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2020, Vol., No.68

  • 1.

    Hu-Shi’s Understanding of the Han Confucianism

    Lee, Younseung | 2020, (68) | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It is well known that Hu-Shi(胡適) gradually abandoned the term ‘history of philosophy’ and began to use the term ‘intellectual hoistory’ from the late 1920s. I don’t think it is just a shift from philosophy to thoughts. It is more appropriate to say that Hu’s view has expanded from history of philosophy to cultural history or the history of religions. Hu’s study of the Han Confucianism is the result of exploring the theoretical aspects and social role of the Confucianism as a religion. Hu-Shi did not declare that the thoughts of the Han Confucianism were the development of the main streams of Qi Xue(齊學). However, we were able to confirm through the ideas of the representative Confucian scholars of the time that the elements of Qi Xue(齊學) were all contained in the thoughts of the Han Confucianism. From the perspective of Hu-Shi, the Han Confucianism was a religion of childish and superstitious character, however, the new Confucianism of the Han Dynasty enjoyed the status of national religion in the Han Empire, and it played a role in institutional readjustment in the area of education and bureaucracy. Hu’s study on the Han Confucianism is significant in that it clearly highlighted the existence of Confucianism as a religious tradition in ancient China. Hu himself took an extremely critical approach to the Han Confucianism, giving no positive meaning to it. In the realm of Chinese philosophy, Hu’s study on the Han Confucianism has never been noted. But from the point of view of Chinese religious history, Hu’s study on the Han Confucianism is an important achievement that can not be neglected.
  • 2.

    A Study on Modal Adverbs in Ancient Chinese

    YOONSOONIL | 2020, (68) | pp.31~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Through the review of prior research, this paper completed the semantics system of the adverb of ancient Chinese style and analyzed the usage of modal adverbs in ancient Chinese language according to the criteria and organized the meaning and syntactic features of the sentences in which they were written. The results are as follows. The semantic type of modal adverbs can be largely classified into epistemic, deontic, dynamic, judgmental and evaluative. They appear in the structure of ‘(NP)+Adv+VP’ and a few examples appear in the structure of ‘Adv+(NP)+VP’. ‘Judgmental’ refers to the attitude or perspective taken by the speaker on the authenticity of the proposition, which is considered a given fact. It is subdivided into ‘confirmation’ and ‘strength’ based on the perspective of judgment. ‘Epistemic’ refers to the speaker’s view or attitude on the veracity of a proposition that is not known whether it is true or not. It is subdivided into ‘possibility’ and ‘necessity’ depending on the degree of confidence. ‘Deontic’ means refers to the point of view or attitude of the speaker to give the moral responsibility to agent in order to make the situation represented by the proposition a fact. The modal adverbs of ancient Chinese language may only indicate ‘necessity’ with a high degree of necessity. There are only ‘intention’ types of ‘dynamic’ that can be expressed by the modal adverbs of the Ancient Chinese. ‘Evaluative’ refers to the speaker’s view or attitude on the content of the proposition itself. Only two types of ‘counter-expectation’ and ‘fortunateness’ are found in Chinese adverbs.
  • 3.

    A Study on Chuzhi, Zhishi, Shiyi

    KyungHwan Cho | 2020, (68) | pp.55~79 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Chuzhi(處置), zhishi(致使) and shiyi(使役) are representative voice of the Chinese, but they are also often confused so brought a lot of problems in grammatical research. First, we looked at the different concepts of chuzhi and zhishi. The comparison between the typical chuzhi ‘ba’ construction and the typical zhishi ‘shi’ construction shows that the two constructions are completely opposite in terms of object, verb, etc. Therefore, we also observed that both views of chuzhi as the lower category of zhishi and vice versa are problematic, particularly this classification can produce incorrect statistical results. However, in the case of zhishi ‘ba’ construction belongs to a common area of the two voices. Next, zhishi and shiyi also belonged to the same Causative voice, but it was examined that there are other features, and in this process, ‘rang’ construction also has zhishi usages. In short, the control of the relevant animated argument played the most important role in the chuzhi, zhishi, shiyi. This argument’s ability to control made a significant difference in the argument’s animacy, the verb’s transitivity, and the variation of the construction itself, eventually leading to a shift in voice.
  • 4.

    A Study about the Title of a Book Romance of the Three Kingdoms

    Min, Kwan Dong | 2020, (68) | pp.81~107 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms was assumed to be publish in 40 types at Ming dynasty, 70 types at Qing dynasty since SanGuoZhi Pinghua emerge from Yuan dynasty. In order to analyze period by period, going through Pinghua version era of Yuan dynasty to end of Yuan dynasty, early Ming dynasty until end of Ming dynasty there was Yan-yi series and Zhi-zhuan series classified as Zhi-zhuan⋅Yan-yi era. Also, at the end of Ming dynasty and early Qing dynasty it goes on to criticism version era such as Lizhuowu criticism version⋅Zhongbojing criticism version⋅lili criticism version and the list of 240chik(interpretation rules) were reorganized to 120 editions. Lastly, after the publication Sida-qishu-diyi-zhong at 1679 until end of Qing dynasty is designated as Mao Zonggang popular version era. The title of a book production principle is that they based on keyword such as ‘SanGuoZhi(Zhuan)’ and ‘(Tongsu)Yan-yi’, and combine various modifier like publish time, place of publication, existence of illustration, way of criticism. The appearance of various title of a book starts from trading competition between publishers whom try to differentiate block printed book.
  • 5.

    Pathos of Ressentiment and the Journey toward Reconciliation― Christian Epic of Modern Chinese Literature

    Paik, Yeong kil | 2020, (68) | pp.109~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In order to properly understand the core forces behind which modern Chinese literature has developed, It needs a full critical reflection on China’s “passive modernization” process aimed at social and historical modernization in the West. What is required here is that the work of reexamination of modern Chinese literary history, which is based on the Christian spirit as the root value of Western culture, and one of its keywords is the concept of “Ressentiment” raised by Nietzsche. In particular, the main task of this paper is to look at the overcoming of the ressentiment sought in modern Chinese literature and the journey toward reconciliation for Christian love and salvation, focusing on the content of the ressentiment that relates to the “religious – metaphysical despair” in modern values raised by Max Scheler. In this regard, if we analyze the meaning of the crucifixion of Jesus described in Lu Xun魯迅’s Revenge(2), according to the question of “fundamental religious character” in Nietzsche’s Anti-Christ and the image of Jesus, their interface can be called the “Pathos of Ressentiment”. And It may be an important research task to revaluate the aesthetic attempt of the denial and transcendence of ressentiment feeling, the consciousness of opposition to ethnic enmity, and the artistic imagination toward Christian love through decadent aesthetic consciousness of Zhou Zuoren周作人’s literature in the 1920s. The conflict of national identity embodied in Lao She老舍’s literature of the 1930s and the meaning of death toward religious eternal life of Christianity are also important achievements of the journey toward overcoming ressentiment and reconciliation in modern Chinese literature. In addition, the theory of realism based on the spirit of “Passion” raised by Hu Feng 胡風 and the romantic tendency to pursue the “will to power” of the “Zhanguo ce 戰國策” group in the 1940s could be evaluated as a result of literature that embodies overcoming ressentiment and power aesthetics in the medium of Lu Xun’s spirit of passion and Nietzsche’s “Übermensch” image, and liiterary discourse and creativity that show the interface between realism and romanticism unique to the war period. The discourse and creation centered on such ressentiment in modern Chinese literature are also being developed in the post-New China literature between the Chinese continent and Taiwan, and the most important content is the “ressentiment of Nationality”, which worked through the fusion structure of Marxism and Chinese cultural nationalism, and the contemporary Chinese literature shows the path of reconciliation to embody sacred love beyond such political ideologies and class hatred.
  • 6.

    A Research for Lu Xun(魯迅) & Natsume Soseki(夏目漱石)’s Exploration of the Modern Subjects

    Ko Jum Bok | 2020, (68) | pp.143~164 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of establishing a modern subject through Natsume Soseki, a intellectual of late modern country, and Lu Xun, a intellectual of premodern country. To this end, this paper discusses the aspects of Soseki’s ‘Self-Hood(自己本位)’ and Lu Xun’s ‘Nalaizhuyi(拿來主義)’. The Soseki’s ‘Self-Hood’ is not a selfish individualism but a ‘moral individualism’, and The Lu Xun’s ‘Nalaizhuyi’ emphasizes subjective activeness in the acceptance of foreign cultures. Through the ‘Self-Hood’, Soseki reconsiders the value of traditions forgotten in the process of modernization and emphasizes the reflective introduction of foreign cultures. The ‘Self-Hood’ and The ‘Nalaizhuyi’ emphasize the subject’s activeness and emphasize the value of freedom in which the subject’s activeness is expressed. For both Soseki and Lu Xun, freedom for the exercise of personality is the basic condition of modern subjects. Another reason why both emphasize the exercise of personality and freedom is the witness of the individual’s anxiety and solitude faced in the process of modernization. China and Japan only differed in the pace of modernization, and both were forced to throw away familiar ones and accept unfamiliar ones. This is due to the fact that the modernization of the two countries did not proceed voluntarily, but was counter-forced by external forces. On the other hand, since freedom for the exercise of personality may infringe the freedom of others, both require an ethic of self-check. This emphasis on the morality of literary art is also a key mechanism for the completion of both literary forms and contents. Both literary forms and contents, similar to self-centeredness, have a strong social color. They hoped that exercising their personality enthusiastically would ultimately break down the barriers between people, and in fact their literature had the effect of healing individualistic loneliness and anxiety faced by modern Japanese and Chinese through the exercise of personality.
  • 7.

    Humanitization of Communism and Revolution in the 1920’s - Qu Qiu Bai’s Realization and Transformation of the Ideology

    Lee, Hyun Bok | 2020, (68) | pp.165~193 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Qu Qiu Bai believed that changing the method according to reality, the ideology or ideal of communism would be realized. That was humanization. In Soviet Russia, Russian Communist Party tried to establish an overall socialist culture, such as ethnicity, economy, politics, diplomacy and morality of socialist country through the formulation of a policy. In China, the Imperial system as the pre-modern national system was collapsed, but the pre-modern culture was still intact, so China couldn’t advance to the next level of culture. Because imperialist powers and warlords were blocking its development politically. So under this condition, political revolutions to overthrow the reactionary forces and establish a new type of state were urgent tasks. The cultural revolution was a ultimate goal to be realised in China, but it was not immediate one at that time. What was urgent was the national revolution against imperialism and compardors, and democratic revolution opposing to the domestic warlords. The former establish an independent country and the latter found a unified political system and national unifiction market system. Qu Qiu Bai thought that the cultural revolution could only be achieved after political revolution. However, Qu Qiu Bai was taking the subjet both in the current political revolution and in the ultimate cultural revolution into consideration. They should’t be the ones organized by rulers, but be the ones who would organize and act for themselves. The ruling party tries to ideologize and perpetuate the political practice of reality which is a transitional stage or a means. Qu Qiu Bai regarded a politicization for the realization of the ideal as humanization, but raised a question on it by presenting it as a transitional step. On the other hand it meaned that the cultural revolution as a social practice should be developed by the subject who organize and practice by oneself.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Therapeutic Possibilities of Peking Opera through the Case Analysis in the Period of Republican China – Around Audience

    Deuk-Chang Cho , Kim Dug-Sam , Choi, WonHyuk | 2020, (68) | pp.195~215 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined whether Peking Opera has the elements of theatrical therapy through the Republican period of China when Peking Opera was of much prevalence. In the first text, the audiences of Peking Opera during the Republican period of China were classified into four types according to their characteristics. The first type is political figures, the second type is the merchant class, the third type is the literati class, and the fourth type is the general citizen class. Next, the preferences of the different types of audiences for watching Peking Opera were looked into. It was found out that revolutionary dramas and dramas dealing with current events were loved during the period from the late Qing dynasty to the early Republican China, but due to the reflux of revolutionary passion and the emergence and increase of female audiences, story-centered family ethics dramas became popular. In the second text, the cases were found out from the magazines published during the Republican period of China and the books casting light upon the events during the period that the audiences at that time might have felt emotional comfort by watching Peking Opera. As shown in the cases, it could be said that the emotional comfort felt by the viewers who saw Peking Opera is like their experience of catharsis, through which healing could be associated with theatrical therapy. The therapeutical possibility of Peking Opera is not limited to the Republican period of China but exists even today. Like other traditional arts, it is necessary to actively promote these therapeutical possibilities of Peking Opera and to establish its systematic therapeutical techniques in order to revive the Peking Opera in crisis and maximize it as a cultural industry.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Desire Representation of Chinese Women Born during the 80’s Economic Reform – Focusing on Their Attitude towards “Urban and Rural Areas” and the Pressure of “Age-Gender System”

    KIM MIRAN | 2020, (68) | pp.217~254 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Women in Beijing(北京女子图鉴), aired in 2018, is a meaningful drama that shows women’s awareness of “marriage” and “social success” with high viewer ratings. The drama, which depicts the desire and dilemma of Chinese women in their 30s born in the 1980s when marketization reform began, reveals the common difficulties that young women in Korea and Japan also encounter. Nevertheless, there are distinct differences between the Japanese original Tokyo Girl(东京女子图鉴, 2016) and its Chinese version Women in Beijing in terms of the main character’s final choice and the representation method. This paper compares these two works to understand the characteristics of Chinese society, examining how the younger generation that formed an elite group after the economic reform see life and marriage. The analysis subjects of the paper are the main character’s attitude towards “urban and rural areas”, that is her perception of “place”, and the pressure of “age-gender system” on women represented by “marriageable age”. The analysis shows that the main character’s absolute belief in “developmentalism”, a typical example of the non-urban ‘floating population(漂族)’, blocked her from taking a critical view of the gender-discriminatory reality of “marriageable age”. The blind faith in developmentalism, the All-China Women’s Federation(中华全国妇女联合会), the media and capital have contributed significantly to the recognition of marriage as a tool for success. The fundamental cause of this phenomenon in Chinese society is that the “value of life” debate(对人生价值讨论, 潘晓讨论) in the early 1980s was not fully evolved until the developmentalism rapidly replaced it.
  • 10.

    A Study on China’s ‘Net Movie’ and Its Industrial Development Process

    Yu, Kyung-chul | 2020, (68) | pp.255~288 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The development and growth of ‘Net Movie’ industry in China is one of the most remarkable themes related to Chinese film industry. ‘Net Movie (Aka. Movie Based on Internet Network, 網絡電影)’ refers to a movie produced for the purpose of playing through the Internet network. The ‘Net Movie’ in China made its rudimentary appearance in 2010, and ‘Wei Dianying (Aka. Micro Film, 微電影)’ was the most representative name for Chinese net movies during this period. In general, ‘Wei Dianying’ has a short running time of approximately 5-50 minutes. It is produced through business sponsorship for promotional reasons or by individuals for simple entertaining purposes. ‘Wei Dianying’ was not easy to make profit from playing, so it was common to be created by non-professional film manpower at a low cost, except when requested by a company. In 2014, iQIYI, China’s representative video platform, started a net movie business called ‘Wangluo Dadianying (Aka, Network Big Movie, 網絡大電影)’. Initially, the conditions of ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ were that the running time would be more than an hour, and even if the production cost was low, it would have a complete story structure. What makes ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ different from the existing ‘Net Movie’ is that it has a structure of commercial profits, that is, it collects profits by executing pay-per-view on Internet video sites. In the early days of the establishment, ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ achieved considerable success as giving the viewers a different level of satisfaction that the existing films could not provide despite the low production cost and low completion, and had grown rapidly until 2016. However, the problems such as low-quality cheap entertainment and speculative acts for profit pursuit were also exposed, which caused a lot of criticism. After the explosive growth in 2016, the supervision and management of Chinese government authorities have been strengthened, and ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ has started to approach toward well-made movies in quality. As the company’s business scale and environment has become better than before, professional film workers and organizations entered the business of ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ in 2017. Since then, the industry clearly has improved. Meanwhile, Chinese government authorities have been strengthening the management and supervision of the Net movie industry in order to further develop the industry represented by ‘Wangluo Dadianying’. In 2019, the name ‘Wangluo Dadianying’ was replaced by ‘Wangluo Dianying’, and the related businesses attempted to achieve the ‘Quality Improvement through Reducing Production’. As the internet has become an integral part of film consumption, Net Movie industry has grown dramatically. In understanding its importance for the development of film industry, the Chinese government has been paying particular attention to Net Movie. Therefore, the Net Movie market and industry are expected to flourish both in quantity and quality.
  • 11.

    HongDamHeonCheokdok(洪湛軒尺牘) in Peking University: Its Deciphered Text and Annotated Translation(Ⅲ)

    Kang, Chansoo | 2020, (68) | pp.289~319 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is the third paper in a series of research courses that examine HongDamHeon Cheokdok(洪湛軒尺牘), kept in the Rare Books Collection of Peking University library, comparing four letters--from the 23rd to the 26th letter--with the domestic literary collection and translating it back into Korean. The four letters written by Hong Dae-yong in 1766 contain a number of sentences that reveal his academic thought, while writing down his feelings of missing three Qing Dynasty’s scholars, Yan Cheng(嚴誠), Pan TingJun(潘庭筠) and Lu Fei(陸飛) desperately. In the 23rd letter, he said that the purpose of reading books is to reveal the truth and deal with many things, so knowledge and practice must be combined. In the 24th letter, he referred to “Silhak(實學)” and further emphasized his academic attitude. In the 25th letter, he asked for the ultimate reason of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, referring to the famous words of several philosophers. Nine poems in the 26th letter were written by Hong Dae-yong to Yan Cheng in September 1766. Through a comparative study of this letter and Hong Dae-yong’s DamHeonSeo(湛軒書), I investigate they are an unknown poems not written in DamHeonSeo.