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2015, Vol., No.31

  • 1.

    An aspect of the shifts and changes in history of novel in 17th century

    Junkyung Ryu | 2015, (31) | pp.7~38 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to inquiry an aspect of the shifts and changes in history of novel in 17th century. As the result of this research, we could know as belows. Kim Man-jung金萬重 wrote Sasi-Namjung-gi 謝氏南征記 for the purpose of enlightenment of females. By the way he formalized the female character who incarnated moral universality not the submissive female character under the influence of tradition of composition of classical Chinese poem. This is why Kim Chun-taik金春澤 translated Sasi-Namjung-gi 謝氏南征記 to classical Chinese. As a result, this work had been written for the purpose of enlightenment of females but the meaning of this work became enlarged as the work for males themselves. But the character of Sa Jung-ok謝貞玉, who incarnated moral universality, had been enjoyed vulgarly regardless of the intention of Kim Chun-taik金春澤.
  • 2.

    An Aspect of Sadaebu's Poetry in the Early 19th Century - Focused on Kim Yi-ik's Exile Gasa

    JEONG, INSOOK | 2015, (31) | pp.39~68 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to examine an aspect of sadaebu(士大夫)'s poetry in the early 19th century focused on Kim Yi-ik's exile gasa <Keumgangchongyongdoga(金剛中庸圖歌)>. This text was written in the place of exile but this text has never been studied as a exile gasa in detail. Because researchers have misunderstood this text for a song of Chongyong(中庸). The characteristics of <Keumgangchongyongdoga> is as follows. The first, we can find the expression of self-thoughts in this text. The father of Kim Yi-ik was dead in his youth, he regarded the king as his father. He also believed that the king regarded him as a son. We can understand his life through this text. The second, we can find the sense of loyalty for the king. He had a special love for the king, he expressed unchanging mind in this text. We can also find the emotion of exiled person. The third, Kim Yi-ik read the two books Chongyong and Chuyeuk(周易), and he devoted his energies to writing. He studied and copied Chongyong, he was seem to recall the king. <Keumgangchongyongdoga> is under the category of exile gasa, but it has some unique characteristics. This text resembles <Maneonsa> in terms of the expression of self-thoughts. But we can find the expressions of family in <Maneonsa>, we cannot find in <Keumgangchongyongdoga>. Kim Yi-ik was seem to strengthen his public persona by exposing himself through this text. This text shows an aspect of sadaebu's poetry in early 19th century well.
  • 3.

    Portraits and panegyrics(贊) in Chosŏn Period

    SIM KYUNG HO | 2015, (31) | pp.71~109 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    According to the historical records, it was Yi Che-hyŏn(李齊賢, 1287-1367) who first introduced a portrait(畫像) into Koryŏ(高麗) that had been painted in Yuan(元). It is presumed that painting portraits became a custom among scholars in Korea, since then. We can also assume that writing a panegyric on a painting also became a custom at the end of the Koryŏ and early Chosŏn period with the fact that Yi Che-hyŏn let someone write a panegyric on his portrait, and King Taejo of Chosŏn ordered a painter to draw a portrait of Cho Chun(趙浚) and Chŏng Tojŏn(1342-98) to compose a panegyric for it. Yet, it would be not true to say that all portraits were drawn during models’ lifetime, and all panegyrics were composed by others which means not by models themselves, as there were not a few portraits painted after model’s death and panegyrics written by themselves. In case of panegyrics written by others, some were composed by a contemporary of the model and others by posterity. It was common to make a character sketch of the model and to explain the reason of drawing the portrait in panegyrics. This article examines several portraits and panegyrics in Chosŏn period especially focusing on the beginning of making portraits with panegyrics and its development, the exercise of government power on making portraits, the relationship between the introspection of scholars and their composing panegyric, the meaning of making Tongkyŏng-sochinchŏp(同庚小眞帖) and their longing for everlasting friendship. This research also confirmed that the panegyric on the portrait of Song Si-yŏl(宋時烈) was not composed by king Chŏngjo as it was widely known but by king Sukjong, and moreover it was not composed for Song Si-yŏl but for Chŏng Mongju(鄭夢周).
  • 4.

    A study on Confucian orient and literary significance in Sijo(時調) which written by An Chang-Hoo(安昌後)

    Song, Jae-Yeon | 2015, (31) | pp.111~136 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to consider Confucian orient, through the examination An Chang-Hoo(安昌後)’s life and his literary works, Sijo(時調) during his life as a moralist. This study also establishes the literary status of Sijo(時調) in the literary history of the 18th century. An Chang-Hoo(安昌後) devoted himself to exploring the tenets of Confucian ethics, in focusing on Confucian cannons. Especially, he paid a constant effort to foster a mentality in self-cultivation. He thought that his ministry as a Sajok(士族) is dedicated to the study, so he made exertions to have grounding in Confucian. And he made an effort to develope human nature and to preserve a pure heart. His moral philosophical living and academic orientation had an effect on creating his literary works, such as chinese prose, chinese poetry and Sijo(時調). He created variety of literary works which including the practical problems that foster a mentality and understanding of human nature in selfcultivational view. And he enjoyed his literary works with relatives and friends in Hansundang(閒說堂). In Sijo(時調), he expressed the human duty and reason of life in practical ethics, through Confucian cannons such as Mengzi(孟子) Lunyu(論語) and the teaching of the sages, such as Hanyu(韓愈) and Jungyi(程頤). In particular, he put more emphasis on encouragement of human nature and conduct of life, teaching attitudes of scholars, and stress of ethics of Hyo(孝). These is aimed at cultivation of morality, performing duties as a scholar, and establishment of family rituals. Also, in expression, he chose the ways of teaching the tenets of Confucian ethics to put into action rather than literary configuration These means that HyangchonSajok(鄕村士族) educated the ethics through form of Sijo(時調) in order to secure their position within the country in the changes of the 17th-18th centuries, and emphasized on the Confucian ethical practice to cultivate the qualities as a Sajok(士族). Above all, it is important that An Chang-Hoo(安昌後) intended to overcome this crisis by offering an ethical solution through Sijo(時調), after he consulted the families of the crisis, based on the awareness of contemporary society. And another important point is that his Confucian orientation differ from other author, for example Hwang Yoon-Suk(黃胤錫), even though it is similar that both tried to teach ethics through Sijo(時調).
  • 5.

    A Study of Narrative Formation and Themes in Jangsugwajeon

    Solmi Chung | 2015, (31) | pp.137~173 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the themes of Jangsugwajeon(張守果傳), a 19th century novel, based on its structure and characteristics of the narrative. The narrative structures of Jangsugwajeon include ‘competing with words’ and ‘deceiving’. As for characteristics, there is a parody of various genres, such as chronicle, fictional biography. Moreover, the author creatively accepts some forms of vernacular novel to emphasize his critical consciousness. Throughout such diverse ways, the author induces pleasant laughs, while he also keeps an intellectual distance from every single character. Accordingly, Jangsugwajeon can be considered a satirical novel. The target of satire is not only Jangsugwa, a fallen aristocrat who obsesses over the hollow notion of family, but also various types of human beings who drive him into catastrophe. By doing so, this work portrays a world full of little minds and implies that there exist a cold-hearted society, a snobbism that make people so dishonorable. As such, Jangsugwajeon sheds light on the cold-blooded and dirty sides of the world rather than the bright sides, reenacting the reality at the same time. In that sense, Jangsugwajeon is differentiated from other Yadam[野談] novel as well as from other contemporary satirical novels.
  • 6.

    A Study on Kwon Donin's collected letters "Eywancheuksa"

    KANG HYESUN | 2015, (31) | pp.175~202 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    won Donin was a important political bureaucrat and he was a famous calligrapher and painter of the 19th century. Actually, Kwon Donin left lots of posthumous works such as "Sehando" and most of them have still remained in good conditions. But it is regretful that 27 volumes of Yijae Collection were destroyed. As a result we have not read his literary works. The volume "Eywancheuksa", which collects his 13 letters is so important that it deserves special emphasis on his noticeable writings. I illuminated 13 letters of "Eywancheuksa" in two respects. First, I illuminated a friendship between Kwon Donin and Kim Jeonghee through the letters. They had a closer friendship with each other in their lives. They showed their respect and sympathy to each other and shared the academic views by being interested in such contemporary and dominant art and scinece as Gojeung Scholarship (the study of ancient documents) and Geumseok Scholarship (epigraphy). Second, I illuminated an aspect of lyrical letters named Chuck-Dock. Kwon Donin sought for the emotional writing and vignette-style of writing in his letters.
  • 7.

    The Method and Meaning of Recovering Family Honor in Yangmunchunguirok

    Yoo Inseon | 2015, (31) | pp.203~228 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Yangmunchunguirok is a unique and problematic work that deals with a traitor’s family. Different from similar works that begin by describing the heroic contributions of the main character’s ancestors and exceptional talents of the hero, Yangmunchunguirok starts from the scene where the protagonist, Yang Ingwang, recognizes the treason of his father. The narrative proceeds with the struggles of Yang Ingwang to redeem the mistake of his father and regain the family's honor. Yang Ingwang achieves a glorious exploit with his descendants and thus attempts to redeem his father’s treason. However, this only serves to highlight the past incident, causing others to condemn Yang Ingwang and his family. Finally, nearing his death, Yang Ingwang attempts to settle the precedent affair and recover the family's honor by removing his father’s crime along with his and his descendants’ achievements. This way of recuperation is a liquidation of the family’s past, but also can be understood on some level as a healing of Yang Ingwang’s pain that came from his suffering as the son of a criminal. Also it removed all positive and negative aspects of the family’s history, which created a foundation for his descendants to establish a new standing with the nation. Yangmunchunguirok can also be read for its social context of the later part of the Joseon dynasty, the period when this piece was widely circulated. Also this work shows a different side of the classical novels of the later part of the Joseon dynasty in terms of material, subject, and narrative method.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Sino-Korean Poetry about the Pavilions in Cheongsong - Focusing on Changyeonglu, Sugojeong and Okryujeong, etc.

    NamKi Kim | 2015, (31) | pp.229~253 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In Cheongsong, the scenery is beautiful and famous pavilions lie scattered, so writers have been visiting it and composing a lot of poetry and prose from old times. This thesis develops its discussion targeting Changyeonglu, Sugojeong and Okryujeong, Donggyejeong, Apgakdae, Mangmijeong and etc. Among the pavilions in Cheongsong where distinguished Sino-Korean poems remain in great numbers. Most Sino-Korean poems in Changyeonglu praise Queen Soheon''s royal virtues or express the joy of the fairyland. The poems written by King Jong-jik, Jo Hyeong-do, Kim Hong-wuk, Lee Eui-hyeon and others complimented Queen Soheon''s saintly virtues, and the works by Seo Geojeong, Lee Hae, Shin Ik-sang and others mostly expressed the excitement at the enchanted land. Among the poems in Sugojeong, those written by Yang Geuk-seong and Hong Han-ju, etc., described the surrounding beautiful scenery and verbalized the heart to cherish the memory of deceased Lee Hwang, and those by Shin Ik-sang, Seong Geun-muk and etc. spoke out their longing for hometown. The poems of Lee Hwang, Jo Hyeong-do, Hwang Jun-ryang, and Heo Hun depicting Okryujeong, Donggyejeong, Apgakdae and Mangmijeong described the great landscape of Cheongsong with the subject of the heart missing hometown, Jinbo, and their parents and the king, and the exploding desire to create poems, and so on. The Sino-Korean poetry of the pavilions in Cheongsong investigated in this thesis can be concluded to have expressed properly not only the picturesque scenery of Cheongsong but also its main figures and culture, and the poets'' emotions and therefore have enhanced the reputation of Cheongsong.
  • 9.

    ‘Fox [狐]’ in East Asian Narrative Literature and the Characteristic of Its ‘Human-Animal’ Culture

    Choi Won Oh | 2015, (31) | pp.255~280 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study was to provide a new view in understanding the history of East Asian narrative literature and the history of ‘human-animal’ culture in East Asia through examining common story genes among East Asian countries, how they have been transformed and understood, and what meanings each of them has. According to the results of this study, the ‘human-animal’ cultural element projected commonly on fox in East Asian narrative literature is ‘sexual seduction.’ A fox transformed into a beautiful woman plays a leading role in tempting sexually and bewitching a human man and this can be understood as ‘fox=woman=sexual seduction (or temptation).’ In addition, the cultural image of ‘fox’ may reflect social perceptions of women or requirements imposed on women. ‘Fox’ in East Asian narrative literature is a being close to ‘a virtual animal’ created through delicate combination of animal aspects and human aspects. Accordingly, we can say that East Asian ‘fox,’ whether positive or negative, is placed at a position where infinite imaginary violence may be inflicted upon women.
  • 10.

    Research on the ‘Liberation Period Changgeuk (해방공간 창극)’ by the Changgeuk History

    Son, Tae-do | 2015, (31) | pp.281~328 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Hyopyulsa (협률사, 協律社)’, the first modern theater, was built in 1902. Changgeuk (창극, 唱劇), modern performing art derived from Pansori, began in that theater. However that Changgeuk was similar to singing Pansori in divided characters style. There were former stage and later stage. Conventional dances, songs, instrumental music plays, and acrobats were performed at the former stage and Changgeuk was performed at later stage. So Changgeuk <Chunhyang-jeon (춘향전)> was performed in 3 days. Changgeuk was started in that way. ‘Society for Joseon Vocal Art (조선성악연구회)’ was made in 1934. The Society made possible to show all the work at once, the works like <Chunhyang-jeon>, <Heungbu-jeon (흥부전)>, <Baebijang-jeon (배비장전)>, <Yuchungryeol-jeon (유충렬전> etc. So to speak, a entire work performance period began. After Kim Chang-hwan, Song Man-gap, Yi Dong-baek, Kim Chang-ryong, Jeong Jeong-ryeol, 5 great singers in early modern time, led that Changgeuk. Japan’s Cultural Policy and the movement of traditional Joseon culture in 1930’s began after March 1th Claiming Movement in 1919. But it was in the time of Japanese colony and Japan went into the war mode at the Japan to China War in 1937, and the Pacific War in 1941. Changgeuk could no longer be developed. After the liberation, Changgeuk could have re-jumping time. There were the conflict between leftists and rightists and the basic economic poverty problem. But Korean traditional music artists gathered around ‘Korean Traditional Music Institute (대한국악원)’ in heightened nationalism and presented Changgeuk as their most important performing art. So ‘Gukgeuksa (국극사)’, the Changgeuk Troupe of the Korean Traditional Music Institute, and independent Changgeuk Troupe like ‘Joseon Changgeuk Troupe’, ‘Changgeuk Association’ and ‘Kim Yeon-su Changgeuk Troupe’ re-made <Chunhyang-jeon>, <Simcheong-jeon (심청전)>, <Heungbu-jeon (흥부전)>, <Janghwahongryeon-jeon (장화홍련전> etc., that were handed down, and made new works competitively. So every Changgeuk Troupe should make a new one in every 3 months like <Cheongsando Jeolno, Saramdo Jeolno (청산도 절노, 사람도 절노>, <Princess Seonhwa>, <Prince Hodong>, <Midnight of Ye (예, 濊) Castle)> (예도성의 삼경), <King Danjong and Sayuksin (사육신, 死六臣>, <Great Wall> (만리장성) etc. that were high level in art and popular in ordinary people. Because it was 3 months for performing a new work from the theaters of Seoul to the ones of 30 big cities. At that time domestic movies was an initial step, and ths imports of foreign film was limited, so it was theater performing era for Operetta (악극, 樂劇), Changgeuk, Sinpageuk (신파극, 新派劇), Singeuk (신극, 新劇), and Variety Show. Both high level cultural figures and ordinary people all had concern for Changgeuk, because Changgeuk had the aspects of ethnic art and popular entertaining. As a result, there was a room that Changgeuk became to be the most important performing art in the liberated father land. So Park Hwang (born in 1917) who placed the field of Changgeuk for a long time, said the liberation period was the most prosperous time in the whole history of Changgeuk. But the Korean War taken place on Jun 25th in 1950 stopped all these processes. Also there was a big blank, because Park Dong-sil, Jeong Nam-hui, Jo Sang-seon, and Im So-hyang (woman), all were very important persons in Changgeuk, went to North Korea after the War. Futhermore the ‘Woman Gukgeuk (여성국극)’ oversupplying took all chances of so-called man and woman co-ed Changgeuk Troupes. The ‘Woman Gukgeuk’ was made in 1948 and already started to monopolize the audiences of theaters before the War. As a result, Changgeuk Troupes doomed out since 1955, and there was no Changgeuk Troupe by 1958. It became the time of no Changgeuk Troupe. The people of Changgeuk that went to North Korea made music play form that became the foundation of today’s North Korea Operetta (가극, 歌劇). South Korea made a ‘National Changgeuk Troupe (국립창극단)’ to maintain the life of Changgeuk. As Pansori is the most representative performance art in our country. Changgeuk succeeding Pansori needs to be the most representative performance one in our country too. ‘Liberation Period Changgeuk’ was proper Changgeuk for the first time, and could be called the most prosperous period Changgeuk by someone. Therefore, that Changgeuk will be the most important guider to us trying to make today’s Changgeuk to be the most representative performance art of our country. The reason studying Liberation Period Changgeuk in the view of the whole Changgeuk history is right here.
  • 11.

    Research on the ‘Liberation Period Changgeuk (해방공간 창극)’ by the Changgeuk History

    Son, Tae-do | 2015, (31) | pp.281~328 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Hyopyulsa (협률사, 協律社)’, the first modern theater, was built in 1902. Changgeuk (창극, 唱劇), modern performing art derived from Pansori, began in that theater. However that Changgeuk was similar to singing Pansori in divided characters style. There were former stage and later stage. Conventional dances, songs, instrumental music plays, and acrobats were performed at the former stage and Changgeuk was performed at later stage. So Changgeuk <Chunhyang-jeon (춘향전)> was performed in 3 days. Changgeuk was started in that way. ‘Society for Joseon Vocal Art (조선성악연구회)’ was made in 1934. The Society made possible to show all the work at once, the works like <Chunhyang-jeon>, <Heungbu-jeon (흥부전)>, <Baebijang-jeon (배비장전)>, <Yuchungryeol-jeon (유충렬전> etc. So to speak, a entire work performance period began. After Kim Chang-hwan, Song Man-gap, Yi Dong-baek, Kim Chang-ryong, Jeong Jeong-ryeol, 5 great singers in early modern time, led that Changgeuk. Japan’s Cultural Policy and the movement of traditional Joseon culture in 1930’s began after March 1th Claiming Movement in 1919. But it was in the time of Japanese colony and Japan went into the war mode at the Japan to China War in 1937, and the Pacific War in 1941. Changgeuk could no longer be developed. After the liberation, Changgeuk could have re-jumping time. There were the conflict between leftists and rightists and the basic economic poverty problem. But Korean traditional music artists gathered around ‘Korean Traditional Music Institute (대한국악원)’ in heightened nationalism and presented Changgeuk as their most important performing art. So ‘Gukgeuksa (국극사)’, the Changgeuk Troupe of the Korean Traditional Music Institute, and independent Changgeuk Troupe like ‘Joseon Changgeuk Troupe’, ‘Changgeuk Association’ and ‘Kim Yeon-su Changgeuk Troupe’ re-made <Chunhyang-jeon>, <Simcheong-jeon (심청전)>, <Heungbu-jeon (흥부전)>, <Janghwahongryeon-jeon (장화홍련전> etc., that were handed down, and made new works competitively. So every Changgeuk Troupe should make a new one in every 3 months like <Cheongsando Jeolno, Saramdo Jeolno (청산도 절노, 사람도 절노>, <Princess Seonhwa>, <Prince Hodong>, <Midnight of Ye (예, 濊) Castle)> (예도성의 삼경), <King Danjong and Sayuksin (사육신, 死六臣>, <Great Wall> (만리장성) etc. that were high level in art and popular in ordinary people. Because it was 3 months for performing a new work from the theaters of Seoul to the ones of 30 big cities. At that time domestic movies was an initial step, and ths imports of foreign film was limited, so it was theater performing era for Operetta (악극, 樂劇), Changgeuk, Sinpageuk (신파극, 新派劇), Singeuk (신극, 新劇), and Variety Show. Both high level cultural figures and ordinary people all had concern for Changgeuk, because Changgeuk had the aspects of ethnic art and popular entertaining. As a result, there was a room that Changgeuk became to be the most important performing art in the liberated father land. So Park Hwang (born in 1917) who placed the field of Changgeuk for a long time, said the liberation period was the most prosperous time in the whole history of Changgeuk. But the Korean War taken place on Jun 25th in 1950 stopped all these processes. Also there was a big blank, because Park Dong-sil, Jeong Nam-hui, Jo Sang-seon, and Im So-hyang (woman), all were very important persons in Changgeuk, went to North Korea after the War. Futhermore the ‘Woman Gukgeuk (여성국극)’ oversupplying took all chances of so-called man and woman co-ed Changgeuk Troupes. The ‘Woman Gukgeuk’ was made in 1948 and already started to monopolize the audiences of theaters before the War. As a result, Changgeuk Troupes doomed out since 1955, and there was no Changgeuk Troupe by 1958. It became the time of no Changgeuk Troupe. The people of Changgeuk that went to North Korea made music play form that became the foundation of today’s North Korea Operetta (가극, 歌劇). South Korea made a ‘National Changgeuk Troupe (국립창극단)’ to maintain the life of Changgeuk. As Pansori is the most representative performance art in our country. Changgeuk succeeding Pansori needs to be the most representative performance one in our country too. ‘Liberation Period Changgeuk’ was proper Changgeuk for the first time, and could be called the most prosperous period Changgeuk by someone. Therefore, that Changgeuk will be the most important guider to us trying to make today’s Changgeuk to be the most representative performance art of our country. The reason studying Liberation Period Changgeuk in the view of the whole Changgeuk history is right here.