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2013, Vol., No.28

  • 1.

    Saseol Sijo and Realism

    Ko, Jeonghee | 2013, (28) | pp.7~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to study how literature awakens and reconstructs the reality of the society through achievements of realism shown by Saseol Sijo. In chapter 2, it examines how Lukács’ realism theory was incorrectly applied in the studies of Saseol Sijo and in chapter 3, achievements of realism that are difficult to be explained by the theory of Lukács are investigated. The results may be summarized as follows. First, ignoring the fact that ‘representation’ is considered an aesthetic concept in the Lukács’ theory of realism, researchers of Saseol Sijo interpreted that Saseol Sijo reflects the realities of life as is for a particular class of people. This resulted the criticism that realism negatively judges poetic achievements of Saseol Sijo. Second, the analysis of works of Saseol Sijo shows that Saseol Sijo does not simply reflect the realities of life for particular class of the society nor just imitate it as is. Saseol Sijo aesthetically represents the reality and at the same time, Saseol Sijo introduces external things to re-awaken the realities of the society to prevent the represented world from being restored to subjectivity of the mankind. Through this, it showed the achievement of realism in the form where the human controls the subjectivity and applies objective standards on oneself. Third, because western realism theorists including Lukács were captivated by human-centered perspectives it was difficult to properly explain achievements of realism. For this, new realism theory is necessary which acknowledges that the reality and literature are of different categories, acknowledges that time-space and things inhabited by human may be the variables of more importance in the reality reconstructed by literature and that which considers the liveliness of language that interacts between signs and referents.
  • 2.

    The Role and Meaning of ‘Child’ in River Novels

    Han Gil-Yeon | 2013, (28) | pp.41~83 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis posed a problem about that many studies on characters of river novels centrally focused on 'adults' and paid attention to 'children' that takes a share in river novels and supposed to examine the presence aspect and the meaning of existence of them. The existence of children in river novels takes important position in a regard of narrative grammar by informing hidden facts and renewing the mood and grasping the truth of affairs and so on. Furthermore they ensures a closely correspondent structure between scenes by forming the basis of foreshadow or reversal. The children in river novels are meaningful by themselves, and besides they are significant in a regard that they play roles of reflecting the truth of conflicts between adults on broad viewpoints. The children in river novels are seated in the position as follows. 1) 'informants' who reveal hidden affairs between adults by virtue of their naivety, curiosity and playfulness or 'mediators' who create new affairs. 2) 'barometers' those show how dangerous the truth of conflicts between adults by being exposed to horrors of the conflict most easily from their weakness. 3) 'moodmakers' who change the mood pleasantly from their innocence or 'lubricant' who clean out the conflicts between adults. 4) 'troubleshooters' who penetrate the essence of affairs or afford a clue to the solution of the problem that adults can not see. Children are characters like 'mirror' who reflect the horrible scene of conflicts and illuminate the essence of incidents on the lowest layer of the novel. These existence of children in river novels enable multilayered composition of various age groups, furtheremore they help to realize the totality of river novels by embracing loyal families, noblemen, and lower class. And they contribute to give body to overall life of individuals by drawing character formation and growth process in detail from their childhood. From these properties the existence of children have important position in respect of the whole structure and semantic concept.
  • 3.

    The Comparative Research on The Cloud Dream of the Nine and Journey to the West

    최유학 | 2013, (28) | pp.85~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the similarity between The Cloud Dream of the Nine and Journey to the West from the aspects of motif, characters, place name, number with methodology of comparative literature, as well as probes into influence relationships of two works. Wu Cheng’en(1500∼1582) and Kim Man Choong(1637∼1692), they were both trying to escape from irrational reality through fantastic dream. The dreams in two novels share many similarities. And the most obvious sign of receptiveness is the stories relating to dream. The story of dream about cutting dragon of Jinghe river(夢斬涇河龍) is simply referred to in The Cloud Dream of the Nine , which is narrated in detail in Journey to the West, it shows that Kim Man Choong is using the same related motif of Journey to the West. The motifs of the immortal scattered and rebirth in two works are sharing similarities, and the structures of narrating are both the structure of journey-type novels. Further more, the two works are sharing similarities in the motifs of become number one scholar and couple alliance. The motif of immortality in two works is similar. The lead characters in two novels are longing to live forever, and there are many immortals who can live forever, the logic about immortality is explained by the point of view from Buddhism, Daoism or Confucianism. Comparing characters of two works, they are sharing the similarities in some aspects, such as personal character and experience. In two works, there are some the same or similar place names and they both try giving special meanings to some numbers. The Cloud Dream of the Nine and Journey to the West are both under the background of the same Chinese character cultural circle, and sharing many similarities between them. Some of the similarities are shown that the receptiveness of The Cloud Dream of the Nine from Journey to the West.
  • 4.

    The Mythical Idea about Fertility and the Meaning of Segyeong-bonpuri

    Jeong, Jin-hee | 2013, (28) | pp.111~144 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to reveal the mythical meaning of Segyeong-bonpuri(세경본풀이) which is the shaman-song performed at ritual to pray for fertility in Jeju island. In order to accomplish this purpose, this study examine the key stories of the Segyeong-bonpuri(세경본풀이) which are about ‘Jacheongbi(자청비)’ and ‘Mundoryeong(문도령)’, and about ‘Jacheongbi’ and ‘Jeongsunam(정수남)’. Though these stories may look isolated from ritual function of Segyeong-bonpuri, they are closely connected with the ritual in terms of showing the mythological principle of fertility and mythical ideal type. Firstly, in the love story of Jacheongbi and Mundoryeong, Jacheongbi from the ground got married with Mundoryeong from the heaven and bring the seed of heaven to the ground. In the other side of this story, there is a mythical idea which is that the root of fertility is in the heaven and the seeds from heaven guarantee of richness on the ground. Nextly, the story of Jacheongbi and Jeongsunam shows the relation between the garzing represented by Jeongsunam and the richness of agriculture. The grazing disturbs the richness of agriculture by capturing cultivated land. However, it becomes chances exploring richness and fertility not on the ground but in the heaven. Jacheongbi is described for the character brings richness in the heaven to the ground in the love story with Mundoryeong. And in the story with Jeongsunam, She functions as the character relocates grazing being good for agriculture from being bad for richness. In short, Segyeong-bonpuri is the myth about the goddess of fertility and richness. She is not only bringing richness in the heaven to the ground but also relocating grazing being bad for agricultural richness to being good for it. The connection between the narrative and the ritual function of Segyeong-bonpuri has found at this point.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of Chinese Poetry[漢詩] According to Expression Method of Jeong[情] through Gyeong[景]

    Gu, Bon Hyeon | 2013, (28) | pp.145~173 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Examining tendency of researching into classical Chinese poetry[漢詩] so far, there are many cases of analyzing them by referring to the evaluation in the contemporary generation or future generation and to a traditionally classical poetic theory. By the way, the terms, which were used in criticism or poetic theory of the past, are not definite mostly in a concept or fail to be systematic in logic. Thus, this isn't easy to be utilized positively. This study was prepared under the aim of specifically analyzing significance and aesthetic sense of classical Chinese poetry by using Jeong[情] and Gyeong[景], which had been used as an important conceptual term in the traditional poetic theory of the past. ‘Gyeong’ signifies a paragraph that is composed of objective description on the sensually accepted object. ‘Jeong’ indicates a paragraph of containing a poet's emotion or thought. Gyeong becomes a cause of stimulating Jeong, too. Also, it becomes a result that a poet selected subjectively, too, sometimes according to Jeong that a poet has. Accordingly, Gyeong, which was shown in classical Chinese poetry, has very close relationship with Jeong. In case of being classical Chinese poetry in the form that Jeong and Gyeong are combined, the ultimate meaning of Gyeong needs to be analyzed on the basis of a character that Jeong has. In the face of being very diverse in objects and aspects available for being experiences sensibly, a poet needs to be always mindful of needing to making it poem by selecting only specific object and aspect. A poet needs to form Gyeong so that Jeong can be signified. Thus, examining which poetic diction was chosen and how Uigyeong[意境] was organized leads to being able to analyze a meaning that Gyeong was implied. In the meantime, a poet also uses a character as symbol and Jeongo[典故, authentic precedents] that an object has. Community of sharing spirit and culture gives a peculiar meaning to one object, thereby tending to secure internal homogeneity. Classical Chinese poetry is a branch of being well revealed this characteristic. Thus, there is a need of examining whether a thing or a case of forming Gyeong has a symbolic meaning or Jeongo-based character. Gyeong, which uses a symbol or was utilized Yongsa[用事], cannot help certainly suggesting Jeong behind it. Symbol and Yongsa are a rhetoric for making a meaning of a work, namely, the theme, more implicitly. Hence, motive and background of creation are very important to be grasped. Examining the poetic theme and the associated data closely leads to obtaining information on a creative situation. A meaning of Jeong, which is hidden in it, can be understood only when needing to analyze characteristic of Gyeong based on this.
  • 6.

    The Meaning of Cheongsanbyeolgok(靑山別曲) from the Synthetic Point of View- Regarding it’s composed with four different songs -

    Yim, Jaewook | 2013, (28) | pp.175~200 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Cheongsanbyeolgok(靑山別曲) which is one of the songs of Goryeo(高麗) dynasty is composed of eight stanzas. And the eight stanzas can be divided into four pairs, and two stanzas of every pairs correspond structurally with each other. In this respect, the stanzas and phrases of Cheongsanbyeolgok(靑山別曲) can be interpreted according to the counterpart. The results of interpretation based on this point of view are as follows. The first and sixth stanza represent the ideal or imaginary space, the second and fifth express the grief in the real world and the cause of it, the third and seventh represent the impossible situation or fantasy world, and the fourth and eighth express the loneliness and the cause of it. About the meanings of the phrases and stanzas I could confirm such facts as follows. That is to say, the grief expressed in second stanza originated not from the loneliness arising out of the life in deep mountains but from the disagreement between the world and the self expressed in fifth stanza. And the third and seventh stanza can be interpreted smoothly leaving the words and expressions as it is, if we think that they represent some impossible situations in common. In addition the loneliness in the fourth stanza originated from the relationships between men and women, in other words the situation that the poetic narrator lost her lover to another woman.
  • 7.

    Change of Music Related Scenes in Classical Novels and Its Meaning

    JooYoung Lee | 2013, (28) | pp.201~224 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Music related scenes in classical novels in general have a tendency to be treated as decoration or illustration. However, because music can transmit various meanings as a non-verbal message, looking into what music elements are related with which persons and how they get introduced into classical novels has a significance in understanding a flow of the history of novels. Firstly, exploring the change of musical elements, the onset of music introduced into classical novels is ‘cípái songs (詞牌)’ or the words of cípáisongs. Characters free vent to their innermost feelings in these songs, and in late works, the focus was on character’s act of performance other than these songs. The act of performance described with responses of audience is utilized as a means to show character’s special disposition and dignity, but the works more focusing on music lay greater emphasis on non-verbal communication between performers and listeners. Characters related with music in early works of the history of novels are the main current of those people who belong to the transcendental world. And as they are substituted for human beings in the reality in the next generation, music is emerged as an exchange means between remarkable features. In this process, beings of Ginyeo(妓女) rise to the surface while women from the high class are excluded gradually. In this change, works endeavor to have a specified meaning within a work of music introduced scenes, and try to find various methods of communicating non-verbal messages with readers as well at the same time. However, because those works written after Kuunmong employ music only as accessories or don’t pay enough attention to increasing reader’s comprehension, they fail to embody functions that music has as a message.
  • 8.

    Prologue to Ilsin-Supil of Yeolha-Ilgi and Communication between Oriental and Western Ideas

    Kim, Myoungho | 2013, (28) | pp.225~255 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper offers an in-depth analysis of the prologue to Ilsin-Supil(馹汛隨筆), a chapter of Yeolha-Ilgi(熱河日記), from the perspective of “communication between Oriental and Western Ideas.” The author believes that the prologue reveals the efforts by Park Ji-won(朴趾源), writer of Yeolha-Ilgi and a well-known Silhak(實學) scholar of the late Joseon Dynasty, to independently embrace Western learning, in order to innovate Confucian ideas. In his prologue to Ilsin-Supil, Park argues that Confucianism, Buddhism, and Western learning are in mutual agreement, as they all urge learners to recognize the great world, which surpasses the limitations of ordinary experiences, with an open mind. In the travelogue that immediately follows the prologue, Park maintains that people should free themselves from a narrow viewpoint in order to understand development in Qing(淸) empire accurately. One can assume that Park placed the prologue, which urges a fundamental shift of thinking, in front of the chapter’s travelogue because its arguments would not be readily accepted by old-fashioned classical scholars of Joseon at the time. Interestingly, varying editions of Yeolha-Ilgi feature a partially revised version of the prologue to Ilsin-Supil, with a more critical tone towards Western learning. The fact that not only is the prologue to Ilsin-Supil incomplete but it was also revised to take a denouncing tone towards Western Learning indicates that Park’s efforts to pursue innovation of ideas through communication and exchange between Oriental and Western ideas gradually weakened. This is very unfortunate for the development of Silhak in the late Joseon dynasty.
  • 9.

    The Characteristics and Meaning of Description of Ginamja's Whole Life in Namjaga

    JEONG, INSOOK | 2013, (28) | pp.257~281 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics and meaning of description of Ginamja(奇男子)'s whole life in Namjaga(男子歌). This work belongs to Gasa genre, and give the description of man's ideal life. However Namjaga is not described with voice of single poetic speaker, voice of narrator 'I' and voice of main character 'man' is intermingled. So this work is not stereotyped or boring but interesting, we can read animatedly. And scene description in this work is worthy of notice. Especially the sensuous description stimulates readers' sense of sight, taste, smell. It is possible that this characteristics of description of whole life have to do with enjoy of this work. Especially there are many points stimulating women readers. Splendid articles, colorful foods, and fancy dresses are enough to attract women readers. And seasonal customs and urban entertainment of seoul are placed in order, so it is possible that women readers can peep the life of man who lives in seoul through this work. The main character 'man' in Namjaga is not a ordinary person but 'Ginamja(奇男子)'. The Ginamja is a lucky man, and he has many blessings. He is born extraordinarily, becomes successful, and enjoys his happy old age. It is possible that many readers wish the birth of man like Ginamja and success of their family through that man. If so we can read this work not in a man's personal level but in a family level.
  • 10.

    晩淸 北京詩社 龍喜社와 한중 문학 교류

    허방 | 2013, (28) | pp.283~311 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    용희사는 중국 호남성 선화현 출신 문인들이 주로 모이는 북경의 선화회관에서 창설되었다. 용희사는 19세기말 조선사신이 중국 문인들과 교류하는 데에 대단히 중요한 매개체가 되었다. 청말 민국초의 여러 시화집 등의 자료를 통해 알 수 있듯 용희사의 구성원들은 매우 많은데, 지금까지 확인된 인물만 해도 40여 명이 넘는다. 그 중 兪明震은 연암 박지원과 교분을 맺었던 兪世琦의 증손이기도 하다. 용희사의 문인들은 1887년에서 1894년까지 조선 사신들과의 시문 창화 활동을 지속하였다. 창화시집으로 『강정집』, 『지북집』, 『용희사해동심시집』, 『소해집』, 『헌관영춘집』 등이 있다. 양국 문인들의 모임을 그린 그림으로 『송균아집도』, 『강정도』, 『용희도』 등이 있다. 그 중 1894년(光緖20) 李正魯가 동지정사로 북경에 체류했을 때 용희사 문인들과 창화한 시문들을 편찬한 『獻館泳春詩冊』에 대해 집중적으로 고찰을 통해 당시 문학 교류의 활약상을 알 수 있다. 본고는 황응의 『전해금언』을 통해 선행 연구에서 언급하지 않았던 양국 문인들이 공유한 시대인식을 살펴보고자 한다. 더불어 19세기 말의 긴박한 국제 정세 속에서 황응과 조인승이 어떻게 사고하고 시국에 대처했는지를 밝혀보고자 한다.
  • 11.

    An Inquiry Into the Heroic Nature of Bang Hakjung

    Charles La Shure | 2013, (28) | pp.313~341 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Bang Hakjung, a popular figure in Korean folk tales, is called by many names. He is known as a rogue and a scamp, and also more recently as a trickster figure. Due to his fondness for deceiving those above him on the social ladder and knocking them down a few rungs, he may appear to be a hero of the downtrodden as well. It is the goal of this paper to determine just what sort of hero Bang Hakjung really is. A "hero," as the idea is traditionally understood, is one who performs great deeds with exceptional skills and abilities, and who is recognized for these deeds by society at large. A look at some folktales regarding Bang Hakjung's birth shows that the tellers of these tales consider him an extraordinary individual, one destined for great things, but his life does not follow the path to greatness. An examination of other tales will show how fitting the title of hero is for Bang Hakjung. In the tales where Bang Hakjung deceives and humiliates his master, he would indeed seem to be a hero of the little people, yet he deceives not only his master but pitiable and sympathetic figures such as blind and lame men―and these to their deaths! In the tales that deal with Bang Hakjung's theft of a sticky barley cake, he places an innocent child in danger and brings about the downfall of passersby whose only sin is to ask Bang Hakjung how he came to possess such a delicious treat. There are many other tales in which he plays with language, either communicating his message in such a way to cause the listener to misunderstand, or deliberately misunderstanding a message communicated to him in good faith. What all of these tales have in common is that they are expressions of Bang Hakjung's liminal nature. Being a liminal figure, he is free from the constraints of society's norms and conventions, allowing him to attack the social structure at will. The hero is one who rather protects the social structure, so it is clear that Bang Hakjung is far from being a hero in the traditional sense. Instead he is a hero in Northrop Frye's ironic mode: an antihero. Unlike the hero, the antihero seeks out the cracks in the social structure and takes advantage of them in an attempt to bring that structure down. Because he stands on the limen, on the border, he is able to see possibilities beyond the existing order, and from that limen he can launch his attacks. Just when we become comfortable with the status quo, antiheroes like Bang Hakjung will appear to open our eyes to the limitless possibilities beyond our sight.
  • 12.