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2018, Vol., No.61

  • 1.

    The Syntactic and Semantic Features of Mandarin Chinese ‘Hao’ Used in the Purposive/Resultative Complex Sentences

    Lim, So-jeong | 2018, (61) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the syntactic and semantic characteristics of Mandarin Chinese ‘Hao’ as conjunctive adverb, which is used in complex sentence. The syntactic characteristics of the conjunctive adverb ‘Hao’ are as follows: First, the conjunctive adverb ‘Hao’ has no constraint on person-type of subject, matching of the antecedent clause and following clause. Second, as a result of examining, the frequency of ‘Rang’ which is combined with conjunctive adverb ‘Hao’ is overwhelming, followed by ‘Qu’, ‘You’, ‘Jiao’, ‘Neng’. Regarding the semantic characteristics of conjunctive adverb ‘Hao’, we first looked at the semantic relationship between the antecedent clause and following clause in the ‘Hao’ sentence. The ‘Hao’ complex sentence can be divided into two types of meaning: ‘precondition-result’ and ‘action-purpose’. The ‘precondition-result’ type means that the result indicated by the following clause occurs by preceding event. And the ‘action-purpose’ type means that the action pointed by the predicate intends an event represented by the following clause. In the following section, we discussed what causes this semantic type difference. Focusing on the fact that conjunctive adverb ‘Hao’ has a speaker/agent-oriented nature, it examines whether or not the Modality is influenced by the personality of the person-type of subject and the realization of the whole sentence.
  • 2.

    A Characteristic of Spoken Vocabulary in Modern Chinese Dictionary

    Chang Sun Woo | 2018, (61) | pp.27~50 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study discussed ways to properly address spoken information in dictionary. Especially, the present situation of <Morden Chinese Dictionary> 6th(2012) on spoken words is investigated. Colloquial usage was cancelled in <Morden Chinese Dictionary> 3rd edition, it gave rise to heated discussions and deputy in the linguistic field. In this regard, we can think that the current study of Chinese style variation is not enough. This study revealed the characteristics of spoken words in comparison with the 5th edition. This study analyzed pronunciation, usage and semantics of spoken words. This paper also analyzed the distribution of the spoken words frequency. According to the research results, while modern social networks and information developed, the scope and frequency of words also change. Therefore, the construction of spoken corpus and dialect corpus will receive more and more attention.
  • 3.

    A Study on Li Bai’s Self-consciousness in <Gu-Feng>

    Yoon, Seok-woo | 2018, (61) | pp.51~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I have looked at the work of Li Bai using the analytic framework of George Herbert Mead’s objected self(‘Me’) and subject self(‘I’), which appeared in Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition. The objected self is the image that another person defines and expects to himself. In this sense, the subject self is formed in response to the objected self. If the subject self conforms to the objected self, the subject is well adapted to the identity, but if not, the subject self can fall into internal conflict and division. In other words, if there is no ‘social acknowledgment’ of others represented by the subject self, the subject self suppresses itself or falls into self – division. In the case of the Li Bai, there is an immortal in the subject self that the other person views Li Bai. Li Bai is very pleased with this self. However, Li Bai has another subject self. It is the self that have Secular success. However, the people of the world do not recognize the self-consciousness of the Li Bai. The Li Bai images that others see, that is, the purposeful ego that others expect, is immortal. Therefore, LI Bai’s subject self falls into conflict and division. In this frustration, Li Bai returns to the world of Immotal. This is to return to the self as a Immotal, and to correspond with the objective self as a immortal.
  • 4.

    A Study on Guaishuo(怪說) Written by Shi, jie(石介)

    Leeseungshin | 2018, (61) | pp.77~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shi, jie(石介) is an important politician, a Confucian and a writer in Northern Song Dynasty with Songliujia(宋六家) such as Ouyang, xiu(歐陽修), Su, shi(蘇軾) and so on. Also, he has been respected as a trailblazer in the field of Songxue(宋學), and he is called Songchusanxiansheng(宋初三先生) with hu, yuan(胡瑗), Sun, fu(孫復). He influenced on literature, politics and scholarship of Northern Song period. In spite of his ability, he has been devalued in the part of Chinese classical prose and Guwenyundong(古文運動). Guaishuo(怪說) is a representative prose by shijie, it has many sources of new style Songliujia’s thoughts and opinions on movement of the Guwenyundong. He is one of the most influential figures in wide areas such as politics, literature and academic fields of Northern Song Dynasty. Especially Guaishuo is involved thoughts of advancing Confucianism, influencing the Writing style, encouraging political and literal reformers. Shi, jie has different, strong and explicit opinions in writing style and thoughts. Xikunti(西崑體) of Yang, yi(楊億), Buddhism and Taoism was violently antagonized by Shi, jie. Guaishuo is the prose of expression of these contents by using many literary techniques, such as literary structures, applied short sentences and long sentences, well-used Xuzi(虛字), Paibi(排比), forming an antithesis, exclamatory sentences, asking in return and so on.
  • 5.

    The Stylistic Study on the Anthology ≪Wenti Mingbian(文體明辨)≫ by Xu Shizeng(徐師曾) of Ming(明) Dynasty

    YUNHUI DANG | 2018, (61) | pp.99~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The anthology of ≪Wenti Mingbian(文體明辨)≫ is the selected book of prose and poem and also is the stylistic book by Xu Shizeng(徐師曾, 1517~1580) of Ming(明) Dynasty. The book was influenced by ≪Wenzhang Bianti(文章辨體)≫ by Wu Ne(吳訥). It classified the writing styles into 95 different styles of ≪Main Part(正編)≫ and 26 styles of ≪Appendix(附錄)≫. The “Xuti(序題)” of total 121 styles in ≪Wenti Mingbian(文體明辨)≫ explained the origin, changes, and creative techniques of writing style and also classified the writing styles into the concept of standard styles(正體) or modification styles(變體), and ancient styles or modern styles. It provided an understanding of the characteristics and changes in Chinese classical literature style. ≪Wenti Mingbian(文體明辨)≫ also included the writing styles of vulgar literature in ≪Appendix(附錄)≫. About 330 Cipai(詞牌) of ≪Shiyu(詩餘)≫ contained in the ≪Appendix(附錄)≫ are specially noteworthy. The book is considered as more a stylistics book than a anthology, for it developed the esoteric stylistic theories on the lot of classical writings and also expanded the range of stylistics over the many new vulgar literature writings. We can say that the book reflected the aspect of literary trends of Ming (明) Dynasty.
  • 6.

    A Cultural Imagination of the Other on Chinese Food Culture:Focusing on the Travel Notes in the Late Qing Dynasty

    HwaJin Kim | 2018, (61) | pp.135~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Previously, I wrote a paper focusing on Western foods that Chinese people in the Late Qing Dynasty’s Overseas Travel Notes. In this paper, we will examine the aspects of China recognized by the West, focusing on Chinese food seen by Westerners. Through this study, comparative studies on food culture in China and the West will help complement more objectivity. The content of the Late Qing Dynasty’s Overseas Travel Notes is mainly about the advanced Western material civilization that Chinese travelers have seen and felt during their overseas tours. The Qing Dynasty, which was attacked by Western advanced weapons during the Opium War, no longer regarded the West as a backward and barbaric savage tribe. Western countries with advanced technology have become the envy of China, which has long remained reclusive. Whether intentional or unintentional, amid internal and external chaos at the end of Qing Dynasty, the major concerns of the Late Qing Dynasty’s travelers, who had set China’s situation as a framework of “great past and backward present” were all about the future and wealth of the nation. Therefore, the subject of ‘food’ was not a major concern for them. In particular, government officials had to write a travel journal as objectively as possible, so little was recorded about food items that were likely to have subjective tastes involved. Although there is not much recorded, the daily food I see during the trip was the most direct, specific and refreshing experience. In addition, in comparing Chinese and Western foods, the traveler was able to understand the cultural meaning and value of each country’s food culture. The study is valuable in that it allows us to look at the cultural awareness of the Chinese people at the end of the Qing Dynasty and also the Western perception of China.
  • 7.

    The Study on Jin Fan’s Novel The Open Love Letter

    김종석 | 2018, (61) | pp.157~188 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    During the Cultural Revolution, The Open Love Letter written by Jin Fan(Liu qingfeng), was quickly spread to young generation with handwritten copies and became a very important part of the underground literature during the time of Cultural Revolution. The Open Love Letter to young people shows the exploration of the Old Five Sessions(“laowujie”) in dark time with the epistolary style. The call for sincerity, the concern about the outlet of future China and the pursuit for personal involvement all greatly touched young generation. This paper aims to analyze some characteristics, who is in the deep-level value for human feelings and reflecting the writer’s intensive thinking over searching for self-identification of the Old Five Sessions. This novel is recently regarded as classical text of the underground works in the 1970s, which was regarded as a controversial work and long forgotten, has been constantly touched upon by scholars in recent years. This paper aims to analyze why it has been neglected and brought up again.
  • 8.

    The Change and Stagnation of Revised-textbook ≪ChineseⅠ≫: Focusing on the Part of Pronunciation and Four Language Skills

    MISOON KIM | 황진영 | 2018, (61) | pp.189~214 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The present study selects four editions of the high school textbooks ≪ChineseⅠ≫ published from 2002 until today - total of 31 textbooks - as subjects of the study to discuss about the changes and stagnation in organization order and contents of the section of pronunciation and four language skills from diachronic viewpoint. According to this national curriculum, the revised versions of ≪ChineseⅠ≫ were published in 2002, 2012, 2014 and 2018 respectively. The current paper attempts to grasp the overall revision flow of the revised textbook from the diachronic viewpoint. The result shows that in terms of the order of organization, there were numerous attempts considering the efficiency of learning. However, in the contents of organization, some points were not improved or revised yet. The pronunciation parts were focused more on ease than the accuracy of the explanation, and the activities of the four language skills were still more mechanical exercises rather than meaningful exercises. Following to the changing era, the national curriculum will be revised in the future, and revised version of ≪ChineseⅠ≫ will also be published. Through these kind of evaluation, the improvement of the revised textbooks should be continued, and the points of regression and the stagnation must be corrected.
  • 9.

    A Study on Early Warning System of China Iron Ore Price Based on AI Models

    Nam, Dae-yub | 2018, (61) | pp.215~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    AI(Artificial Intelligence) has been attracting much attention since the coming out of Alpha Go in 2016. Recently, Economic studies have been actively conducted using AI-based machine-learning and deep-learning models instead of classical time series or regression models. In this paper, I applied the AI technique to the EWS(Early Warning System) for Chinese iron ore import price, which has an important influence on the sound development of Chinese steel industry. The work presented in this paper aims to examine the comparison analysis of the prediction accuracy between the classical signal approach which are mainly used in the contemporary economics and the AI-based SVM(Support Vector Machine) and Random Forest models. And I described the pros and cons of each technique. The results show that the AI models have achieved higher accuracy than signal approaches. So, it is reasonable to think that AI models are more suitable than the traditional models for studies which focus on model’s accuracy, such as EWS. And these models can help steel companies prevent volatility in financial performance by increasing iron ore inventory or using of financial derivatives.
  • 10.

    Agricultural Society of Ancient China as Reflected on Agriculture-related Chinese Characters

    Lee In Kyung | 2018, (61) | pp.233~276 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study briefly looked at the origin and developing process of China’s agriculture in the first place to understand the circumstances of the primitive agriculture. Then, categorizing them into farming methods, farming tools, crops, the study interpreted the related Chinese characters ‘采’, ‘焚’, ‘力’, ‘耒, 耜’, ‘禾’, 粟’, ‘稻’ in linkage with the developing process of agricultural society and sought to look into the agricultural society then using shapes of ancient letters, archeological specimens and literature records. In an attempt to understand agricultural society during the period when primitive society had developed through ancient times, the study also examined ‘農’ ‘男’ ‘稷’ - Chinese characters reflecting the societal circumstances then - using the same materials. ‘采’ reflected the perception of the people then related with picking and collecting, the base of primitive agriculture, while ‘焚’ meaning ‘burn’ might have reflected agricultural primitive society related with cultivation of burned farmland. Shape of ancient letter ‘力’ originally meaning a primitive farming tool 耒 might have reflected the agriculture in the primitive society. 耒 in the shape of the end standing out to the front developed to 耒 in the shape of the end split into both sides in connection with the efficiency of ploughing, making the typical shape of 耒. This tells us that the perception of the people then was reflected on ‘耒’ in the shape of an end-split forked ploughshare. ‘禾’ and ‘粟’ might have reflected agricultural society of ancient China when people considered millet as the most important crop. ‘稻’ reflected perception of ancient Chinese who used the harvested rice as the major food resource as well as the agricultural society and so we can learn that rice was the typical crop along with millet from primitive society through ancient times. Meanwhile, ‘農’ reflected the transitional cultivation activity at the time when primitive agriculture such as 火田 (burned farmland) developed focused on farming tools and farmland cultivation as well as the related agricultural society. Patriarchal society developed based on agriculture. Men in ancient times were the main principals of production activity and so “people engaged in cultivation using farming tools at farmlands” turned to ‘男’ symbolically referring to men as revealed from the shape of old letters. Another name of ‘millet’ ‘稷’ was the typical crop representing northern China and could be called the ‘No 1 of five grains’ and thus its meaning was extended to the names of agricultural officials and god of crops. Earliest developed civilization in China was in the field of agriculture and ancient China was able to develop the country based thereon. For this reason, ‘社稷’ - a pronoun of the country or state - is considered to have reflected agricultural society in feudal ancient China.
  • 11.

    The Origin of Physiognomy and <Phrenology(骨相)> of Wang Chong

    joo mi kang | KIM GYESEONG | 2018, (61) | pp.277~302 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Physiognomy(相學) in the pre-Qin period(先秦時期) was settled as a sociocultural phenomenon after it had gone through a transitional process for thousands of years. In the era of drastic changes of Chun qiu zhan guo period(春秋戰國時期), god-centered independence began to change gradually to human-centered one, and as shamanism(巫) and historians(史) spread into common people, the tendency of conjury(術數) sprang up among people. Under the influence of the theory of heaven and humans response(天人感應說) of Han dynasty(漢代) and so on, conjury study(術數學) couldn’t but be developed in Han dynasty when philosophy shifted from human-centeredness to the connection with gods. Wang Chung(王充) made ‘phrenological(骨相)’ as the proof of human independence and established physiognomy(相學) for the first time from the perspective of determinism(命定論), and it was meaningful in that phrenology(骨相學) was connected to personality or the Five Elements(五行) even though it was elementary.
  • 12.

    A Study on Peace Discourse in China at the Turn of the 20th Century— Focused on “World Peace Conference”

    CHA TAEGEUN | 2018, (61) | pp.303~334 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    At the end of the nineteenth century, the world peace movement was developed around the world under the crisis of the devastating war. The World Peace Conference, including the First and Second Hague Peace Conference in 1899 and 1907. attracted political and ideological attention around world. The information and knowledge about the Peace Conference in China was mainly through the Wan Kwoh Kung Pao published by Western missionaries and Japanese scholars of international law. It’s two sources of knowledge were introduced and evaluated from different perspectives on the World Peace Conference. In the conflict of ideal of world peace and partition of state, Chinese intellectuals began to think deeply about peace conference and peace issue. Kang You-wei regarded peace as a universal human ideal and appreciated the change of the world as a process of development toward the Great unification of world and set a high value on the World Peace Conference. On the contrary, Zhang Zhi-dong and Zhang tai-yan regarded world peace movement as Westerncentrism based on the unequal sovereignty of world peoples in the world peace conference and international law, and the peace of China could only be secured through strenuous efforts. Thus, at the end of the nineteenth century, the universalist ideology and nationalism which prioritized the sovereignty of the nation and the state was in confrontation with each other over the world peace issues. In this process, They could not addressed deeply the issue of peace and equality of human society based on equality of sovereignty and fair process and method.
  • 13.

    China’s Ban on Hallyu and Challenges of Cultural Contents Industry

    JO, JEONG-RAE | 2018, (61) | pp.335~360 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The centre of the gravity of the world’s politics and economics is gradually shifting towards Asia form Europe and North America in the 21st century. Especially in China and Northeast Asian countries are pursuing cultural development based on their economic power and are aiming for globalization. China is heading towards the ‘China Dream’ and ‘The Powerful Culture’, and Japan is steadily maintaining its ‘move towards right-wing policy’ based on a country’s economic growth. It is obvious that Korea’s cultural strategy and policy setting is a very important period in the realization of the hegemonic dominance of the world culture. Since the 2000s, the Chinese government’s cultural policy has emphasized the revival of traditional culture based on the expansion of Cultural Power of Imperial. In particular, in 2011, the Chinese government adopted to ‘build up the socialist cultural powerhouse’ as a new national vision. To achieve this, the Chinese government has set up the cultural industry as a national strategic industry, and has strongly promoted the national image and strengthened soft power. In this context, China has carried out economic retaliation against South Korea over THAAD, which also hurts China’s economy. As a result, structural weaknesses of Korean economy and industry on China trade are emerging as an urgent task. Among these changes, how will we, who experienced colonial cultural imperialism, recognize and accept various cultural conflicts beyond the political and economic problems with China? As a method to find its solutions, this study looked at the interrelated aspects of ‘China’s ban on Hallyu’ and ‘cultural contents industry’.