .05). The experimental group showed a larger decrease in the 10 MWT and TUG test than the control group (-3.5 s vs. -1.01 s, p < .05; -4.9 s vs. -1.7 s, p < .05; respectively) CONCLUSION: Treadmill training with taping on the affected ankle joint might improve the gait and balancing ability of stroke patients and is considered a more effective method for improving gait and balancing ability than the method of general treadmill training.
  • 4.

    Comparative Analysis on Blood Fatigue Variables after Isokinetic and Isotonic Exercise Training in Elite Athletes

    서성욱 | Kim Kyoung | Sang-Cheol Im | 2022, 17(1) | pp.31~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the changes in the blood fatigue variables caused by isokinetic and isotonic exercise training. METHODS: Ten healthy adult males with at least one year of athletic experience participated. The participants performed the isokinetic circuit exercise program first, followed by an isotonic circuit exercise program. A two-hour break was allowed between the isokinetic circuit exercise program and the isotonic circuit exercise program. The circuit exercise program consisted of four items (Squat, Deadlift, Shoulder press, and Bench press). The blood samples were analyzed for the LDH, CPK, and Cortisol levels. RESULTS: The LDH level in the isokinetic group was significantly different from the isotonic group. In particular, the change in LDH level in the isokinetic group was 33.30% lower than that of the isotonic group. The serum CPK level of the isokinetic group showed a 10.03% lower decrease than the isotonic group, but the difference was not significant. The Cortisol level was relatively unchanged in the isotonic group, but it decreased in the isokinetic group. On the other hand, the Cortisol level did not show a significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The isokinetic group showed alleviation of the three indices, unlike the isotonic group. Further studies associated with the changes in blood fatigue variables through various exercise programs and exercise intensity will be needed.
  • 5.

    Relationship between the Craniovertebral Angle, Cervical Lordosis, and Cervical Muscles

    Joo-Hee Park | 임원빈 | 2022, 17(1) | pp.41~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the cervical lordosis angle (CLA) and the craniovertebral angle (CVA) and between CVA and a cross-sectional area (CSA) of the cervical muscles. METHODS: In 17 healthy college students, the CLA was measured using a posterior tangent technique. The CVA was analyzed using photographic images, and the CSA of the cervical muscles, including longus colli, longus capitis, and sternocleidomastoid, was evaluated using computerized tomography. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between these variables and a neck disability index. RESULTS: The CVA correlated with the CLA and with a CSA of longus colli (r = .487, p = .047 and r = .592, p = .012, respectively). The CLA correlated with a CSA of longus colli (r = .578, p = .015). CONCLUSION: This study clarified the relationship between the postural, structural, and muscular changes in the cervical regions. A significant correlation was observed between the CVA and a CSA of the longus colli with the CLA and between the CVA and the CSA of the longus colli. Prescription strengthening exercises for the deep neck flexors for individuals with a forward head posture and reduced cervical lordosis are useful.
  • 6.

    Immediate Effect of the Complex Rotational Stretching Method on the Proprioceptive Sensation of the Shoulder Joint, Subacromial Space, Range of Motion, Shoulder Instability and Dynamic Function

    이은호 | 김효근 | Dongyeop Lee and 4other persons | 2022, 17(1) | pp.49~61 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of proprioceptive sensation, subacromial space, and dynamic function according to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), static stretching (SS), and complex rotational stretching (CRS). METHODS: Thirty students without any musculoskeletal disease who volunteered to participate were included in this study. The following metrics were measured to evaluate the function and stability under the normal conditions, with the PNF, SS, and CRS: special test and flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation (shoulder range of motion) and reaching distance on the medial (ME), superolateral (SL), inferolateral (IL), and subacromial space and proprioceptive sensation were evaluated. All measures were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and repeated measures of ANOVA. RESULTS: A clear difference in adduction in the range of motion was observed in all groups (p < .05). Significant differences could not be identified in all values in the error test, except for Ab (p < .05). Significant differences in reach were noted in all directions of the SS and PNF in the Me, SL, and IL (p < .05). After the intervention, significant differences in the average values could be identified in all groups except for the SS group after rest (p < .05). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between the CRS and SS and PNF groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The application of CRS is as helpful as the existing SS and PNF for improving the joint range of motion improvement, shoulder balance, and subacromial space.
  • 7.

    A Comparison of The Effects of Manual Therapy Plus Stabilization Exercise with Manual Therapy Alone in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain

    이남용 | 2022, 17(1) | pp.63~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effects of manual therapy with stabilization exercises to manual therapy alone, on neck pain and body functions in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic mechanical neck pain were recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. A control group(n = 10) was given the manual therapy alone and an experimental group(n = 10) was given the manual therapy with stabilization exercises. The intervention was carried out 3 days per week for 4 weeks. The cervical resting pain, the most painful motion pain, craniocervical flexor endurance, forward head posture and neck disability index were used to assess participants at baseline and after 4 weeks. RESULTS: A comparison of the parameters before and after the intervention showed that both groups experienced significant improvements in the resting pain, the most painful motion pain, craniocervical flexor endurance, and forward head posture except for the forward head posture in the control group. A comparison of the parameters between the groups did not show a significant difference. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the combined intervention of manual therapy with stabilization exercise does not seem to be more effective than manual therapy alone for improving neck pain, craniocervical flexor endurance, forward head posture, and the neck disability index in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain.
  • 8.

    The Effect of the Resistance Respiratory Muscle Exercise with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Respiratory Muscle Tone and Pulmonary Function of Chronic Stroke Patients

    조용훈 | Cho Kyun Hee | 2022, 17(1) | pp.75~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the resistance respiratory muscle exercise with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the respiratory muscle tone and pulmonary function of stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty stroke patients were divided into the TENS group (n = 7), placebo TENS group (n = 7), and control group (n = 6), and each intervention was performed on the three groups 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The assessment was carried out by measuring changes in the muscle tone of the latissimus dorsi and abdominal external obliques, and pulmonary function. RESULTS: In this study, the TENS group and the placebo TENS group had significant increases in the paretic side latissimus dorsi muscle tone, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). There was no significant difference in changes in respiratory muscle tone between the three groups. The pulmonary function was significantly different between the three groups, and it was observed from the results of the post-hoc test that FVC showed a significant increase in the TENS group and the placebo TENS group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Through this study, it was found that the respiratory muscle resistance exercise was more effective as a method to increase respiratory muscle tone and pulmonary function in stroke patients than combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
  • 9.

    The Effect of Dual-Task Exercise on an Unstable Surface on Involuntary Arm and Leg Movement and Balance in Stroke Patients

    Kang Jeong Il | Seungyun Baek | Jeong Dae Keun | 2022, 17(1) | pp.85~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the effects of task exercise on an unstable surface on the involuntary arm and leg movement and balance in stroke patients. METHODS: 20 stroke patients were clinically sampled and randomly assigned to two groups of 10 patients each. Experimental group Ⅰ received task exercise intervention on an unstable surface and experimental group Ⅱ received task exercise intervention. The interventions were carried out 3 times a week for 4 weeks (30 minutes per session). The global synkinesis (GS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) of the patients were evaluated as pre-tests prior to intervention, and then the post-tests were re-measured in the same manner as the pre-tests after a 4-week intervention period. RESULTS: In the experimental group I, there were statistically significant differences in the changes in the arm and leg GS (p < .01) and in the BBS (p < .05). On the other hand, in the experimental group Ⅱ, there were statistically significant differences in the changes only in the arm GS (p < .01) and in the BBS (p < .05). Also, in the comparison of the changes between the two groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the changes in the leg GS only (p < .05). CONCLUSION: In the experimental group I, the arm and leg GS were statistically significantly reduced, but the balance ability was statistically significantly improved. The reason was that in the experimental group I, similar movements of the paralyzed arm were promoted due to the double-task exercise on the unstable surface, and sensory feedback and posture strategies were well utilized in the legs, which was found to be effective in reducing the GS and improving the balance ability. Therefore, based on these results, the double-task exercise on an unstable surface should 86 | J Korean Soc Phys Med Vol. 17, No. 1 be fully utilized for the rapid rehabilitation of stroke patients.
  • 10.

    The Correlation between Gait and Cognitive Function in Dual-task Walking of the Elderly with Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Literature Review

    신재연 | 김예진 | Ji Soo Kim and 10other persons | 2022, 17(1) | pp.93~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This review sought to confirm the correlation between dual-task gait and cognitive function in cognitively impaired and healthy older adults. METHOD: We used four databases (DBs), Pubmed, Cochrane library, Kmbase, and Koreamed. Searches were carried out according to the PICOS method, P (participants) were the elderly (above 65 years) with cognitive decline, I (intervention) was walking with dual tasks, C (control group) comprised the elderly without cognitive decline, O (outcome) was the correlation between gait and cognitive function and S(study) was the cross-sectional study. For the methodological quality assessment of each study, we used the Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross- Sectional Studies provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). RESULTS: A total of 10 articles were included in this systematic review. For the components of gait, we used pace, rhythm, and variability and we observed that mild cognitive impairment mostly causes low gait performance while performing dual tasks. Among the 10 articles, 9 articles studied pace, of which 7 showed significant results. However, 2 were not significant. Also, 1 article that studied rhythm and 3 articles that studied variability showed significant results. The methodological quality of the 10 studies was fair. CONCLUSION: Gait pace was found to have a high correlation between memory, which is a cognitive ability, and overall cognitive function. It was observed that older adults with mild cognitive impairment have reduced gait pace in single-task walking, and further decrease in dual-task gait pace shows the correlation between memory and gait pace during walking.
  • 11.

    A Comparative Study on the Immediate Effect of Performing Gastrocnemius Stretching with and without Myofascial Release of the Sole on Ankle Dorsiflexion Angles and Gastrocnemius Muscle Tone in Subjects with Limited Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Jihyun Lee | 조정원 | 2022, 17(1) | pp.109~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of performing gastrocnemius stretching with and without the self-myofascial release of the sole on the active and passive ankle dorsiflexion angles and muscle tone of the gastrocnemius muscle in subjects with short gastrocnemius muscle. METHOD: A total of 23 subjects with short gastrocnemius muscles were included in this study. The study participants were divided into two experimental groups. Group A performed gastrocnemius muscle self-stretching exercises only, while group B performed self-myofascial release of the sole using a massage ball after the gastrocnemius muscle self-stretching exercises. For both groups, the active and passive ankle dorsiflexion angles were measured using a goniometer, and the tone of the gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using the MyotonPRO®. RESULTS: Within-group comparison showed that the participants in both groups A and B had significantly increased active and passive ankle dorsiflexion angles and decreased gastrocnemius muscle tone (p < .05) after performing their respective exercises. However, no significant differences in the said criteria were observed between groups A and B (p>.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that both methods were effective in increasing active and passive dorsiflexion angles and decreasing muscle tone. Thus, it is recommended to tailor gastrocnemius stretching exercises according to the patient's condition. If the patient does not experience discomfort in the plantar fasciae, it is recommended to perform the gastrocnemius stretching exercise only without myofascial release and use a massage ball afterward.
  • 12.

    The Effect of the Abdominal Draw-In Maneuver Using Breathing on Trunk Control and Hand Grip in Stroke Patients

    Kang Jeong Il | Youngjun Moon | 2022, 17(1) | pp.117~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was carried out to examine the changes in the trunk control ability and hand grip when the abdominal draw-in maneuver using breathing was applied to stroke patients, and provide basic data regarding the trunk stabilization exercise. METHOD: After randomly placing patients in group Ⅰ -applying the existing abdominal draw-in exercise and group Ⅱ -applying the abdominal draw-in exercise using breathing, the intervention program was performed ten times per set (five sets per session), once a day, four times a week, for a total of four weeks. For the pre-tests before the intervention, trunk damage and hand grip were measured. After the four weeks of intervention, post-tests were conducted in the same way as the pre-tests for analyzing the study results. RESULTS: Both groups had significant differences in trunk control ability and hand grip (p < .05). The comparison between the two groups showed, significant differences only in the trunk control a ability(p < .05). CONCLUSION: The abdominal draw-in exercise using breathing led to the efficient contraction of abdominal muscles, which implies this is a more effective intervention to improve the trunk control ability.
  • 13.

    Evaluation of Muscle Activity and Foot Pressure during Gait, and Balance Test in Patients with Genu Valgum

    Jeong-Uk Yoon | Yoo Kyung Tae | Lee Hoseong | 2022, 17(1) | pp.127~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study sought to evaluate muscle activity and foot pressure during gait, and balance in female college students with genu valgum. METHOD: Participants were assigned based on their Q-angle to genu valgum group greater than 20° (GVG, n = 12), unilateral genu valgum group greater than 20° (UVG, n = 11), and control group (CON, n = 13). All subjects were evaluated for balance (Trace length, C90 area, C90 angle, and the Romberg test), muscle activity (gluteus medius; GM, tensor fasciae latae; TFL, vastus medialis; VM, vastus lateralis; VL, biceps femoris; BF, gastrocnemius; GCM and tibialis anterior; TA) and foot pressure (F/F ratio, R/F ratio, Hallux, 2~5 toe, 1st MT, 2~4 MT, 5th MT, Midfoot, M/heel, and L/heel) during gait. RESULTS: Romberg test showed significantly increased loss of balance in the UVG group compared with the CON. In the forward position, the imbalance was significantly increased in the UVG and GVG groups compared to the CON. Muscle activity of VL, GCM, and TA significantly increased in the GVG group compared with the CON. Static foot pressure, 1st MT significantly increased in the GVG compared to the CON group. The 5th MT significantly decreased in the CON compared with the GVG group. The R/F ratio significantly decreased in the GVG compared to the CON group. In dynamic foot pressure, the 2∼5 toe significantly increased in the GVG compared with the UVG group. The left 5th MT significantly decreased in the UVG compared with the CON and GVG groups. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that genu valgum has a negative effect on balance, muscle activity, and foot pressure during gait in female college students.