Korean | English

pISSN : 1738-7132

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.79
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2020, Vol.29, No.2

  • 1.

    Thirty Years of Regulatory Reform: Assessment and Issues

    Kim Jong-Seok | 2020, 29(2) | pp.3~13 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Regulatory reform in Korea has been one of the major policy agendas of all the successive governments since 1990s. Represented by the Presidential Regulatory Reform Committee(RRC) which was established in 1998, the innovative feature of the current Korean system is to have introduced a permanent system of reform by creating a permanent office in the Prime Minister’s Office to control and monitor the quality of regulations. This implies the regulatory reform in Korea has become a permanent part of the government function, in contrast to the unsuccessful policy of regulatory reform of the 1980s which was transient and advisory. Despite the 30 years of reform, the current state of Korean regulation is not improving and actually getting worse, although the Korean regulatory reform system itself has been recommended as best practice by various international organizations, such as OECD and the World Bank. Therefore, it can be argued that the problem of the currently regretable state of Korean regulation is caused by the poor implementation of the good system. In this paper, I argue that the fundamental problem of Korean regulations is the poor quality of the regulations not the quantity, and that it is important to focus on the quality aspects of the regulations to minimize the compliance cost of the regulatees. The key factors that determine regulatory quality are discussed, and the causes of the deterioration of Korean regulatory quality are analyzed. Finally, it is recommended that there should be a quality control mechanism in the legislative branch, the National Assembly, where currently there is no such mechanism, and that the Regulatory Reform Committee should be revitalized to function as effective quality control center within the administrative branch of the government.
  • 2.

    The Relationship Between Government Regulations and Trust in Government: An Empirical Analysis Using Regulatory Index and Trust Index of OECD countries

    Hyejin HAN | Rhea Kim | Lee, Minho | 2020, 29(2) | pp.15~60 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the policy implication of the relationship between government regulations and public trust in government, the direction of the relationship has not been clearly discussed as regulatory policies are both a means and an outcome. Will easing the level of government regulations through regulatory reform increase public trust in government? Or will the level of government regulation increase as trust in government increases? This study seeks to find implications for the future direction of regulatory reform through an empirical analysis of the relationship between government regulations and trust in government. To this end, a total of six government regulatory indices and trust indices were used to conduct a panel regression analysis for 37 OECD countries from 1998 to 2020. As a main result of the analysis, the level of trust in government increases as the level of government regulation is eased. There is also a possibility of a virtuous cycle of regulatory reforms which shows that the increase in the trust level caused by a decrease in the regulatory level will lead to a decline in the level of regulations again. However, some analysis results show that an increase in the trust level may lead to a rise in the government regulation level, making it difficult to come to a clear conclusion regarding the impact of trust in government on regulations. Nevertheless, when looking at the impact of regulations on trust in government, relaxation of regulations through active regulatory reform may elicit a positive effect with regard to enhancing public trust in the government. This suggests that regulatory reforms are needed not only to revitalize the economy but also to enhance public trust in government.
  • 3.

    Identifying Key Regulations through the Analysis of Registered Regulations in Local Governments

    SunGwon Ha | Kim, Song June | 2020, 29(2) | pp.61~94 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores to find key areas and properties of local government regulations (LGRs) in Korea. It applies text network analysis (TNA) for 34,800 registered regulations from the ‘Regulation Information Portal’ with centrality analysis, sociogram and quasi-network. Both 'National-Urban Development' and 'Environment' are found to be key areas of LGRs. The major words are 'building' for 'National-Urban Development' and 'waste' and 'food' for 'Environment'. They are different between the areas and types, and between the delegated and autonomous regulations. The following policy implications are suggested based on the empirical findings. First, the lead agent of each LGR is necessary to separate clearly because duplicated regulations among the local governments are supposed to hinder local autonomy. Second, the central government is required to cover workforce for making LGRs more reasonable which does not have enough specialty for enforcing them. Third, it is better for the central government to allow local governments to enforce their regulations autonomously within delegation of law which allows local governments to respond the policy demands of locals more efficiently. Fourth, it is required to make efforts to reduce the ‘searching cost’ for regulation standards among local governments. Because the industries subject to regulations have troubles with finding each individual regulation by local governments where they have different standards,
  • 4.

    An Exploratory Study on Risk Assessment for Rationalization of Regulations in the New Industry Sectors

    Woo-Hyun, Shim | Park jungwon | 2020, 29(2) | pp.95~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The regulatory policy of the Korean government in new industry sectors is a mixture of deregulation to revitalize the industry and reinforcing regulation to minimize damages and risks. The pursuit of the two-track policy is inevitable when simultaneously considering the ‘potential of industrial development’ and ‘various uncertainties and risks in technology and services’ of new industry sectors. The issue is how to determine an appropriate level of regulation between the revitalization of new industries and risk minimization. Between the two ends, this study examined the measures to implement a risk assessment framework for rational regulatory design. Specifically, this study applied and utilized the risk assessment method of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to propose methods of risk identification and composition of risk scenarios. Moreover, regulations related to the work and scenarios of evaluating risk level by confirming the likelihood of threats and the influence thereof regarding scenarios were organized and presented, in addition to the methods of deriving appropriate regulatory measures via the analysis of risk level differences identified from scenario-related regulations and scenarios. In conclusion, this study discussed the limitations of various regulatory reform strategies being implemented by the government to lead innovative growth and the necessity of applying risk assessment frameworks and regulatory improvement in new industry sectors.
  • 5.

    An analysis of the relationship between regulatory impact recognition and innovation activities : Focusing on the differences according to the type of regulation

    Jungmin Ryu | 2020, 29(2) | pp.121~153 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As the importance of innovation has gradually increased with the passage of the times, many discussions have been made on regulation. This is because regulation is known to affect innovation by engaging in the actions of companies or individuals that are the subject of innovation as the government's policy tool for maintaining social order. While regulation is often described as an obstacle to innovation, there are also arguments and evidence that regulation can play a role in driving innovation. So how do the domestic manufacturing and service industries recognize regulations and how do regulations affect innovation activities? To answer the question, this study attempted to analyze the relationship between regulatory recognition and innovation activities. To analyze it in detail, regulations were categorized and the relevance was examined only for product innovation activities. According to the recognition distribution by type of regulation, companies tended to respond that they had hampered innovation by non-technology type social regulations and that they had promoted innovation by technology type social regulations. Also, as a result of analyzing the recognition of each type of regulation and the actual product innovation activities, discrepancies were identified in the monopoly regulation, price regulation, entry regulation, and environmental regulation. On the other hand, consumer safety regulation, intellectual property rights protection, and labor regulation significantly influenced product innovation activities, as perceived by each regulation. These results mean that the recognition and practical impact of innovation varies depending on the type of regulation. Also, in this study, the effect of regulation on innovation was approached by whether the companies choose or give up innovation as a way to respond to regulation, and these results provide implications for both regulatory and innovation policies.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Behavior of Private in the Process of Introducing Regulatory Policy : Focusing on conflicts between taxicab and platform industries in introducing innovative platform taxicab

    Hanbyeol Yoo | 2020, 29(2) | pp.155~195 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes articles of the press, the minutes of meetings of the National Assembly, reports of the research institute, etc. on the conflicts between smart platform mobility and taxicab industries in the process of introducing a regulatory innovation platform taxicab. it is analyzed for the process based on Quirk's policy conflict model and Wilson's politics of regulation theory. As a result of applying Quirk's policy conflict model, the smart platform mobility and taxicab industries were involved in the process of regulatory policy, and it was shown behaviors in conflicts and taken strategic conflictual actions. This was a phenomenon caused by the entanglement of interests in benefits, for this reason, this conflict case could be determined as a type of interest group politics based on an analysis using Wilson's politics of regulation model. Therefore, it would be that the smart platform mobility and taxicab industries had severe conflicts for benefits and costs at the time when the introduction of the regulatory innovation platform taxicab. as a result of this study, it could argue that public managers should perform a role in reducing conflicts between interest groups and also providing conditions for negotiation in the balance of benefits.
  • 7.

    Safety Culture of Regulatory Body - Its Expectations and Limitations as a Complementary Role for Nuclear Safety Regulatory Institutions

    Choi, Young Sung | Jung, Su Jin | Choi, Kwang Sik | 2020, 29(2) | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The safety concept of nuclear technology is a cumulative one beginning from imperfect trials for safety and evolving through gradual and continuous improvements. The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 was a turning point for strengthening safety measures. However, there are still questions as to what we really should learn from the accident. As accident investigation reports have revealed that the root-cause of the accident was an ineffective integration of institutions, organization and culture associated with nuclear safety, attention is paid, in particular, to safety culture of regulatory body. This paper explores the implications and importance of organizational culture of regulatory body. It explains the functions of safety culture based on the theoretical approach to nuclear safety regime and proposes its elements. In addition, the paper examines the complementary role of safety culture for imperfect regulatory institutions and suggests future research topics.
  • 8.

    Public Procurement Win-Win Cooperation Support System with Benefit Sharing

    Jinhyeong Jo | RYU, DOO JIN | 2020, 29(2) | pp.225~250 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We propose to support a “benefit-sharing public procurement win-win cooperation system” to resolve the potential low-quality production drawback of separated profit-maximizing processes under the existing “public procurement win-win cooperation system”. Under this system, the downstream firms provide additional incentives to their upstream partners according to the quality of intermediate goods supplied. The upstream firms select between high-quality and low-quality production, considering their expected profits. We show that, in equilibrium, the upstream firms decide to supply high-quality intermediate goods given the benefit-sharing system. Nonetheless, under a certain condition when this system is inapplicable, upstream enterprises primarily take charge of the public procurement. In this case, we suggest facilitating the benefit-sharing system by considering these firms’ corporate social responsibility activities.