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2012, Vol., No.25

  • 1.

    A Study on the Transmission and Meaning of Shilla Soldier tales

    Jaemin Jung | 2012, (25) | pp.5~38 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    There are many Soldier tales that hand down orally or recorded in the Samguksagi(History of the Three nations). The periodical background is the 7th century when the Shilla was waged the unification war with Baekje and Gogurye. So the core of these tales is that how the Shilla soldiers have fought against enemy and how they died in battle. Therefore the Shilla soldier tales are the expression on the spirit of the times of Shilla peoples. The Shilla soldier tales have divided by four types that are hard-fighting type, wise-fighting type, sacrificing-fighting type and god's help-fighting type. These four types have the similar structure which is the narrative order of 'crisis-fighting-crisis escape-reward'. The Shilla soldier tales have implied the three consciousness of Shilla peoples. Firstly, Shillla peoples have persue the inner victory or spiritual victory. They have laid stress on the warrior's spirit embodied in fighting process. Secondly, these tales have shown the fixed death of martyr. The Hwarang open his heart to king and parents, and then rushed alone for enemy. The fixed death of Hwarang have rolled back the tide of war. Thirdly, the Shilla soldier tales have showed the image of fighting warrior. The fighting warrior image was the expression on the spirit of Shilla peoples at 7th century.
  • 2.

    Baekryang Style and Three Pieces of “Song for a Post Confucianist Taoist Hermit”

    Yeo, Woon-pil | 2012, (25) | pp.39~73 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yisaek's “Song about the Cheonbo Period(天寶歌)” as an eminent work among Baekryang style(柏梁體) poems as seven letters archaistic poem(七言古詩) in early Korea was an excellent poem expressing historical materials with merits of old fashions. The three pieces of “Song for a Post Confucianist Taoist Hermit(後儒仙歌)” written by Ikjae Yijehyeon(益齋 李齊賢), Geupam Minsapyeong(及菴 閔思平) and Mogeun Yisaek(牧隱 李穡) for cherishing Jolong Choihae(拙翁 崔瀣) are fine regular Baekryang style poems altogether. Those were products by taking recognition of Jolong as a post Confucianist Taoist hermit. “Song for a Post Confucianist Taoist Hermit” written by Ikjae and Geupam's arearchaistic style, and lacking in openhearted sprit and undulations of stroke. And its literary embellishments are not magnificent, and unfolding technic are loose a little too. Therefore those are able to be estimated as fine pieces, not to be estimated as masterpieces. Mogeun's “Song for a Post Confucianist Taoist Hermit” is an archaistic and newly style together. It has openhearted sprit, righteous emotions, stout broke and splendid literary embellishments. And it's unfolding technic is in order, and the close is in sympathy with the beginningl well. Therefore this work is able to be estimated as masterpieces.
  • 3.

    The embellishment of the death and the aesthetic of the sublime

    Kim Yu Jin | 2012, (25) | pp.75~116 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The Simha-jeontu(深河戰鬪), the battle of Simha(深河) was a momentous incident that affected the relations of East Asian countries in the 17th century. The Joseon Dynasty dispatched 15,000 troops into the battle, but 9,000 people were killed in action. Besides the Simha-jeontu(深河戰鬪) was branded as a gruesome defeat, the only hero in the battlefield was Kim Eung-ha by his heroic death. Park Hui-hyeon, one of the literary men in the Joseon Dynasty created the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」). The Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」), the narrative for Kim Eung-ha’s life is a text of the memory and testimony owned by the dispatched. Through the creative writing, Park Hui-hyeon figured Kim Eung-ha as a self-cultured and fighting man. Consequently Kim Eung-ha became a sublime hero by virtue of this work. An important point the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」) has is Sino-centralism that symbolized by aesthetic ideals. The death of Kim Eung-ha, a tragic event in itself takes on the sublime beauty through a process of aesthetic transition. It should be discussed with regard to the aesthetic category of the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」). Kim Eung-ha’s behavior was sublimated into an aesthetic ideology of Sino-centralism by the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」). It is an appropriate point of view that the Ming Dynasty’s request for additional troops could have been refused softly by the sublimed story of Kim Eung-ha. But the purpose of the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」) had been also to refuse the request of the Ming Dynasty might have something unreasonable. Paying due regard to such factors like that the generals who had surrendered have been condemned extremely more than the blame for the Later Jin Dynasty(後金), the target of the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」) might have been some insiders in the Joseon Dynasty. In this estimation, the target might be representatively the 15th king of the Joseon Dynasty, Gwanghaegun(光海君). The Chungyeol-rok(『忠烈錄』)- the records of devoted and faithful lists the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」) could be classified one of the publication that holds each other in check between the power of throne(王权) and the power of retainers(臣权). The subsequent writers had been affected by the text of the Kimjanggun-jeon(「金將軍傳」). The Chungyeol-rok(『忠烈錄』) had been published four times. And manifold literary men had left some kinds of the narrative for Kim Eung-ha. The 22th king of the Joseon Dynasty, Jungjo(正祖) who had published the Reprint of Chungyeol-rok(『重刊忠烈錄』) built an ideologic sublime of Sino-centralism. The series of the narratives for Kim Eung-ha shows three phases. That is ‘the pursuit of political subjectivity’, ‘the pursuit of facts’ and ‘the placation and consolidation of ideology’. Representing the loyalty to the Ming Dynasty, the narrative for Kim Eung-ha had been suffered the ups and downs of the noble ideals.
  • 4.

    The Meaning of Duplicity of Protagonist group in <Nanhakmong(鸞鶴夢)>

    LEE, JEE HA | 2012, (25) | pp.117~148 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    <Nanhakmong(鸞鶴夢)> is a long novel written in Chinese letters by Jeong, Tae-un in late 19th century. It exposes duplicity in many sides such as the figuration of character, the process of contents,author's consciousness etc. For that reason this stady aims to examine the aspect and the meaning of duplicity focused on the protagonist group. Heroines of this novel are figured as a very progressive character more than heroes. However they can not maintain consistency and they change their character to passive way because of author's stand based on filial piety. Heroes are symbolized as a dutiful son and a royal retainer. However they shows incompetent behavior in face of danger. Another main character, Hyungsandosa who gives much help and has an influence on hero's family intervenes in the common world in spite of being an unworldly priest and he insists on confucian ideas in spite of being a Taoist. Above duplicities are caused by following reasons. First, there is discordance between author's purpose emphasizing confucian ideas and the figuration of Character based on realism. Second, author's duplicate desire influences on a view of the world and a political view, so he makes characters who are conflicting between reality and unreality, secularism and unworldliness, an ideology and a fact. Third, this novel exposes lack of harmony caused by technical immature although author tries to make a new style novel by borrowing customs of Korean classical long novels. This duplicity is regarded as a negative element but on the other hand it makes possible understanding the complicated meaning of this novel in the connection of author, period and novel genre.
  • 5.

    A Study on Anecdote of Tumun-dong 72 Loyalists

    Hwang Jae-moon | 2012, (25) | pp.149~182 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I observed the progress of rediscovering the story of Tumun-dong(杜門洞) 72 Loyalists and investigated the feature of accepting that story as a subject matters in the late Joseon dynasty. Tumun-dong 72 loyalists were said to be patriots for Koryo dynasty, and they were retired to hermitage in the remote mountain against new dynasty Joseon in the time of Koryo’s ruin. Their stories were reilluminated by King Youngjo of Joseon. He visited Gaesung, the capital of Koryo, in 1740, and heard the case of Tumun-dong 72 loyalists. And then he visited their retirement site, recited a poem for praising the loyalties with his 12 young subjects. Though it is possibile that this affair was an intentional or precalculated conduct, it is certain that the event by King Youngjo was a beginning of spreading the story in wide areas. Meanwhile, in Gaesung, tales about Tumun-dong 72 loyalists were handed down in the form of oral literature before 1740. It could be presumed that tales handed down in Gaesung area had been some different versions. But some of them had been excluded or denied by the editors of town chronicles, and probably intentionally. So anecdotes published in town chronicles are characterized as a loyalist story admitted in Joseon dynasty, because the excluded motif in these case were tragic death forced by meritorious retainers at the founding of Joseon dynasty. In the case of poems, anecdotes about Tumun-dong 72 loyalists were described as a symbol of peaceful retirement or noble fidelity. In some poems 72 loyalists were compared with Baiyi(伯夷) and Shuqi(叔齊), symbolical recluses and loyalties in premodern east asian culture, but in those works their death had not been mentioned. So tragic factors expressed some versions handed down in Gaesung area were not expressed in those poems.
  • 6.

    A Study on Diary of travelling China(中遊日記) written by a Merchant from Kaesung(開城) in 1923

    Eunju Yi | 2012, (25) | pp.183~215 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Though Diary of Travelling China(中遊日記) of Sunghak Kong(孔聖學), as never been studied so far, this book is noteworthy in two respects. A korean literati’s writing about travelling around china of the Period in the early 20th century that one point, the other one is that Sunghak Kong(孔聖學), the author of this book is a merchant from Kaesung(開城) and a literati learned from Takyoung Kim(金澤榮) and that had served in school of Classics(經學院) at the same time. The travel group consisting of six members(Sunghak Kong(孔聖學), Bongsang Son(孫鳳祥), Myengho Jo(趙明鎬), Bongjin Park(朴鳳鎭), Wonbae Kim(金元培), Yunosuke Amano(天野雄之輔)) looked around various locations including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Qufu, Mount Lu, Mount Tai, Beijing, Dalian, Shenyang, under the auspices of Mitsui Company from April to early May 1923. Most of the writers of Chosun Dynasty wanted to travel to China, he was no exception. But he looked at China removed the halo of the center of civilization, the book is separated from the previous china travel records at this point. He saw resemblances of korea and china, on the other hand, had found new aspects of modern china. Qufu was the hometown of his surname, and his teacher had fled to Nantong in china. Therefore china was recognized as the home of the family and as the place where his teacher lives. He is connected with china in terms of family succession and academic relation, but it was a matter of very personal level. When you look at china with the exception of the connection point, china did not reign as a center of civilization any longer. Because of the traditional disciplines taught, he saw china's scenic landscapes and came up with landscapes imagined when he read every time. He constantly compared the actual appearance of visible with landscapes imagined and was disappointed. China was not the subject of admiration and adoration to him. Modern China is rated as a backward country from the perspective of western/japanese. His perception based on china has changed from the degree of civilization to “modern” standards.
  • 7.

    A Study on the various interpretations about the folktale Park Jang-goon and Imoogi by critical analysis of the reports of younger generation

    Inkyung Lee | 2012, (25) | pp.217~255 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the various interpretations of the folktale named Park Jang-goon and Imoogi by critically analyzing the reports of younger generation who appreciated the story. The folktale is a story about "Park Jang-goon" living in a village which almost got flooded because "Imoogi" blocked the river. By shooting an arrow, Park Jang-goon could make Imoogi leave and keep the village safe. Since then, Park Jang-goon kept his eyes on its revenge. Nevertheless, Park Jang-goon was eventually killed because of the incident. According to academic analysis, this folktale includes not only the mythical sanctity of the water-diety(Imoogi), but also the legendary tragedy of the hero(Park Jang-goon)'s death. The young appreciators have many different opinions for the story. Usually they interpret the messages which the story carries, from the perspective of an anthropocentric values, which shows a change in the young appreciators' perception of the mythical thinking. That is, these days, Imoogi is not considered to be a sacred water-deity any more. Many appreciators pointed it out that Mr. Park's death had resulted from his violence against the Imoogi; also it taught us to be considerate of the powerless minorities in society, in case of a conflict between the public good of majority and the needs of minority. Such interpretations of the story effectively teach us lessons about solving the problems in our modern society. By the way, the other appreciator supposed that general Park's death had not come from the revenge of Imoogi, but it had been caused by his nagging anxiety neurosis which had became strongly obsessional through out his lifetime. This supposition let us realize the importance of healing for psychological trauma, and the usefulness of literature therapy, as well. In conclusion, with this study, it is proved again that the folktales still have classic values by modern bearers to interpret, which can create new and serious messages for now.
  • 8.

    A reappraisal of Academic significance of History of Korean poetry in premodern period by Jo Yunjae

    Ryu, Junpil | 2012, (25) | pp.257~271 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The actual writing of Jo Yunjae's Essential History of Korean poetry in premodern period was performed with the consciousness of three aspects as below; Firstly, the formal characteristic of poetry genre, Secondly, the relationship of indigenous and foreign cultures, and thirdly, the connection between poetry and music. Those three issues are fatal for a historiography of poetry, yet Jo Yunjae hardly developed the systematic frame to cover those three at the same time. That is the reason that Essential History of Korean poetry in premodern period has been somewhat underestimated as an inconsistent research. However, the consciousness itself for basic factors to foreground a poetry historiography is worthy of reconsideration. Jo Yunjae raised unavoidable issues for anyone to map out a history of Korean poetry, and it is important enough as it is. Taking the circumstances where next generation's scholars had been trying to solve problems into consideration, we could guess at his strong influence over academic field of Korean literary history.
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