While deindustrialization is a universal phenomenon that most countries are destined to experience at a certain stage of economic development, it materialized in Latin America too soon. Most countries in the region reached peak levels of industrialization that were lower than those experienced by early industrializers and these peak levels were reached at lower levels of economic development. We present empirical evidence based on a panel dataset of 191 countries for the 1990-2018 period to suggest that premature deindustrialization witnessed in most parts of the region is a consequence of the interaction of distinct deindustrialization forces. It is a combined product of the “conventional” factors such as demographic, income and time trends and the “less conventional” ones such as the Dutch Disease, foreign direct investment inflows and deepening trade relations with China.
In a standard model of nuisance lawsuits, we consider a plaintiff who obtains malice utility from the loss of a defendant. Confirming our intuitions from casual observations in reality, we find that a more malicious plaintiff is more likely to file a nuisance suit in equilibrium. We also find that the plaintiff’s equilibrium filing cost decreases in malice whereas the equilibrium answering cost and settlement value do not depend on malice. When we allow the defendant to pay a retainer before the plaintiff’s filing decision, we find that the defendant is willing to use the retainer option as long as it is not too costly. Thus, the retainer option is effective in deterring a nuisance lawsuit, although the defendant must spend a larger retainer as the plaintiff becomes more malicious.
This study sets out to analyze a delicate and uncomfortable relationship between UNESCO Bangkok Office and the Korean partner agencies in carrying out the Korea Funds-in- Trust (KFIT) for one decade (2007 – 2016). The development partnership between UNESCO and Korean partners has been problematized due to lack of not only coordination mechanisms from the initial stage to the final reporting of KFIT projects but also lack of intention of both parties to understand partner’s internal processes of policy transfers. The upshot of such a low degree of trust between donor and implementer of trust funds is expected to spawn the accountability deficits. In responding to this challenging situation, the study proposes a new strategic framework for the KFIT, which is equipped with its key findings and the restoration of coordination mechanisms based upon them.
This article examines media bias in the political news depicting the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in Japan. Although previous literature on the impact of media reports on Japanese politics has produced diverging evaluation on whether media are biased or neutral, the question of to what extent the media positively portray LDP compared to a competing party has not been addressed yet. To elucidate the degree of media partisanship in Japan, this research has focused on the extent of the tonality bias in media’s portrayal of LDP and its political competitor DPJ during the period surrounding the 2009 general election. To assess the tonality bias, 4,525 newspaper articles depicting the two parties have been gathered and analyzed through the sentiment analysis methodology. By comparing the sentiment scores of the LDP and DPJ through a three-year time-frame (2008-2010) the analysis has revealed that independently from LDP governing position, the party has benefited from a more positive portrayal than its political competitor. In light of the results we concluded that media in Japan are, to a certain degree, slanted towards LDP.