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2020, Vol., No.67

  • 1.

    A Study on the Characteristics of Sino-Vietnamese and Some Vietnamese Words of Chinese Origin

    Tae-kyung Kim | 2020, (67) | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examined the characteristics that can be seen only in Sino-Vietnamese. The characteristics can be written down as follows: First, all dental-alveolar fricative and affricative initials(精系) were changed into alveolar stops, and alveolar fricative and affricative initials(莊系) and palatal fricative and affricative initials(章系) are distinguished in Sino-Vietnamese. This characteristic reflects Early Middle Chinese. Second, the bilabial consonant of the fourth division of Chongniu(重紐) rhymes was changed into alveolar stop t-, which is the biggest characteristic in Sino-vietnamese. Third, glottal fricative initial(云母) lost its sound and became zero-initial during the qieyun(切韻) period. However, this initial was changed into labiodental initial v- in Sino-Vietnamese. Fourth, Hashimoto Mantaro suggested that the final consonants of Geng she(梗攝) characters would be nasal palatal -ɲ, -c. The final consonants of these characters are preserved in Sino-Vietnamese. This result supports Hashimoto’s theory. This paper also examined the theory that the third division of rhyme 庚 and the third division of rhyme 淸 were in Chongniu relations, and the possibility that the medial sound of the third division of hékǒu rhymes was -wj-. This paper also examined the possibility that the Vietnamese vocabularies of tim(心), tuổi (歲), có (有), and cá (魚) came from Old Chinese.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Negative Potential Verb: Complement Construction in Modern Chinese

    GUO YI BIN | 2020, (67) | pp.25~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In previous studies, negative construction “V bu de(不得)” of the Potential Verb-Complement is more one-sided, and they are only divided into two semantic categories: “Impossibility” and “Impermissibility”. The multi-faceted nature of this structure lacks careful classification based on large-scale corpora. In this paper, based on a large-scale corpus-based empirical study, it is proposed to divide the “V bu de(不得)” express impermissible meanings, and divide it into two lower semantic categories from the perspective of grammar, sentence formation, and pragmatic meaning, that is, “Evaluative” and “Dissuasive”. In addition, by examining the diachronic evolution and synchronic performance of the “V bu de(不得)”, this paper argues that the meaning of the “V bu de(不得)”has evolved along this path, that is, “Impossibility > Evaluative Impermissibility > Dissuasive Impermissibility”.
  • 3.

    ‘Wollyeongga’ with Joy and Pain: Analysis of Fan Chengda’s “Four pastoral” through the Review of Selected Poetry of Song Dynasty

    Rho, Eunjung | 2020, (67) | pp.57~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    China’s pastoral poetry have been enriched since the Tang Dynasty, because of Tao Yuanming’s pastoral poetry that sang the joys of the rural life and the Yuan Zhen’s pastoral poetry that sang the pains of the rueal life. In the Song Dynasty, as the material in pastoral poetry became various and fresh due to the vogue for Neo-Confucianism, the contents became more abundant. The poet who packed the poems that became rich in that period and presented them as works, is Fan Chengda. According to Quan Zhongshu’s evaluation, Fan Chengda’s “Four pastoral” is the collectiveness of pastoral poetry, harmonizing the various contents of traditional pastoral poetry to show their characteristics. While singing the beautiful scenery of the rural life and the various farming work in that rural area, Fan Chengda did not turn away from the voices of who living there. He included social poetry which sang all the pains of the rural life in the category of pastoral poetry, which sang the idyllic rural life and reclusion. This is the result of his efforts and practices, who have constantly cared for society and people and dreamed of a power to coexist together. Therefore, rural area of Fan Chengda became a rural areas that combines realistic rural areas, subjectively idealized rural areas, and objective rural areas.
  • 4.

    The Meaning of Mistakes in Translation of the Naksunjae Version of The Dream of Red Chamber

    MINWOO CHO | 2020, (67) | pp.81~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Naksunjae translation of The Dream of Red Chamber, as known as the world’s first complete translation of this famous Qing novel, is as well as a felicitous material for analyzing the feature of translation itself between Korean and Chinese in 19th century. This article analyzes the incorrect annotations and mistranslated examples of the Naksunjae translation of The Dream of Red Chamber, and suggests that although there were many mistranslations or mistakes, the translators had logical reasons to make the wrong decision. Through the observation, this paper points out the process of translation: 1) recognizing the Chinese characters, and thus some mistakes were caused by unclear or profane printing. 2) each translator had his own standard of translation, which still can be seen when we look closely into the text, but these multiple standards made the Naksunjae translation very complicated in consequence. 3) The Naksunjae translation can be divided into two parts, in the former part, translators prefer to translate Chinese directly to Korean; and in the latter part, translators prefer to preserve original Chinese words. 4) when the translator struggled to find the correct meaning, they rely on the context clues in The Dream of Red Chamber, but the cultural misunderstanding still lead to mistranslation.
  • 5.

    A Study on 18th Century Joseon Literati Reading and Criticism of Chinese Ancient Novels

    Eunyoung Kwon | 2020, (67) | pp.105~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study of various views of Chinese novel reading attitude, appreciation and criticism by writers of the 18th century Joseon Dynasty. The resulting conclusions are as follows: First, the novel criticism of 18th century Joseon writers is mainly focused on the Sidaqishu(四大奇書), which seems to be related to the revitalization of the publishing and translation industries of the time, as well as a measure of which works were most popular at that time. Second, it is also limited to the Sidaqishu(四大奇書) in terms of content criticism. Third, if the novel’s value was recognized as the positive value of utility until the 17th century, there were few criticisms of the positive value of utility in the 18th century. This is a result of reflecting the social atmosphere of the time. The problem of this study began with the question of how to expand the horizons of classical Chinese literature research and comparative literature between Korea and China. It is a truly dangerous idea to think that the interpretation of the book is outdated or unrelated to today’s sense of real problems, given that it is a relic of the past. Studying the classics is an act of ceaselessly speaking to the wisdom of our ancient ancestors, which has been embedded in our bodies, and of casting a serious question about the fundamental value of human existence. In the face of the talk of the crisis of humanities today, one can expect that the Korean classics will enable understanding of the culture and substance of traditional society, as well as the history of knowledge exchange between Korea and China, and that they will be a good research example in the comparative research of Korea and China, thus making a significant contribution academically. Moreover, at the end of this project, the individual and comprehensive study of Chinese novels in the 18th century’s various literary writings will eventually be a step forward in the study of traditional Korean literature and the mixed study of Chinese classical novels, and the exchange of Korean and Chinese literature with each other will further embody each other’s research achievements. Furthermore, if the Chinese literature community is interested in the research, it will contribute to providing multi-disciplinary research tasks and boosting research exchanges through reading Chinese novels and enhancing the value of reviews outside of China. China and Korea have a cultural character that has both congregations and combinations against the backdrop of East Asian cultures. In my view, the task of examining sentences that read the same book 200 years ago and commented frankly on its impressions will not be merely to establish the relationship of influence, but also to find the independent aspects and meaning of our culture and to present the humanities achievements that live up to the cultural realities of the current turbulent Korea-China relations. This will also increase academic efficiency through links between classical and contemporary, closed but open academic exchanges.
  • 6.

    Imperialism and a View of History as National Ordeal: Focused on the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China

    CHA TAEGEUN | 2020, (67) | pp.133~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the changes of Chinese people’s perceptions of the world and themselves through Chinese imperialism discourses in the early 20th century. Imperialism is a theory related to the system that is formed between the central and peripheral states of the world and between them. Therefore, imperialism is the theory of international order. through the concept, Chinese imperialism have understood the nature of the world order and China’s position in the world, and sought a direction for China. Imperialism in China shows a great deal of difference before and after 1920. Before 1920, imperialism was closely related to Western civilization and modernism. Also, by recognizing imperialism as derived from nationalism, imperialism was not just a critical object for the Chinese pursuing nationalism. Imperialism was a cause of pain for China, but also a model to imitate. Since the 1920s, however, in accepting Lenin’s imperialism, imperialism was perceived as an object to be overthrown that prevents and suppresses the development of the people of a small and weak power, not the future model of them. Lenin’s imperialism, in particular, regarded nationalism as a fair and just right that separate from imperialism and resists imperialism as a critical object. In this view, the Chinese defined the treaties between China and the West since the Opium War as an unequal treaty, and criticized imperialism as the main way to oppress and rule weaker countries. The KMT and the Communist Party set nationalism against imperialism as an important ideology justifying China’s rule, and actively promoted ideological propaganda to gain support from the people and the masses. One of the main ways was to describe China’s modern history as a history of exploitation by Western imperialism. But China’s nationalism, which established unconditional self-justification, shows a tendency to pursue external expansion through national competition, as in the late 19th century. Absolute recognition of nationalism weakens the reflection on the problems that nationalism may have.
  • 7.

    The Study of “Zhuling’s Adventure in Borneo” Written by Li, Yongping: Wandering at the Door of the Semiotic World in the Symbolic World

    WoonSun Koh | 2020, (67) | pp.173~207 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Li, Yongping (1947-2017) was born in Kuching Province, Sarawak State, in the northern part of Borneo Island. He was an author who published his first work in 1966 and moved to Taiwan to continue his creative activities until 2017. “The Indigenous Aunt(拉子婦)”(1968), written by Li, Yongping before he graduated from the university, received a favorable evaluation by extending the viewpoint of the ethnic Chinese people that used to be focused only on the home country (China) and publicizing the complex issue sealed within a multiracial and multicultural society. The ‘Borneo Trilogy’ that belongs to the later works of Li, Yongping, including In the End of a Big River(大河盡頭), is also on the extension of such critical mind. This paper examines how the critical viewpoint of Li, Yongping on the position of the ethnic Chinese between the colonial ruler/colonized, man/woman, and perpetrator/victim relationships in the stage of ‘mountains are not mountains, and waters are not waters, 見山不是山, 見水不是水’ came to a stalemate instead of finding a new way out of the ‘relationship’ with others. This paper also examines the development and settlement of events and the personality and development of the girl who leads the story. First off, Li, Yongping stressed the point that natives were also ‘colonial cooperators’ and disregarded the relationship with ‘the ethnic Chinese and the indigenous people’ that was considered in early works. Parts of the colonial history of Borneo overlap with the colonial history of Taiwan. However, the unique political system of Islam in Southeast Asia in the 14th and 15th centuries and the tribe system of natives differed from the powerful, centralized dynasty system of China. Therefore, Li can be evaluated as to have removed the complicated historical context by simply describing natives as ‘colonial cooperators’ by homogenizing them with the ethnic Chinese. Further, Li failed to remove the hierarchy of racial and cultural ‘differences’ by describing the Polynesian tattoo culture as the perspective of East Asians, or ‘tattoo=stigma.’ Through the ‘adventure of a girl,’ Li, Yongping tried to show an atonement process different from Drizzling Sleet(雨雪霏霏) and In the End of a Big River. However, the female hero of Zhuling’s Adventure in Borneo had to be a premature girl who already experienced the first menstrual period. Li was obsessed about ‘purity’ symbolized by the ‘virginity’ of the girl. Also, unlike Wizard of Oz that Li, Yongping attempted to use as a reference, the ‘growth’ of girls who form a relationship with ‘Zhuling’ does not occur. The more critical flaw is that the limited womanhood of Li, Yongping was shown by the rite of passage undergone by ‘Zhuling.’ Similar to how male heroes undergo the rite of fighting against dragons in various myths, ‘Zhuling’ faced the danger of being ‘raped.’ Zhuling avoided this danger by sudden cries (for instance, ‘Be careful!’ and ‘Run away!’) of other characters instead of learning how to use a ‘sacred object, 神物.’ Accordingly, Zhuling’s Adventure in Borneo is a work that reflects a male-oriented view on women, just like earlier works of Li, Yongping, despite the fact that it illustrates a female hero. Lastly, Li borrowed the myth of ‘Quetzalcoatl’ that appears in Fingerprint of the Gods by Graham Hancock without criticism, conveying a message that the peace and chaos of Borneo are decided by outsiders. Feeling painful because he could not rest in Borneo or find ‘cultural China’ of his imagination in Taiwan, Li probably believed that he could only escape from this pain by fleeing to a state of enlightenment that does not exist in this world. However, the anxiety and hollowness about ‘identity’ are only resolved after realizing the fact that human beings exist through regulation, but such regulation (identity) is changeable and unstable because it is constantly reestablished by others. In the process of ‘seeing objects as they are, 見山又見山’ Li failed to realize that ‘what’ I am experiencing is not as important as how I ‘relate’ to what I experience.
  • 8.

    Memories of the Nanjing Massacre, Reconstructed with Nationalism: A Study on The Flowers of War by Yan Geling

    Ju-Yeon Son | 2020, (67) | pp.209~228 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yan Geling’s The Flowers of War is a novel published in 2011, based on true events that took place during the Nanjing Massacre in 1937. Though an article, author mentioned that as a “nationalist”, she had no choice but to write The Flowers of War. No doubt that the author’s intention was to imagine the situation in Nanjing at that time through fictional narratives, and to maximize the horrors of the war by properly placing prostitutes and schoolgirls within the narratives. However, it is problematic that the narrative of the novel develops in a way that values national identities. It is not easy for readers to sense the nationalist colors as the community within the cathedral is composed of people from different race, religion, gender and age. However, by analyzing the structure of the novel through Prasenjit Duara’s perspective, we can see that the community within the cathedral share a common status as a victim of Nanjing Massacre and share identical experience of enduring Japanese invasion. As a result a national identity is created within the community. In this respect, based on the nationalistic viewpoint, this paper explores the question of how the novel constitutes national identity through the Nanjing Massacre, and how it represents historical tragedy at the expense of women, and proceed with a more comprehensive analysis.
  • 9.

    Visible and Invisible Things: Edward Yang’s A One And A Two

    sung-hee Jin | 2020, (67) | pp.229~253 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzed and considered how Edward Yang’s A One And A Two, a film as a medium makes an esthetic experiment and how the creator show his subjectivity about the world and human beings. In doing so, it also discussed how audiences sympathize with the creator through the media of films and how films produce individual truths regarding human beings and the world. Meanwhile, his films have been discussed as those with reference frames for the historical development and the formation of modernity in Taiwan and capitalist urbanization and human alienation in Taipei. There is a more essential and aesthetic reason for a lot of people to accept A One And A Two as a text demonstrating why the cinema should ultimately exist, beyond time and space and the language barrier. A One And A Two has potential and images for changing invisible things to visible ones. Edward Yang pursued loosely overlapped images configured in parallel, rather than a single narrative created by connecting densely and privileged ones. In addition, he attempts to draw up routine figures which have been absent and silent in the narrative art. Audiences’ ‘individual’ narratives can be completed, as audiences’ subjectivity intervenes in the gap among Edward Yang’s images. A One And A Two thus rejects justified moral law and the aesthetics of integrity, which films may often show, and subverts the traditional aesthetical view. Here, the popularity and artistry of his films are secured.
  • 10.

    Suggestions for Media Utilization in Chinese Language Education

    KYEONGMEE, SHIN | CHOI SHINHYE | 2020, (67) | pp.255~276 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presented the problems of Chinese language education in the media age, and proposed measures experimentally to improve them. To utilize the media in Chinese language education, first consider the educational value of media utilization, the media’s link to Chinese-related knowledge, and the steps of the ability to speak a foreign language. In addition, it is necessary to distinguish use by language learning area, to care about students who are receiving media education, and to consider which media to utilize. Research and development of various media should also be carried out. In the case of a high-demand elementary Chinese language class, it is proposed that a media textbook development team be formed at the department or institution level to develop and use a systematic and professional media textbook. It also needs support for the classroom media system in schools, especially the distribution of electronic blackboards in university classrooms for the effectiveness of Chinese education. Finally, for advanced Chinese language classes, it is possible to move from education that simply utilizes media to a way that includes Media Education. Classes that develop expressive and production skills through media that are actually popular in China can be held together.
  • 11.

    Accommodation of the United Nations Covention on the Law of the Sea by Chinese Domestic Laws: Focused on Chinese Two Laws on the Sea

    CAI JIE | 2020, (67) | pp.277~302 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), adopted in April 1982, that currently regulates the international maritime order. This Convention codified a 200-nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) system, which became a common law in an unusually short period in the history of the formation of international law, and significantly expanded the resource jurisdiction of coastal states via establishment of a new concept of continental shelf and so on. In addition to that, it defined deep seabed resources as the “common heritage of mankind” and had the International Seabed Authority - which represents all mankind – control this. And such changes in international maritime order have led to the coastal countries’ policies for expanding their maritime jurisdiction. In this study, we considered the status on how the UNCLOS, concluded in 1982, was accepted in the Chinese domestic legislation and what specific rules have been applied to that. Among them, we intended to address the Territorial Sea & Contiguous Zone Act, and the EEZ & Continental Shelf Act, which have the significance of the Constitutional Scripture in China. Specifically, concentrating on three dimensions, i.e., the legislative background of maritime-related laws in China, the China’s enactment of the Territorial Sea & Contiguous Zone Act and the EEZ & Continental Shelf Act, and the China’s acceptance of the UNCLOS as a domestic law, we attempted to investigate what consistency and discrepancy might exist, when China accepts the new maritime law system through the UNCLOS.
  • 12.

    Empirical Analyses of Chinese Firms’ Earnings Quality

    Lee Kwang-Jae | 2020, (67) | pp.303~324 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    I have empirically examined the difference of earnings() and cash flow() persistence, along with the difference in explanatory powers of and on the market value() and intrinsic value() between the firms of mainland China listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen, and those listed in Hong Kong and Korea stock exchanges, using ex-post intrinsic value model suggested by Subramanyam and Venkatachalam(2007). My findings are as follows. Firstly, the results of both and regressions on and respectively show that adjusted s and regression coefficients() of the firms listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges are notably lower in each subsequent period, and decrease substantially faster for the next three periods(n+1~n+3) than those listed in Hong Kong and Korea stock exchanges. Secondly, the results from regressions on and show that adjusted s of the listed firms of Shanghai and Shenzhen are remarkably lower than those of Hong Kong and Korea. Thirdly, the regressions on and have also resulted significantly lower adjusted s for the firms of Shanghai and Shenzhen than those of Hong Kong and Korea. These findings are very well compatible with my predictions that both Shanghai and Shenzhen firms’ persistence of earnings() and cash flow), and their explanatory powers for not only future earnings() and cash flow() but also market value() and ex-post intrinsic value() are significantly lower than those of Hong Kong and Korea firms. My findings are no little important, providing an empirical evidence on which the Chinese government may set new accounting rules with higher earnings quality standards.