This dissertation conducted a preliminary examination on the existence aspects of stories of one’s historical experience and their literary features, based on the data of the Korean War stories collected through the field investigation. Real discourse composes one of the two main streams of the orally transmitted literature along with fictional discourse, and stories of one’s historical experience including the Korean War stories hold a higher post than tales in the field of stories field these days. They act as crucial passageway for the speakers to understand history and reality while communicate with others.
The core characteristics of stories of historical experience can be summarized as ‘realism discourse on history and reality.’ Compared with tales which has been major objects of study on orally transmitted discourse and deal with reality emblematically and implicitly, stories of historical experience is characterized by reflecting experience realistically. Different from typical personal stories, they are more profound and have stronger tendency to reflecting history as they make historical experiences as the talking point. We can say they are ‘historical literature’ themselves especially as the whole experience of the people is drawn truthfully and vividly. They are of great value in that they, being historical discourse, have narrative completion and interests, and reflect reality through the medium of specific figures.
The literary value of the stories of historical experience can be found from not only the fact that they are historical and realistic discourse themselves but also the fact that they acted as the major source for fictional discourse including tales. Among historical stories, not a few of them have qualifications to be handed down to others and worthwhile to be extensively transmitted, and these kinds of cases have actually found among the Korean War stories. When the mechanism that stories of historical experiences transform into tales while orally transmitted operates actively, the oral discourses are expected to have more dynamic richness.
Despite this significance, there have been hardly any research studies on the stories of historical experience. It’s needed to arrange the spot survey data and put a proper amount of efforts to perform research before the data on the spot fade away.
This paper analyzes the cases of collecting Korean documents in Korea or editing books on Korean studies by figures in the Ming Armed Forces in the period of Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. The Ming Armed Forces did incidentally the activity of cultural exchange when they entered into Korea in the period of Japanese Invasion of Korean in 1592. The war gave great demage to all of the countries which entered the war, but provided the opportunity of mutual exchange in cultural aspect.
Figures in the Ming Armed Forces felt the sense of sharing the same script, awe, and the sense of difference when they encountered Korean documents. The main route of their acquisition of Korean documents are from Korean officials who received them. Sometimes, they paid for Korean books they wanted or showed an enthusiastic attitude to visit Korean Literati to search for documents.
Korean government showed negative attitude when they received the request from figures in the Ming Armed Forces to collect Korean documents because of the outflow of materials and the problem of the level. Korean figures were divided into two parts. One group showed the similar attitude with Korean government and the other demonstrated a cooperative attitude for the purpose of taking the chance to make a good cultural exchange.
Seongho Saseol written in the late Joseun period contains Gyeok Joseon Ron(Geki Chosen Ron in japanese) and Ilbon Jise Byeon(Nihon Chisei Ki in japanese) written in pre-modern Japan. But little is known about by whom and when this book was written. So, by the method of textual criticism, I speculated on bibliographic items of Gyeok Joseon Ron and the way it was transmitted to Joseun dynasty. As a result, it was revealed that Gyeok Joseon Ron, almost unknown in pre-modern and modern Japan, was used as important reference material by scholars of Joseon period analyzing discourse of Hideyoshi's invasion to Korea. It was thought that Gyeok Joseon Ron was written by Kosai Shigesuke, who was professor of military science in Fukuoka-han. Nankai Chiran Ki and Nankai Tsūki by Kosai Shigesuke have articles similar but not the same as Gyeok Joseon Ron and Ilbon Jise Byeon in Seongho Saseol. Therefore, it is thought that original books of Gyeok Joseon Ron and Ilbon Jise Byeon have existed in 17 century Japan and were traslated in classical chinese by his acquaintances as like Kaibara Ekken who was distinguished neo-confucianist in 17 century Japan. And it would be that Kaibara Ekken passed this book to korean embassy who has been sent from Joseon dynasty to gather political and military informations on Japan. The embassy again gave Gyeok Joseon Ron and Ilbon Jise Byeon to I Ik, the author of Seongho Saseol, and they have been handed down to the I Ik school as the author of Haedong Yeoksa. It was likely that I Ik has known Gyeok Joseon Ron and Ilbon Jise Byeon have been written by the same author. That is the reason why I Ik mounted Gyeok Joseon Ron and Ilbon Jise Byeon in the same chapter of Seongho Saseol Vol. 12. The fact that military books of Japan, almost unknown to pre-modern and modern japanese, were transmitted to Joseon dynasty by korean embassy and used as important reference books for scholars in Joseon period Korea indicates that study on Japan-Korea cultural exchanges and discussions on Japan in the late Joseun period have room for new approach. At the same time, the above supposition shows that knowledge on classical japanology is useful for the study on classical koreanology.
This thesis is written to introduce the newly discovered anthology, Gasa to the academic world. And another aim is to recheck the understanding of anthology in the late of Joseon Dynasty which are divided Gagokchang and Sijochang.
Gasa which is introduced in this thesis, had been probably transcribed after the late of 19th century. It contains 392 pieces of Sijo and is the typical anthology in 18th century. The most important thing in Gasa is that the fourth segment in last line of a Sijo was omitted in 276 pieces of 392 pieces even though it got the formation of Gagokchang in 18th century. It was very unique aspect. The compiler of Gasa, who knew full well about Sijochang had changed from the words of Gagokchang to Sijochang according to his or her musical tastes.
The attitude of editing and the characteristics of Gasa was clearly grasped through the comparison of Gajobyeolram(歌調別覽) and Siga(詩歌). Gajobyeolram and Siga are different versions and anthologies which was compiled around in the mid-18th century was transcribed in the late of 19th century. These have attracted public attention because these show the characteristics of unique category which is different from Cheongguyeongeon(靑丘永言) and Haedonggayo(海東歌謠). Gasa is considered an abridged edition of Gajobyeolram and Siga. Gasa is the anthology which contained compiler's musical experience and interest even though it is drastically abridged the original text. This anthology contained the interest in Sijochang and is based on the abridged the musical experiences and anthology's characteristics in 18th century.
These characteristics of Gasa suggest many things about understanding anthology in the late of Joseon Dynasty. Whenever we see an anthology, we tried to figure out whether it is the anthology of Gagokchang or Sijochang till now. And we classified the history of Sijo into Gagokchang and Sijochang. There are anthologies like Gagokwonryu(歌曲源流) or Namhuntaepyongga(南薰太平歌) which are obviously planned to compile for Gagokchang or Sijochang. However we should not overlook the fact that compilers naturally reflect his or her musical taste and interest during the transcribing the original texts frequently. In 19th century the tendency that the anthology of Gagokchang actively accepted the words of Sijochang became clear. This is related to the expansion of Sijochang’ performance. I can find several cases that Gagokchang and Sijochang coexist in the same anthology besides Gasa. There's a high probability that we will find more various aspects in anthology through the overall examination of anthology’s genealogy.
Chunhyang-jeon is the most famous Korean classical novel, it has been handed down as the novel, pansori, poem, changgeuk, film and drama from the 18C until the present. In this study, I announced the three versions of the novel Chunhyang-jeon, generally been ignored the meaning and exist.
Songdong-singan Seoul edition(20-leaves) is one of the woodblock print as commercial publication. The identity of this version is the reprinting vesion of Anseong edition(20-leaves). This book is housed in the Toyama University in Japan. And in the Loyola library of Sogang University, there is a book in manuscript form of Chinese language Chunhyang-jeon that is written by Yeo Gyu-hyeong. This manuscript is made in order to publicate the writer's work printed by the oil printing.
French edition Chunhyang-jeon Printemps Parfumé was translated in 1892 by J.-H. Rosny who is a French famous novelist. This work was adapted for the French style, so heroine Chunhyang's social position was set to not Gisaeng(妓生) but the common people. As a result, hero Lee(李道令) had no choice to dress up as a woman for the meeting. Later Printemps Parfumé was based on the Ballet de Monte Carlo's <L'Epreuve d'Amour> in Monaco 1936, and the Tissot's textbook version <Nang Xuan Houng> in Vietnam 1910.
<Sohyeonseongrok> is widely known as a work that configured the Confucian ideology clearly. Nevertheless, characters in the work confront with one another over the Buddhist nun’s entrance to the house and whether to hold a Buddhist rite. Considering the tendencies of those involved in the confrontation, the confrontation is between men and women as well as between the old and the young. The question is in that the confrontation is not end up with the victory of either side. In the work, moreover, a temple is sometimes set as the spatial background. Male characters encounter evil spirits at the temple and defeat the spirits by exhibiting their power. In this sense, a Buddhism temple is designated as a space where evil spirits reside.
What is the reason for adding such Buddhism‐related contents to <Sohyeonseongrok>? The explanation popping into our mind first is that they are to depreciate Buddhism. However, Lady Yang, the eldest in the house, stands by Buddhism in the Confucianism‐Buddhism confrontation among the family members. Those who suffer direct damages from the evil spirits are also people who stay in the temple. Thus, it is not easy to conclude that such contents are included in the work in order to attack Buddhism. Another possible explanation is that Taoist and Buddhist elements are utilized as a means to construct a transcendental world. This may not be an adequate explanation either because contents related to Buddhism occupy only a small part of the novel.
The late 17th century when the work was written was when the Confucian ideology was strongly dogmatic. Furthermore, people’s interest in Buddhism grew high in those days. This work is not irrelevant to such historical situations. Thus, Buddhism‐related contents in this work are believed to show some ways of response to excessive criticism against Buddhism. Particularly in the setting of a Buddhist space as an intermediate world between the real space of Confucianism and the surreal space of Taoism, this intention seems to be reflected clearly. These results of our discussion may be meaningful in that they give the understanding of the novel readers’ religious tendencies and lead us to review the meanings of Buddhist‐related contents in other works.
The Remedy Folktales reveal the pain and fears of diseases that men of old times always suffer in their lifetime, and desires to get away diseases. This study tried to analysis the literary features and socio-cultural implications of the Remedy Folktales, which show the public consciousness of disease and remedy in traditional society. Eventually it tried to grasp the meaning and function of "the Korean Remedy Folktales."In the stories, the features of the doctor and his remedy for the sick are shown in various and symbolic fashions. Some doctors tries to adapt theirselves to nature's law and human’s destiny, in saving one's life. Other doctors have been embodied as humanitarian persons who exercise humane medical practises. Such as, they show their compassion for and console the mind of the sick, before care about the illness of the patient itself. The good doctor has a insight into his patient's character and lifestyle, and cures the patient individually and carefully on the basis of the data. In this case, the patient's self-treatment is emphasized as well.
It is discussed that doctor's sincerity was more important for curing patients than his medical skills, and diseases could be cured only on mutual trust between the doctor and the patient. And the Remedy Folktales have a significant implication for the warm-hearted doctors who demonstrate humane medical services in the various remedies. The good doctors show medical skills are used as means for practicing perfect virtue.
On the other hand, This study explored the symbolism of the medical treatment and the disease, according to "Yin-Yang and the Five Elements theory(陰陽五行說)." The stories emphasize the importance of balance of yin and yang, which exists on all things in heaven and earth. And they give us a severe warning about the great imbalance between yin and yang such as sexual disharmony. Imbalance of yin and yang is very dangerous and undesirable situation that upsets the social order and personal life. Especially, the diseases of the governing class are interpreted as the signs of moral degeneracy and the social corruption. The stories tell us that the best doctor is who cures the social diseases, as well as the body's illness.
The objective of this study was to suggest a method of interpreting myths by explaining universal mythological principles inherent in a number of Korean myths not through ‘confronting concepts’ but through ‘association among concepts.’ It was applied specifically using mythological concepts discipline and salvation as an example. Based on the results of this study, discipline and salvation in Korean shamanist myths were summarized as follows.
Discipline Vertical space; passive; power and authority; moral discipline Salvation ① Vertical space; passive; power and authority; salvation of the original life (fundamental)Salvation ② Horizontal space; active; devotion; physical salvation (individual)
As suggested in the analysis of these concepts, a mythological concept is reflected so insignificantly that it may be treated merely as a mytheme or even not as a mytheme, or is reflected extensively throughout a myth. Accordingly, the application of a concept, which is the sum of general knowledge on a specific phenomenon, has the advantage of comprehending all of the knowledge in interpretation. Furthermore, the application of conceptual mythology is considered useful in understanding the fact that mythological thinking regulates not only myths but also domains beyond myths, for example, our unconscious thoughts and behaviors.