We applied De Jong’s (1995) theory across time using the corporations listed in Korea Exchange. Since the Korean economy rapidly embraced the Anglo-Saxon type of business regulations after the foreign exchange crisis around 1997, it provides unique opportunity to test De Jong’s theory across time. The results generally confirm the crucial predictions of the theory that the Anglo-Saxon type of business regulations prompt managers to lower the level of value added, and that the income to labor providers decreases. When the time-varying external variables, such as globalization, dissemination of IT and business cycle in Korea, are controlled, however, we failed to verify the rise in income to equity providers.
This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and causes of the Korean ecological alternative movement and its theoretical, practical implications. The characteristics of ecological alternative movement are as follows. Its major proponents are conscientious pro-democracy activists and ecology-conscious farmers and housewives. It sets high value on the efforts to transcend capitalism, industrialism and the state-orientation and to form a cooperative and mutually beneficial community for peace and life. It also puts greater emphasis on the efforts to spread pro-environmental culture and life through face-to-face relationships. The reason why this movement has spread after the late 1990s is because the state-driven democracy faced its limitations amid the neo-liberal globalization, and civic groups failed to redress such problems. The ecological alternative movement was the result of the efforts of the community members to defend their own life in face of the structural failure of the dominant social paradigm.
The spatial distribution of social capital at the county scale for the United States (U.S.) is estimated and explained by media activity, socioeconomic characteristics, and levels of social capital in adjoining localities. A Geographic Information System is used to generate portraits of social capital, television use, newspaper use, and internet use at the county scale. A local indicator of spatial autocorrelation is also calculated to find regional clusters of social capital. High clusters of social capital are found in the Northeast and the Breadbasket states of Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, and the Dakota’s. Low value clusters of social capital are found in the South and de-industrialized Midwest. A thin diagonal band of counties, extending from southern Michigan to west Texas cleaves regional clusters of High-High (HH) and Low-Low (LL) social capital. Spatial lag regression results indicate that local social capital is positively predicted by newspaper and internet use, and negatively predicted by heavy television use, controlling for socioeconomic variables.
The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative
analysis of the competition structures of the two main types of financial
intermediation in Korea, the banking and securities industries. The competition
structure of each collectively determines that of the industry as
a whole. Two approaches are adopted: quantitative market concentration
measures and a qualitative Panzar-Rosse statistic. Using the former approach,
the Korean financial industry appears heavily bank-centered and
the banking industry is highly concentrated relative to the securities
industry. This has created concerns over possible monopolistic power.
Yet market concentration itself is not a sufficient condition for monopoly
or monopolistic competition. In fact, in the latter approach, which focuses
on players’ behaviors as profit maximizers rather than on market
concentration itself, the banking industry is found to be more competitive
than the securities industry, consistent with Bikker and Haaf
(2002). Noteworthy in this regard is that, following the Asian financial
crisis, the banking industry was reformed and consolidated to meet international
accounting and supervisory codes based on well-defined efficiency
and market competition principles while securities industry was not. Therefore, the two seemingly contradictory results are not incompatible
and, importantly, they hint at the directions that the securities industry
In understanding the linkage between the spatial concentration
of immigrant populations and local labor markets, this study
pay particular attention to the relationships between the size and
compositions of immigrants in urban areas and three types of local
employment conditions: employment distributions across all local
industrial sectors; overall employment rate; and local unemployment
rate. Using a sample of the 312 PMSAs/MSAs, the volume of local
immigrants reveals significant associations with employment patterns of
some local industries (construction, wholesale services, education, and
professional). First, this research finds that employment in the
industrial sectors of agriculture, transportation, manufacturing, and
wholesale services rises to the extent that proportion of recent immigrants increases. Second, the volume of immigrant population
shows a negative association with the overall employment rate. Third,
this study also indicates that local unemployment rates rise to the
degree that immigrant population relative to local natives grows. As a
whole, however, this study suggests that the size and compositions of
local minority populations will have little to do with local employment
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of corporate public relationship on perception toward the corporate image in Korea. More specifically, this study was conducted to identify and classify factors composing of the corporate public relationship. Organization–public relationships (OPRs) literature serves as a foundation for proposing and testing the model of corporate public relationship on perception toward the corporate image. A survey was conducted for 350 respondents to test the corporate public relationship. The results of the study showed that five factors, such as social service, trust, familiarity, communal relationship, and exchange relationship, were identified as main components of corporate public relationship. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to find out the relationship between the corporate public relationship and perception toward the corporate image. According to multiple regression analysis, it was found that exchange relationship among five components turned out to be the best predictor of corporate image. In addition to those findings, this study has its own significance in that it sought out the application of OPRs to Korean corporations. This study showed that OPRs can be used for evaluating the relationship between Korean corporations and Korean publics. Additionally, this study provides a guideline on strategic communication for a company that plans to launch its products or services into Korea.
The aim of this research was to analyze empirically environmental carrying capacity in three islands – Jeju (Korea), Hawaii (USA), Tasmania (Australia) in terms of Environmental Impact (EI) and Ecological Footprint (EF) – on a comparative basis.
The three islands experienced change in EI for ten years from 1996 to 2005, showing a trend of increase from 1996 to 2005. Hawaii was highest in the increase, showing 2.729 times, and followed by Jeju (2.129 times) and Tasmania (1.719 times).
Jeju exceeds EF size by 15.14 times, Hawaii by 2.55 times, and Tasmania by –8.088 times. Jeju islanders require 2.044 earths, while Hawaii and Tasmania islanders require 2.239 and 2.585 earths, respectively. The size of EF the islanders occupy was different by the demographic and socio-economic profiles in each of the three islands. The factors impacting on the determination of EF size was also different by island.
Such differences in EI and EF by island might be caused by many factors. ‘What factors arises such differences’ is another research question to be conducted. Another limitation inherent in this research is that the data used are confined to particular period of years the three islands experienced. This means that this research is based on a limited number of parameters, and measurement instrument has been partially developed. To determine EI and EF, assumptions would have to take into account a long list of parameters. Further development of this model will prove useful for policy formation and management for sustainable development within environmental carrying capacity.