The struggle between Huang-di and Chi-you is one the most well-known story in Ancient Chinese mythology. The mythology reflects the historical background of ancient China when wars broke out between tribes after the crumble of community-based clan societies. Based on this historical fact, Huang-di and Chi-you's war story may be regarded as a partial fact. In other words, Chi-you, who battled against Huang-di, represents the leaders who struggled against dominating powers. Although Chi-you cornered the Huang-di's army in battles, he was murdered after losing the war.
Fierce war between the emperor and Chi-you was recorded in the Ancient Chinese history and transformed into mythical events. This is the reason why an individual named Chi-you exists in both recorded history and myth at the same time. In the record, Chi-you is described as a man who is destined to be the most villain and brutal in Chinese history. This is mainly because the history is often recorded with bias by the winners.
However, Chi-you is regarded as a legendary character in mythology. The cultural and social influences over ages by Chi-you's decedents and peasants who admired the hero, ancient worshipping of enemy spirits, and general sympathy for the tragic failure of hero altered his character from one in historical records to the others. Such twofold traits, rebellious and heroic, ultimately created Chi-you's figure as one of the most representative Chinese mythical god.