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2016, Vol., No.54

  • 1.

    Differences between “Decree” and “Law” during Qin and Han Dynasties Found in Unearthed Literature

    Im, Joong-hyuk | 2016, (54) | pp.1~33 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    One of the important issues about laws and decrees during Qin and Han dynasties is whether “law” and “decree” were mixed. There are two types of interpretation for this issue: 1) According to Cheng Shude, the law and the decree were not strictly distinguished in Han dynasty. Names of laws and decrees were mixed. Sometimes, the decree was called law as well. 2) According to Kaoru Nakata, “decree turned into law” from the perspective of “conversion between law and decree”. The Decree of Gold and Cloth had been replaced by the Law of Gold and Cloth since a certain time. The author believes that the key to this problem is to analyze such terms as “incompliant to decree” and “incompliant to law” in the laws and decrees. “Incompliant to decree” means “when disobeying the existing legal provisions (“decree or law”), the person will be penalized”. In terms of the existing provisions, the referents of “incompliant to decree” and “the decree is not applicable” here can be considered as the proviso for judging whether the provision is a decree or a law. Cheng Shude held that decrees were mixed with laws at that time. However, it’s not because decrees were mixed with laws that the Decree of Gold and Cloth could be mixed with the Law of Gold and Cloth. Instead, it was a phenomenon occurring during the sorting of terms in the period of the bamboo slips of Qin dynasty collected by Yuelu Academy of Classical Learning. It was wrongly interpreted as mixed use of names of decrees and laws by scholars of later ages. Comparing “incompliant to law” and “incompliant to decree” from the Laws and Decrees of the Second Year with those from the laws of Qin dynasty, the sorting in the former is much clearer. In the 27 laws of the Laws and Decrees of the Second Year, “incompliant to decree” was only used once, and all the others were changed to “the law is not applicable” or “incompliant to law”. It can be seen that the principle of using the term “law” in laws and the term “decree” in decrees had been established at that time. Why? Because in the period of preparing the Laws and Decrees of the Second Year, the concepts of “law” and “decree” had been defined, so when “decree” was changed into “law”, it would be considered as contradictory to use “the decree is not applicable” under a law. It resulted from the sorting of concepts by the officials in charge of laws and decrees. Therefore, the author does not agree with the idea that “laws” and “decrees” were mixed in the period of Laws and Decrees of the Second Year. “Incompliant to decree”, “the decree is not applicable” and so on were still used in imperial edicts. Afterwards, when “decree” was changed into “law”, “incompliant to decree” turned to “incompliant to law” as well. As “incompliant to decree” was not distinguished from “incompliant to law” in the past, there were scholars deeming that there was no difference between “decree” and “law”. The concepts of “law” and “decree” were established during the period of bamboo slips of Qin dynasty unearthed at Shuihudi. “Incompliant to decree” was not completely transferred to “incompliant to law” in early laws of Qin dynasty. From the bamboo slips of Qin dynasty collected by Yuelu Academy, “incompliant to law” was used more frequently. During the period of Laws and Decrees of the Second Year, based on existing concepts of law and decree, the preparation for laws and decrees was adjusted and unified, which has historical significance. Why wasn’t “incompliant to decree” replaced by “incompliant to law” before the period of Laws and Decrees of the Second Year? It’s because during the period of bamboo slips of Qin dynasty unearthed at Shuihudi and the period of bamboo slips of Qin dynasty collected by Yuelu Academy, the laws kept by the Central Censor Office had not been modified yet.
  • 2.

    Zhu Xi’s Critique on Lu Xiang-shan’s Theory of Self-Cultivation

    Lee Seung-Hwan | 2016, (54) | pp.35~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this article is to clarify the reason why the famous Neo-confucian thinker, Zhu Xi came into conflict with another notorious Neo-Confucian scholar, Lu Xiang-shan, from the viewpoint of theory of self-cultivation. Zhu Xi's critique on Lu Xiang-shan's theory of self-cultivation includes the following three points. First of all, Xiang-shan's theory that emphasizes eliminating the whole of intentions from human mind, not only disables Confucian every day practice, such as “Choosing the Good, and holding it steadfastly” as noted in the book of Doctrine of the Mean, but also commits the error of throwing the baby out with bath water. Secondly, Lu Xiang-shan's theory of self-cultivation, which emphasizes quiet-sitting and sudden enlightenment without regard to intellectual inquiry and rational investigation, misleads the practitioners into mysterious illusion and unfounded hallucination as if these are the manifestation of T’ien-li (Heavenly Principle). Thirdly, Lu Xiang-shan's pedagogy that refuses rational debate and inter-subjective argumentation yields the absence of objective criteria by which one can distinguish right from wrong, and the good from the bad. Zhu Xi calls this kind of awkward consequence caused by Lu Xiang-shan's theory of self-cultivation, “a weighing beam without notch mark” or “a yardstick without graduations.” After all, Zhu Xi's critique on Lu Xiang-shan's theory of self-cultivation can also function as a philosophical remedy for those practitioners who mystically indulge into quiet-sitting and meditation without regard to intellectual investigation and inter-subjective dialogue.
  • 3.

    The Analysis on Korean Linguistic Textbooks in Chinese Universities

    武庆楠 | 齐颖 | 2016, (54) | pp.55~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean linguistic textbook, which is usually used by juniors majoring in Korean, is of great importance for both students and teachers. The study aims to make an analysis on the usage of Korean linguistic textbooks in Chinese colleges and universities. To achieve the goal, the study firstly focuses on its research objects--five Korean linguistic textbooks and textbook theories which serve theoretical basis for its later study. Secondly, the study compares five textbooks from such aspects as the goal of textbook compilation, the structural system, the content as well as the style of description or expression to find out the advantages and disadvantages of each textbook. Finally, the study summarizes main problems about the Korean linguistic textbooks. It is hoped to offer some help in compiling a better linguistic textbook.
  • 4.

    Totally New Approach to The Zong-Shu of The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons (≪文心雕龍ㆍ總術≫)

    Kwansu Kim | 2016, (54) | pp.83~111 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The most well-known ancient fifty chapter long Chinese literary criticism “The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons” by Liu Xie in the Liang of southern dynasties, And especially the Zong-Shu were very deeply misunderstood. This thesis is a kind of trial to bring corrections to all its misunderstandings and to revive its original meaning.
  • 5.

    Sinocentrism and Hua-Dong Gangmok (≪華東綱目≫)’s Publication in Late Joseon Period

    Choe, Yong-Chul | 2016, (54) | pp.113~143 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the late Joseon Dynasty, the famous scholar Song Siyoel (宋時烈1607-1689) advocated for the principle of “Respect the Zhou”尊周論, which maintained that Koreans should honour Confucian orthodoxy and actively fight against the newly established Qing Dynasty in China. However, in the late nineteenth century, Li Hanglo (李恒老 1792-1868) embraced Song's principle in his establishment of the Hwaseo School 華西學派, calling for the people to respect China and repulse the barbarians as he led the battles against Westerners arriving by boat. He asserted that all religions and ideas other than Neo-Confucianism were dangerous and heterodox. As Qing China was collapsing, Li asserted that the Joseon Dynasty had a responsibility to re-establish the civilization in Korea. This line of thought was known as Joseon-Junghwaism 朝鮮中華主義. Li went on to compile the Compendium on the History of China and Korea in the Song and Yuan Dynasties 宋元華東史合編綱目,which discussed the Sino-barbarian dichotomy as seen in this 408 years of history. You Yinseok (柳麟錫 1842-1915), Li’s successor in the Hwaseo School, continued the tradition of respecting China and raised an anti-Japanese army to fight for justice after the assassination of Queen Min in 1895. The particular Sinocentrism of Joseon-Junghwaism as practiced by the Hwaso School aimed to correct Chinese civilization with neo-Confucianism, at the same time it was a principle that offered national self-respect and a method of survival in the modernizing world.
  • 6.

    The Eyes of Darkness Staring at Civilization

    Ko Jum Bok | 2016, (54) | pp.145~166 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of Lu Xun’s literary in relation to the image of walking. The image of walking is the main motif of Lu Xun's works. Through that, Lu Xun’s literature observes a familiar reality. At the same time it is dreaming of a breakout from a familiar reality. The image of walking and passing that found in the works of Lu Xun does not assume a specific destination. Just because it is the truth of life, just leave this place now, to leave even without knowing where to go. The Anxiety and fear that derives from it is the share of those who ventured to walk. Through the image of walking, Lu Xun’s literature reveals the secrets of civilization hidden in various signifiers. In most cases, Lu Xun's attitude is pessimistic about the civilization, but the pessimistic attitude is a natural characteristic of the reason. The pessimistic attitude makes critically aware of the effects of the signifier that dominates the civilization. So, the Lu Xun’s Literature can be described as the result of recognition through walking. This paper analyzed from the cliché sense of walking and leaving the aspects of existence that contains the word ‘wanderer’. This paper was investigated the value of the pessimistic attitude to stare the reality and culture through Lu Xun‘s literary works. Lu Xun says that his literature records the evils of the times, therefore disappear with the times. Nevertheless, the pessimistic attitude that disquieting staring at the back of civilization does not disappear. This tells us that the evils of civilization continues. And, Lu Xun's literature is the obvious evidence of that.
  • 7.

    Mentality behind His Choice: With Focus on the Pieces Published on Gujin

    김다정 | 2016, (54) | pp.167~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the 1940s, when Shanghai was under the Japanese rule, publication of magazines was discontinued. However, it soon began to revitalize thanks to the rise of prose writing. Gujin was the first magazine that was published after Shanghai became occupied. The pieces in Gujin were mostly historic prose essays. With its partial success, similar magazines were born, and prose essays became popular in Shanghai. There is another reason that prose became popular: the style of writing allowed the writer to easily express his emotions and the writer can vaguely express his thoughts without having to actually talk about the reality. The subject of this paper, Wen Zhai Dao, was at first a progressive author who used to write miscellany. When it became difficult for him to write, he gave it up. Then he began to contribute essay-type writing on Gujin, making a come-back to the literary circle. His prose writing was considered similar in characteristic as that of Zhou Zuo Ren, a celebrated author of the time. Wen contributed most of the work that he wrote during the Japanese colonization on Gujin. This paper seeks to analyze Wen’s work published on Gujin in order to shed light on the close relationship between the national circumstances at the time and an individual’s mindset on writing or the selection of the subject. Furthermore, this paper aims at discovering the characteristics of Wen’s work and the meaning behind them. The fact that a lyrical and retrospective prose was popular at the time when collectivism prevailed over individualism and resistance against war was encouraged has strong implications. It may seem ironic, but this kind of writing might have been possible precisely because it was wartime.
  • 8.

    Dual Structure of Everyday Life in Liu Zhenyun(劉震雲)’s Novel Cellphone (≪手機≫) with Focus on ‘Language’

    Ju-Yeon Son | 2016, (54) | pp.193~214 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores the dual structure of everyday life exhibited in the novel Cellphone by Liu Zhenyun, a neo-realism novelist in China. In comparison to the previous traditional realism literature, the trend of neo-realism attempts to draw in more of the ordinary peoples’everyday life into the realm of literature. In accordance to this tendency, Liu Zhenyun especially focuses on the ‘language’as one of the basic aspects that construct everyday life in his most recently published novel, Cellphone. Liu Zhenyun depicts main characters of the Cellphone in a form of a text expressed by a ‘language’,which again in turn are consumed as a ‘language’. At the same time, the lives of the people in the novel are expressed in a dual structure formation which conveys how there is a life of oppression and misery beneath a life of boredom and repetition. Although the Cellphone in itself takes a bystander stance towards reality and tries to flee from it, the novel also provides the readers with the implication of questioning the true nature of the life beyond our daily life by revealing the dual structure of everyday life.
  • 9.

    The Two Signpainter’s Journey to Korea: Korean Translation and Echoes of The two signpainters (≪兩個油漆匠≫) by Huang, Chʻun-ming

    Dong Chion Zang | 2016, (54) | pp.215~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Until the 1980s, when Taiwan and South Korea still maintained diplomatic ties, Taiwan had been less known to Koreans for its unique indigenous or contemporaneous image, and more known for the traditional and stereotypical image of ‘Free China’, which could be substituted for the then very nebulous image of ‘China’. As the anomaly of the Cold War ended, the quiet introduction of the Taiwanese writer Huang Ch'un-ming to Korea that led to our new understanding of Taiwan and its literary world. In 1983, with Korea still under the rule of a military dictatorship, translations of Huang's writings were prohibited from sale immediately after their publication. Paradoxically, this gave his work a new literary life. One short story included among his translated works, The Two Signpainters, was soon adapted as Chilsoo and Mansoo, which became one of the best satirical plays that had heartened Koreans during this oppressive political era. In addition to being the most discussed play of the 1980s, the play was later made into the first Korean new wave film in 1988. However, in the process of the film adaptation, Huang's name was no longer mentioned, and the Taiwanese aspects, so vividly depicted in the original novel, were completely replaced by Korean content. This paper examines the background and history of the adaptation of Huang's story, and the subsequent trends in its acceptance in Korea. We, then, analyze the reasons for the success of the adapted play and film, based on elements inherent to the original work itself. For example, we discuss its theatrical composition, satirical elements, and contemporary source materials, such as advertising and the press. Finally, we investigate the significance and sentiments that these elements had granted to Korean audiences, in the acceptance of this work.
  • 10.

    An Investigation of Students’ Educational Satisfaction and Its Relation to Student Variables in Chinese Class as a General Education in University

    YOONSOONIL | 2016, (54) | pp.235~257 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we have investigated the students' satisfaction in chinese class as a general education in university. We conducted a survey among 88 students and reached the following conclusion. Student quality variables are intimately related with purpose of choosing course, learning motivation, perceived difficulty, satisfaction of team teaching method, etc. Thus instructors need to develop different education strategies according to student variables. During team teaching, co-teaching pair need more intimate relationship and more specific plan for dividing instructional content. Teaching grammar and vocabulary, students want for instructors to use their mother language, thus we propose to provide additional explaination in mother language. We also propose university administrators make political solutions which can improve student variable problems in various areas such as curriculum development, teaching materials, co-teaching models, etc.
  • 11.

    A Study on Development of Class Model Based on Flipped Learning: Focusing on the “Understanding of Chinese Novels”, a Theory-based Course Provided by the Major of Chinese Literature

    Sujin Kim | 2016, (54) | pp.259~280 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    I have so far examined the application of flipped learning-based lectures and the students' evaluation of them in “Understanding of Chinese Novels,” a theory-based course provided by the Major of Chinese Literature. It is only natural that a new lesson approach should go through a process of trial and error. It will be a good idea to make a full-blown attempt at the flipped learning approach throughout lectures so that the students will not become subjects in an experiment, but trials and errors can be reduced by making a partial attempt at the new lesson approach, reviewing the responses of students fully, and increasing its expansion and attempt gradually. There should be constant efforts to explore a variety of flipped learning models including the sharing of utilization cases and develop an in-house flipped learning model applicable to the lessons. Flipped learning is effective for theory-based lectures. It is also useful forforeign language lectures as its key points are repetitive learning and self-directed learning. Its utilization rate is high in foreign language study including conversation lessons in Chinese. In practice lectures for foreign language study, the students should fully digest what has been taught in a pre-class before taking confidence in face-to-face in-class and being active to participate in the class, which means that all the concerned matters should be considered including proper time allocation to more flexible pre- and in-class. If flipped learning lectures go right and smoothly, the students will improve their understanding of what has been taught. Furthermore, a shift will be possible to creativity enhancement-centric lectures. In addition, they will lead to the diversification of creative task content as part of results, the active participation of students, and the natural enhancement of their creativity. Students will lead lessons, growing out of their old passive position and taking the roles of “stuchers.” On the surface, the position of teachers seems to be moved from the center to the margin, but those changes will result in close communication between professors and students through ongoing interactions and the increased learning effects of students through instant feedback.
  • 12.

    Chinese Stock Market and Value Relevance of Accounting Data

    JEONGTAEBEOM | 2016, (54) | pp.281~304 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The implementation of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect(扈港通) and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect(深港通) helps China to globalize its capital market. More individuals are expected to make an investment in Chinese companies. But appropriate understanding on the China capital market is needed before direct investment. This paper has taken the empirical test of value relevance of Chinese firms listed on Hongkong, Shanghai and Shenzhen stock market using the book value of net assets and earnings per share to verify the level of explanation of stock price. The results says Chinese firms’ net income information is more value relevant than the book value of net assets comparing with Korean companies. In other words, the Chinese firms’ net assets has no incremental explanation power of stock prices while the net income has. And the total explanation power of net income and net assets is abnormally low suggesting the possibilities of omitted variables in the regression equation. This results requires additional research on Chinese firms’ attributes which affects the stock price.
  • 13.

    Study on the Development in Change and the Comparison of Competitiveness of the Changjiang Liangjiang New Area in China

    Park Soong-Chan | 2016, (54) | pp.305~335 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is for understanding of the development in change of the economic zone to achieve a economic development and a regional development through adoption of foreign capital, technology and management method after reformation and liberation of China, and the characteristic of the national new area and the prospect of the future development which is progressed in the national level. Particularly, it has a purpose to understand the developmental change of the Chongqing Liangjiang new area, and analysis of its competitiveness compare to the Chengdu Tianfu new area. Based on generalization of the characteristics of the economic reformation experimental zone, it has a certain planned territorial area and is benefited by the preferential favor to enterprises, operated by the basic plan and policy and an economic zone in where international economic accomplishments are being made by enterprises. Such experimental zones develop the industrial group to be suitable to the local characteristic, enthusiastically attract the foreign capital, and has a direct relation to precise realization of the export market expansion, As a result, the regional development zone continuously expand in quantity and type as the regional expansion with the role of leading function in the system change and becoming a core part of the regional economic growth after the economic special zone of China has become the leader of the economic liberation in China The purpose of this study is analysis of the precious concept of the economic special zone and the national new area both of which are confusing even in written as the first. Secondly, the effect of the national new area to the Chinese economy is being analyzed indirectly through the case of Chongqing Liangjiang new area. Third, the issues on the investment of Korean companies to these areas by comparing the competitiveness of Chongqing Liangjiang new area and Chengdu Tianfu new area.
  • 14.

    A Translation and Annotation of Libai(李白)’s Answering to Reproach of Meng Shaofu on behalf of Shou Mountain(<代壽山答孟少府移文書>)

    Deuk-Chang Cho | cho sung chun | 2016, (54) | pp.337~360 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Prose of Li Bai(李白) is a support material to ascertain Li Bai’s life and philosophy and to understand Li Bai’s poetries. It is also a critical material to shed light on his literary ideology and his world of art. But until now studies on Li Bai conducted in the country and abroad are biased towards research and translation on Li Bai’s poetry so its interest in his prose is relatively low. Especially translation comments as a basis of research are marginal. If translation comments of Li Bai’s prose have a progress, it will be one of most important material for research on Li Bai. This prose is the answer to reprimand of Meng Shaofu(孟少府) by personifying Shou Mountain(壽山). It compare that he was talented but he didn’t have a favorable opportunity by expressing that Shou Mountain had no name but it was imposing and graceful. This prose can be divided with four paragraphs. The first paragraph describes topography of Shou Mountain itself by personifying Shou Mountain. The second paragraph responses to reprimand of Meng Shaofu in the light of Taoism, and describes that Shou Mountain wasn’t famous but it did not suffer by comparison with famous mountain. The third paragraph refutes Meng Shaofu’s reprimand that denigrates Shou Mountain by describing that Shou Mountain is the place where sage lives and treasures are hidden. The fourth paragraph explains writer’s ambition and view of living. This prose corresponds to systemic characteristic of Shu(書). Taoism and idealism of this prose to perform a meritorious deed and to live in retirement are revealed by terse speech euphemistically.
  • 15.

    A Translation and Annotation of Baktongsa(≪朴通事≫) (Ⅹ)

    이육화 | 2016, (54) | pp.361~393 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Nogeoldae(老乞大), written in nearly 20,000 words, is of two volumes which is based on the clue that Goryeo(高麗) business people coming to China for business and in the form of conversations, it describes what was happening on the way: accommodation, trade, as well as some parts about dinner party plus drinking, disease cure. Baktongsa(朴通事) was written in nearly 30000 words, one-third more than Nogeoldae(老乞大) with 3 volumes. The book, in the form of dialogues or one person narration, introduces every aspect of Chinese society, including dinner party, trade, agriculture, crafts, sue, religion. entertainment, sceneries, etc. The two books are of high value historical documents, just as the well-known professor Yang Lian Cheng(楊聯升) said, “in the point view of history, there are plenty of recordings about the customs and conventions for Yuan(元) and Qing Dynasty(淸代) and also in the perspective of language study, the books are valuable historic materials about the spoken words at the end of Yuan Dynasty(元代) as well as and the beginning of Ming Dynasty(明代). From Yuan and Qing Dynasty(淸代), the series of the books of Nogeoldae(老乞大) and Baktongsa(朴通事) are precious documents for studying the changing of Chinese words in Yuan(元) and Qing Dynasty(淸代). Baktongsa(朴通事) and Nogeoldae(老乞大) are both conversational text books in learning Chinese for both Goryeo(高麗) and Joseon Dynasty(朝鮮) people. With regard to the time when the author lived, there might not be confirmation, according to the words and other documents, it is approximately estimated that the admitting and compiling of the books date back to Yuan Dynasty(元代). the initial publication was during the year of 1346, in 1998, the so called original edition Nogeoldae(老乞大) was found in Korea and the Korean schoolers called it the Original Nogeoldae(原本老乞大). The present ones are chiefly of 3 kinds: Beonyeok Baktongsa(飜譯朴通事) volume 1, in 1756; Baktongsa eonhae(朴通事諺解) volume 1,2,3,in 1677 ; Baktongsa sinseok(朴通事 新釋)(in 1765), among which Beonyeok Baktongsa(飜譯朴通事) is the edition of Baktongsa(朴通事) but it is a pity that the book is not complete(there being only volume 1, not volume 2 and 3). However, Beonyeok Baktongsa(飜譯朴通事) is the modification done by PARK SE HAW(朴世華) and the other 12 people. The Chinese parts of Beonyeok Baktongsa(飜譯朴通事) and Baktongsaeonhae(朴 通事諺解) are nearly the same except that the fewer parts are different. Baktongsaeonhae(朴通事諺解) is a valuable, detailed explained material and is of great significance for studying Chinese language and as well as its culture and also to the well understanding of the original work. In recent years, scholars from Korea, Japan and other countries have regarded A Translation and Annotation Baktongsa(朴通事新註新譯) as a subject on the basis of former works, hoping that there will be more addition and further development to it. In addition, it is a moderate motivation to the research on and Nogeoldae(老乞 大).