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2020, Vol., No.70

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  • 1.

    Shang Dynasty Ritual Activities for Rain as Seen in Oracle Bone Inscriptions

    Kim, Hyeok | 2020, (70) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper takes oracle bone inscriptions on ritual for rain as the object of research,analyzes and summarizes the thoughts and cultures of Shang Dynasty peoples. Through the above discussion,we can see that the ceremonies held by Shang Dynasty peoples to ritual for rain are very rich and diverse. The way Shang Dynasty peoples ask for rain is by Zou(奏) and Wu(舞),Liao(燎),Dao(禱),burning witches and servants,and making dragon dolls for rain. These rites of asking for rain include God of Nature and God of Ancestors. Natural gods are Shan(山),He(河),Chuan(川),Yun(雲),Xue(雪),Tu(土) and Sifangshen(四方神). The ancestors’ gods included Nao(夒),Shangjia(上甲),Dayi(大乙),Yiyin(伊尹),Yiqiu(伊逑),Zhuren(主壬) and Gaobi(高妣). In addition to these,the oracle bone experts believe that the ,茍 and of the ancestral spirits also appeared. Most of the victims of the Shang Dynasty’s rain-grubbing ritual were natural gods. This should be closely related to the nature of rain. When asking for rain with music and dance,there is no sacrifice of animals,but when sacrifices are held such as Liao(燎),Dao(禱) or You(侑) cows and sheep are often used for sacrificial purposes,and ordinary sheep,black sheep,or pigs are used. In “”,women are often sacrificed,as recorded in the literature,to burn witches or maids for rain. In oracle bone divination,we can see that the Shang Dynasty had already established religious practices based on the theory of Tianrenganying(天人感應) advocated by the Han(漢) Confucianist Tung Chung-shu(董仲舒).
  • 2.

    The Artistic Characteristics of Bian Er Chai

    ZHAO DONG MEI | 2020, (70) | pp.27~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Presently, the academic research on Bian Er Chai is mostly focused on its cultural values and is rarely seen covering its narrative features. Because of the explicit erotic descriptions and the sexual minorities told, it is difficult for the general readers to feel empathy for the characters. As a result, the artistic appeal of the novels is often overlooked. After reading the text carefully, we will find that Bian Er Chai falls into the handful of best of its kind in terms of conception and artistic level. It has merits also in character creation, plot development, etc. In narration, it inherits the tradition of romance novel, but also makes breakthroughs. Its narrative mode greatly influences the later talented scholars and beautiful ladies novels.
  • 3.

    A Study on Cantonese Opera The Romantic Monk― About the Modification of Baoyu Character

    Yi Ji Eun | 2020, (70) | pp.55~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There is no limit to the number of characters in the novel, but only a limited number of people can appear on the play stage. Also, novels can contain vast amounts of content, but they must deliver certain content within a set time. The ultimate purpose of this study is to examine how characters in Hongloumeng are reconstructed and reinterpreted in the performance contents. This paper studied Cantonese Opera The Romantic monk to see how Baoyu’s character is reinterpreted in modern performance content. The features of these aspects can be summarized as follows : First, in terms of contents, a few of narratives related to the love of Baoyu was adopted from the original work. Second, in setting up the character, Baoyu was reinterpreted as the main character of pure love. He was transformed into a man of pure love who loves only one and practices his oath only for one person, eliminating the indecisive character shown in the original book. Third, regarding psychological description, Baoyu’s psychology, which was not reflected in the original work, was faithfully supplemented.
  • 4.

    A Study on Wu Zixu(伍子胥) and Chinese Revenge Culture

    Eunyoung Kwon | 2020, (70) | pp.79~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Wu Zixu lived in the Spring and Autumn Period of China, a complicated period during which wars were fought for a long time before the national era, and wars continued in the same country due to power struggles such as Jehu and Daebu. Wu Zixu lived in the Spring and Autumn Period of China, a complicated period during which wars were fought for a long time before the national era, and wars continued in the same country due to power struggles such as Jehu and Daebu. He is a Gangnam district in China who was abandoned in the State of Chu, and then led the heyday of the Five Kingdoms with Sun Zi Bing Fa’s Sun Wu in the State of Wu. But it was to avenge him after his father and brother died unjustly. His story is a representative revenge story in Gangnam, China, and has been handed down for thousands of years through various genres such as novels, plays, and operas. I taught the story about Wu Zixu in my major class at university and developed various cultural contents based on it. Unlike the concept of revenge in South Korea, the students understood and expressed China’s revenge with great irritation and desperation. We understood that revenge goes on endlessly and eventually everyone becomes hard and miserable. However, in the Korean cultural industry market, such Chinese style revenge stories were judged to have limitations in marketing and were modified to more passive revenge stories. In addition, in the game contents, in Happy Ending, which succeeded in revenge, BGM was set as background music suggesting complex emotions similar to joys and joys rather than joys, indicating that Korean revenge has a message of the futility of revenge. It was judged that this was due to the cultural differences between Korea and China, and that there must be a reason why it was acquired through a long history. Through this study, I was able to confirm once again that there is a difference between the universal psychology of human beings and the revenge as their actions and the revenge as a cultural phenomenon, and the concept of revenge between Korea and China. Through these cultural similarities, differences, and relative logic between Korea and China, we hope that it will contribute to an in-depth and practical understanding of both countries’ cultures.
  • 5.

    A Study of the Foreign Students Control and Management System in Tang Dynasty

    LEE HAE WON | 2020, (70) | pp.107~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Tang dynasty was one of the most cosmopolitan in Chinese history. The princes as a hostage and students, including monks from foreign countries came to China. The three most important kinds of visitors were the envoys, clerics, students except merchants. They stayed as the palace guard and studied Chinese culture at school according to the educational system and organizations. Foreign students consisted of diplomatics, clerics, students, foreign envoy, guest. Tang government offered free tuition, assisted their living allowance, provided free for clothing expenses, medical expenses and funeral costs, assisted to return to their countries. The political rights were granted to the foreign students. After passing the national examination, the successful candidates went into government service, participated in national ceremonies, and registered census registration. Foreign students exercised their own rights of civil affairs and assumed the legislative duties. They were not allowed wearing Chinese clothes, and could marry with Chinese women, but placed strict restrictions, and not permitted to do business.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Significance of the Translation Activities of Western Science Books in the Late Ming Dynasty ― Focus on Xu Guangqi(徐光啓)

    sookhyang Kim | 2020, (70) | pp.135~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis focused on the figure of Xu Guangqi(徐光啟) in the situation that Western studies in the late Ming Dynasty entered China. He is an official, scientist, and translator of the Ming Dynasty. He is also an early adopter of Western Catholicism. Through his translation activities, I tried to examine the meaning and limitations of translation activities at the time. First, I briefly reviewed the Jesuit missionaries who brought Western scientific knowledge to China in the late Ming Dynasty. Then, I looked at Xu Guangqi’s life and scientific talents, and introduced the representative translations that were born therefrom. Finally, by synthesizing the above discussions, the meaning of the translation activity at the end of the Ming Dynasty was examined from two aspects. First, due to the development of society and economy, parts that could not be solved with the existing knowledge system emerged. As a result, a desire and demand for new knowledge arose. Xu Guangqi recognized the importance and necessity of translation in the process of fusion of traditional knowledge and new knowledge. From that time, a wonderful translation was produced by co-translating with the Jesuit missionaries. However, in the process, as unequal relations between joint translator were created, the Chinese lost their subjectivity. This lowered the credibility of the translation and revealed the limitations of failing to establish a system for the purpose, standards, and values ​​of translation to be established in the entire process of translate.
  • 7.

    On the Orders and Messages of the Cultural Revolution

    Pi, Kyunghoon | 2020, (70) | pp.163~187 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent studies, the “Cultural Revolution” has been interpreted within the “chaos(dongluan)” paradigm. Of course, this evaluation of “Cultural Revolution” would have to be said to be correct, but it would be difficult to define the time when hundreds of people died and extreme violence proceeded ruthlessly throughout society in terms other than “chaos”. However, it should be remembered that describing the “Cultural Revolution” only as “chaos” is also a fairly ideological perspective. In fact, it is not just the gaze of ‘official(guanfang)’ to describe the “Cultural Revolution” as “chaos”, but those who want to bring out some possibility in the “Cultural Revolution” also describe the essence of the “Cultural Revolution” as unlimited release of mass’s energy. This study points out the limitations of the perspective that defines the “Cultural Revolution” in terms of “chaos’” or “unlimited release of mass’s energy”, and rather focuses on the aspect of “orders” that the “Cultural Revolution” sought to build. This study analyzes the “notices(tongzhi)” sent by the Central Committee of the CCP between 1967 and 1967 to see what the Chinese Communist Party, who initiated the “Cultural Revolution” in the early days of the “Cultural Revolution”, originally planned the “Cultural Revolution”. Through this analysis, this study will argue that the nature of the “Cultural Revolution” cannot be defined only in terms of “chaos” or “disorder”, and by examining the form and meaning of “orders” originally intended I want to reveal the origin of the “Cultural Revolution” and the meanings it had.
  • 8.

    A Study of Cyclical Cumulative Effects between Chinese Industrial Agglomeration and Economic Growth ― Based on 2007-2018 County Panel Data of China

    Hu, Shiqia | Fan, Zichong | HUANG MINGHAO | 2020, (70) | pp.189~220 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we take the mutual influences between the secondary industry agglomeration and economic growth in China’s county level as the research object. The panel data simultaneous equations models are specified to analyze the existence and change characteristics of the cyclical cumulative effects of industrial agglomeration and economic growth. The results show that industrial agglomeration and economic growth not only have a significant two-way relationship, but also they achieve their own cyclical cumulative effect based on the paths of “industrial agglomeration-economic growth-industrial agglomeration” and “economic growth-industrial agglomeration-economic growth” respectively. In terms of dynamics, compared to 2007~2013, the cumulative effect of agglomeration under the periodic impact of industrial agglomeration in 2014~2018 is weakened. The increasing diffusion effect leads to the decline of the role of industrial agglomeration in the economic growth cycle accumulation. In addition, the cumulative effects of different regions show heterogeneity characteristics. The cyclical cumulative effects of industrial agglomeration and economic growth are more significant in underdeveloped counties. In some economically developed counties, however, the industry isomorphism and the demand for the upgrading of industrial structure make the cumulative effect of industrial agglomeration become weak, and the crowding effect also makes the cumulative effect of economic growth decrease.
  • 9.

    A Translation and Annotation of Li Bai’s Presented Poems(10) ― From the 39th Poem to the 41st Poem

    cho sung chun | 2020, (70) | pp.221~240 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper translates and reviews three poems written by Li Bai(李白). The first poem consists of two paragraphs. The first paragraph describes that Han Xin(韓信), who was insulted by ruffians when he was young, finally made a contribution by helping the emperor after enduring the humiliation and rewarded the person who helped him after his success. In the second paragraph, unlike Han Xin, the poet complains his ill fate that he cannot be recognized by people even though he is talented. The second poem consists of four paragraphs. The first paragraph is a story about meeting Cui Chengfu(崔成甫) twice in Luoyang(洛陽) and Changan(長安), praising his outstanding character. The second paragraph describes that the poet and Cui Chengfu were in office together, but the poet was soon expelled from his official post. The third paragraph describes his hope that Cui Chengfu who has found him, will help him to unfold his will. The fourth paragraph expresses his desire that Cui Chengfu will take care of his desperate circumstances. The third poem can be divided into three paragraphs. The first paragraph depicts the triumphant look of a son-in-law of the king who returns from the royal court. The second paragraph shows the son-in-law of the king treated the poet well while he took up the official post in the royal court. The third paragraph describes his hope that the son-in-law of the king will lead him well.