Journal of Korean Literature 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.47

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pISSN : 1598-2076
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2021, Vol., No.43

  • 1.

    An epic and dramatic prescription for the anxiety of disease

    Cho, Hyunsoul | 2021, (43) | pp.7~35 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Unidentified diseases create collective anxiety in the name of mysterious disease. To get out of this, every society devised a way. Sonnymgut was a ceremonial prescription to counter smallpox. Two prescriptions, epic and dramatic, are presented in this ritual. The myth of Sonnymgut recognizes the disease who crossed the Yalu River as Sonnym that is a guest god. First, Moonsin, Hoban and Gakshi, these three gods are Sonnym. This is the form in which the goddess Gakshi integrates the confrontation between the two male gods. However, in reality, the confrontation is between the hospitality and hostility of the receptionists who treat Gakshi. The boatman of the Yalu River and the rich man Kim were hostile, while the Nogohalmi was welcoming. The determinant of the Sonnym' fortune and misfortune is their attitude. If you do your best for the Sonnym, you can avoid smallpox. Sonnym is also transformed into four gods in the East Sea Coast Gut. This is not a shaman's mistake or a conventional transformation, but a result of strategic choice. The fourth Sonnym, Sejon was the god of housekeeping and ancestor of Sejongut, which was performed prior to the Sonnymgut. Sejonsonnym is a god Sejon who was sent to Sonnymgut. The structure of the four Sonnym is a result of the transformation of the three Sonnym' structure, which is the result of the transmission of Gaksi’ mediating status. Sejonsonnym, a housekeeping god and a Sonnym god, plays a mediating role in the confrontation between the outside guest gods and the inside housekeeping gods. These mythical prescriptions are represented in a dramatic form in Gutnori, which is performed to the after-party of Sonnymgut. The youngest child Makdungee, who leads the play, is the third-generation only son of rich man Kim, who treated the Sonnym poorly. By placing a child who died of smallpox as a horseman serving Sonnym gods, the Shaman comforted the deceased and the host who lost the child. Also, the youngest child Makdungee was given the status of a mediator like Sejonsonnym. In the present Gut where smallpox disappeared, the Makdungee is a comic role to earn the money, but in the past, the Makdungee performed a role to soothe Sonnym gods.
  • 2.

    The Case of Facing the body that is not intact: Including disease, disability, and accidentsin some Korean Classical Poetry

    Seo, Cheolwon | 2021, (43) | pp.37~68 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the speaker who faces the incomplete body in classical poetry. Through this example, the origins and ways of self-reflection related to the subject matter of disease, disability, and accident are revealed. In the mid-eighth century, "Docheonssoogwaneumga" described the process of mercy through the face of blind children and Avalokitesvara, suggesting the possibility that the mind of mercy could spread as the eyes opened face other heavy creatures. The Goryeo song "Cheoyonga" influenced Cheoyonga through his personality amicable as he faced a fever god. This figure inherited the tradition of the old work, but another hostile narrator faced a fever scene and cursed and said "mutzunmal," creating a three-dimensional situation. The narrator of the narrative lyrics of the late Joseon Dynasty does not face such transcendent beings as gods. Instead, he looks inside himself who is caught up in the problem of disability and marriage. In the first half of "Nocheonyoga," there is also a sharp criticism that faces his past and criticizes prejudice against disability. But in the latter half, it weakens as it seeks individual happiness. It does not reach the level of empathy for the pain of other disabled people. The protagonist of "Dendongeomhwajeonga" also experienced several accidents or infectious diseases that resulted in the loss of husbands and burns of children, the flower of life. However, he did not limit his and his son's misfortunes to his own experiences, but sought to expand the consensus through solidarity with young widows and other women.
  • 3.

    Infectious disease experience in Heumyoung: Focusing on the measles epidemic in Seoul in 1786

    Kim Hara | 2021, (43) | pp.69~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is an attempt to examine the past of infectious diseases here, living in the era of covid-19 Pandemic. To this end, I looked at the records of infectious diseases left in Heumyoung, Yu Man-ju's diary. Among them, from March to June 1786, when the measles epidemic in Seoul, Yu Man-ju and his surrounding people's disease-related experiences were reviewed. Measles, which was very popular at the time, was great enough to take the life of the eldest son of King Jeongjo. At this time, Yu Man-ju made every effort to protect his family, especially his younger brothers and children, and in the process, he mobilized his medical knowledge and moved to meet professional medical personnel. As a result, he succeeds in protecting his family from measles. In addition, Yu Jun-ju and Yu San-ju, wealthy relatives of Yu Man-ju, also protected their families from infectious diseases based on their knowledge and economic power. On the other hand, the situation of those who were in economically vulnerable situation was different. Yu Man-ju's cousin Kim I-jung was living in extreme poverty in the outskirts of Seoul. When the infectious disease spread, he was worried because he did not have the economic power to receive medical treatment. The man who had been living in the house of Yu Man-ju was infected and died shortly after the outbreak of measles. His case clearly shows that even though they live in the same house, they suffer from infectious diseases differently depending on their status and economic power, and that the socially weak are more vulnerable to infectious diseases. The records in this diary show that even if they encounter the same infectious disease, the pain and damage suffered by it differ according to the socio-economic status of those suffering the disease. And this pattern overlaps with the present, living in the era of infectious diseases. However, in 1786, King Jeongjo's efforts to protect the people from infectious diseases and the end of the infectious diseases as a result of them give us hope as well. Jeongjo repressed the grief of losing his successor due to measles, encouraged the active operation of the national medical system, firmly rejected the profane discourse about punishing medical professionals who failed to treat the crown prince, and encouraged the state medical staff to focus on the treatment of the infected people. Eventually, on June 29, 1786, the Jeongjo's government declared an end to measles.
  • 4.

    Memories and reaction to disease in Pansori: Focusing on the 19th century cholera epidemic and Byeongangsoi-ga

    Oh Seongjun | 2021, (43) | pp.99~131 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine the memories and reaction to the disease in Pansori Byeongangsoi-ga based on the facts of cholera pandemic in Joseon society in the 19th century. First, through the records related to the cholera pandemic in Joseon society in the 19th century, we looked at the patterns and characteristics of the infectious disease experience imprinted in the memory of the group, focusing on the starting point, the speed and spread range, symptoms and objects. It was confirmed that cholera, which started in Pyeongando, boasted a tremendous speed and left great pain and numerous corpses in the entire 19th century Joseon society. And It was confirmed that the lower class people who were in a difficult economic condition were damaged more than the upper class. And it can be seen that this experience left the memories of fear and anxiety reminiscent of PTSD to the Joseon people at that time. Based on this, This study looked at the traces of the memories of the infectious disease experience in Byeongangsoi-ga. In the first half of Byeongangsoi-ga, the memory of the infectious disease was confirmed through the setting of death due to contact, mass death, and the starting space(Pyeongando). In the middle of the work, it can be seen that memories related to the symptoms of the pain left by the contagious disease, the rapid spreading speed, and bitter reality of “the plague of the poor” are the main elements of the formation. In the second half of the work, it was confirmed that the common scenery of the 19th century, when the body was flooded, is projected into the space where the living and the dead coexist, the appearance of the corpse stuck to the ground and people, and the ending of grinding away teeth. After that, I tried to understand how the reaction to the shock of the infectious disease was revealed in Byeongangsoi-ga. In particular, it is important to pay attention to the process by which people in the boundaries of the community otherize Ongnyeo and Gangsoi through public opinion. Through the appearance of the fence between ‘we’ and ‘them’ becoming taller and more solid, it was confirmed that “the logic of discrimination and exclusion” was leading the way in response to the epidemic. In addition, by looking at the historical cases in which the logic of discrimination and exclusion' appears in, Byeongangsoi-ga shows the tragedy of humanity caused by the unprecedented disease of cholera in Joseon society in the 19th century. In a similar crisis situation of cholera in the 19th century and COVID-19 in the 21st century, How much has the ‘level of humanity’ which can be confirmed by the response to the disease improved compared to 200 years ago? Are the logics of discrimination and hostility, hatred and exclusion still in operation? The above questions posed by Byeongangsoi-ga have great implications even today. As such, Byeongangsoi-ga literately well portrays the memories of the cholera pandemic in the 19th century Joseon society and their reactions to it, and raises fundamental questions about human problems based on the memory of the epidemic. In this regard, when discussing “disease literature” in Korean literature history, Pansori Byeongangsoi-ga can be “epidemic narrative” representing the 19th century.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Characteristics of Gwangak Literature of 15th century Joseon through Jongbanhaengjuk(宗班行蹟)

    Koo, Seul-Ah | 2021, (43) | pp.135~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the characteristics of Gwangak literature from the epitaph of the 15th century royal family, which were included in Jongbanhaengjuk(宗班行蹟). The royal family[宗親] is a paternal relative of the king and a special status that is placed in the relationship between the king and his servant. The epitaph of the royal family in the 15th century were written by influential Gwangak writer such as Seo Geo-jeong(徐居正), Lim Sa-hong(任士洪), Hong Gwi-dal(洪貴達), and Nam Gon(南袞). The epitaph on the 15th century's royal family in Jongbanhaengjuk shows the following three characteristics. First, these works include praise and honor for the noble royal lineage. In particular, they tend to praise King Sejong and King Seongjong's political stability. This is the result of the 15th century's royal family functioning as human evidence to remind the to them, who have led the booming period of Sejong and Seongjong, to the Taepyeongseongdae(太平聖代). Second, it describes the king's private feelings toward his family without hesitation. In particular, it features anecdotes that highlight the family love of the king and vividly depict them. This seems to be the result of judging that the insertion of personal anecdotes does not undermine the image of the king as generous parents of the people. Third, on the other side of the normative life of the royal family, it shows an anecdote emphasizing that they are people who are immersed in reading and are born with a deep knowledge of art. By repeating the stereotyped expression, the writers present to the reader the image of a normative figure who conforms to the hierarchical order of the royal family and contributes to political stability. The 15th century Gwangak writer recall the Joseon's peaceful times through the exemplary lives of royal families. However, they did not create the epitaph of the problematic royal family, which opposed or criticized the royal family's policies, and turned a blind eye to its historical assessment. This contrast is in line with other Gwangak literature in the 15th century.
  • 6.

    The pictures of Aeildang-gugyeongcheop and Gangho-Gado of Bungang-Gadan for Lee HyeonBo

    Kwon Jung-eun | 2021, (43) | pp.169~191 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to search for Lee HyeonBo(1467∼1555)’s cultural basis of Gangho-Gado(literary inclination pursuing a truth through the nature) out of his works of pictures and literature. Lee was pointed as a proponent of Gangho-Gado in Youngnam province including Bungang-Gadan(The gathering for song in Bungang). It lead to various research in the field of culture which cover the pictures. The pictures from Lee’s life could be divided with three category. First things is Picture of Guigeorae, second is Picture of Eundae-Geohyoe, third is three piece of pictures from Aeildang-gugyeongcheop which is precious book of Lee family. First picture is symbolic works to show his inclination as a scholar though, second picture show the pride as the officials. And the third reflect important scenes among Lee’s life after his forties. Especially pictures of Aeildang-gugyeongcheop features the banquet scean during the life of official government, Lee wished homecoming though. These works reflect the procedure to real pleasure of the homeland. Lee’s Gangho-Gado reveals the satisfaction from cultural base without the isolation from civilization and the pictures show the evidence of complex relationship between nature and civilization.
  • 7.

    The Perception of Reality and its Significance in Seokchon Byeolgok

    kim hye jin | 2021, (43) | pp.193~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Seokchon Byeolgok is the work of Jeong Hae-jeong (1850-1923), also known by the courtesy name of Jangil as well as the pen names Bangsil and Seokchon. The creation of Seokchon Byeolgok was inspired by two factors. First, Jeong Hae-jeong, who, as a descendant of Songgang Jeong-cheol, actively enjoyed Songgang’s gasa and was familiar with the tradition of gasa, considered gasa a means of consoling one’s grievances. Secondly, he desired to express his opposition to the clothing reform. The clothing reform called for official attire to be simplified. Jeong Hae-jung believed that the clothing reform undermined tradition and threatened Joseon's identity as ‘Little China’. The most significant feature of Seokchon Byeolgok is that it imitates the external form of gihaeng gasa(travel poetry), narrating a journey in chronological order and detailing the emotions inspired by the journey, but the sentiments evoked by the incredible views are rooted in the narrator’s internal turmoil and sense of melancholy caused by the problems of reality. Jeong Hae-jeong overtly expressed his anger over the problems of the real world and clearly displayed his desire to withdraw from reality into nature and stick firmly to his beliefs. By doing so, he created a work that displays an acute consciousness of contemporary issues in a literary form based on the gasa of the preceding era, arguably the model standard of gasa. Though the sentiments portrayed in Seokchon Byeolgok may seem conservative and outdated in the context of the late 19th century, a fast-changing era due to factors such as the collapse of the feudal system and the invasion of foreign powers, Seokchon Byeolgok is meaningful in proving that gasa was still effective as a means of responding to personal events and the demands of the times in a literary way.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Principle of the Arrangementof Kim Su-jang's own Sijo through the Concept of Family Similarity

    Lee Hye Gyoung | 2021, (43) | pp.219~250 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research confirmed that there are works collected in Gajip, mainly with the focus on saseol-si-jo among the types of si-jo in Haedong-ga-yo(海東歌謠) of the 18th century composed by No Ga-jae(老歌齋) Kim Su-jang (金壽長, 1690∼?), and that the principle of arrangement in those works can be clarified, based on 'Family Resemblance' becoming the key concept of the second philosophy of Philosopher Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein Philosophical Investigations. In the case of Saseol-sijo composed by Kim Su-jang and collected in Haedong-ga-yo, it's works appear to be arranged irregularly without certain criteria of subject matter or topic, at a first glance. Yet, the method of arrangement based on similar subject matter or association is interpreted from the same framework as the edition format that keeps regular relations according to similarity in the contexts of work arrangement. To put it in another way, the role of arrangement is to clarify a certain object, in association with overlapping similarity found in subject matter of each work. The facts that this research paper discovered correspond to the concept, 'Family Resemblance', that Philosopher Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein had established. The daily world of Gagaek Kim Su-jang in the late period of the Joseon Dynasty was expressed into the work world. The description about a work reflected the epochal fact and his experiences as Gagaek. Thus, it was found that his first work was grouped and arranged into similar subject matters in association with 'pungryu,' and subsequently, the regularity of edition format of his work was classified and categorized into eight subject matters, 'Grief', 'Confucian World View', 'Daily Life of Kim Su-jang', 'Gravy Training', 'Character', 'Fiction', 'Pleasure'. It was also identified that the boundary between similar and different subject matters in the context of the work was not clearly drawn, with the pattern overlapped by similar contextual words. The conclusions can be drawn that Gagaek Kim Su-jang created saseol-sijo for the purpose of pursuing pleasure in a play space, according to the yeonghaeng law, and that he applied the concept of play into his work edition format to establish the regularity of the arrangement of similarity-based work, not the arrangement of sharp boundary classification-based work. Through it, the theory of 'Family Resemblance' of Wittgenstein would be considered. This paper, finally, got to investigate Kim Su-jang's tendency as a compiler and editor of Gajip, providing the momentum to shed a new light on the position of Gagaek Kim Su-jang, in a history of sijo during the late period of the Joseon Dynasty.
  • 9.

    The wish for unmarried in Korean Classical Long Novel: Focused on Ssangcheongibong, Boeungiurok, and Imhwajungyeon

    KO EUNIM | 2021, (43) | pp.251~282 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the wishes for ‘Unmarried’ that appeared in the female characters of Ssangcheongibong, Boeungiurok, and Imhwajungyeon. In addition, this is a study that discusses the mode of unmarried in Joseon society and the meaning of it. The Korean Classical Long Novel reveals the hopes of unmarried being denied and disregarded during the Joseon Dynasty. From the main characters of Ssangcheongibong, Jang Okgyeong and So Wolhye, the desire for unmarried was strongly captured. On the other hand, there were women who realized unmarried in the group of reactionary and auxiliary characters. They were Seol Soah in Boeungiurok, Shak Gawol in Imhwajungyeon, and Cho Okyeon. They rejected the marriage life and returned to Taoism to live their own lives. However, unlike the world in the novels, Joseon's reality treated unmarried only as unfortunate or rebellious. In particular, Catholics who chose to be single with a proactive and subjective attitude had to be prepared for martyrdom in order to live their lives. In this social atmosphere, women's desire for unmarriage was projected into the novel, and that desire was understood and sympathized in the novel. Or, a fantastic setting was added, and unmarried was admitted proudly.
  • 10.

    19th-century Chosŏn literati's literary imagination througha reading of Haiguo tuzhi: focusing on Shin Pilyeong’s 「Haeguk jukjisa」

    PYO GA RYEONG | 2021, (43) | pp.283~313 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    19th Century scholar Shin Pilyoung(1810-1865), pen name Okpa, composed ‘Haeguk jukjisa’, a compilation of 62 jukjisa, after reading Haiguo tuzhi by contemporary bureaucrat and scholar Wei Yuan(1794-1857). The so-called ‘Silhak’(pragmatism) scholars and administrators of the same period, the late Joseon era, used Haiguo tuzhi for the purpose of things like gathering information about foreign affairs, the denouncement of Catholicism, and devising naval defense measures. Shin Pilyoung, on the other hand, departing from the belief that knowledge of the West was critical given the shambolic state of China following the opium war, adopted it as the subject of literary figuration. This paper first examined the context surrounding Shin Pilyoung’s reading of Haiguo tuzhi and his composition of ‘Haegukjukjisa’ as well as the relationship between the two works. This paper recognized that, unlike foreign jukjisa(‘haewaejukjisa’), such as those composed by Cho Su-sam and Lee Yu-won, ‘Haegukjukjisa’ possesses a timely quality as its composition was prompted by a sense of crisis over international affairs. With this in mind, of the total of 62 jukjisa, this paper chose to focus on the jukjisa depicting the overseas state of affairs in Southeast Asia. Shin Pilyoung divided the regions of Southeast Asia in accordance with Wei Yuan’s intention behind the composition of Haiguo tuzhi and in jukjisa that dealt with regions like Singapore, Java Island and Penang Island, he vividly depicted the infiltration of Western powers with a critical voice. It was also an effective way for Joseon scholars to visualize these strange regions. This paper confirmed that Shin Pilyoung used unusual poetic expressions, such as foreign loanwords, to engage the reader’s interest and allow the reader to visualize and indirectly experience the strange world of overseas regions.
  • 11.

    The Publication and Distribution of Literary Collection in the Late Choson Period

    Yoo-seung Jang | 2021, (43) | pp.315~341 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis examine the publication and distribution of literary collection in the late Choson period. Publishing and distribution of texts extends creative and critical behavior to a social dimension at the individual level. The print textbook was not for distribution but for storage as an intermediate stage for publishing the woodblock textbook. It is also difficult to find evidence to prove widespread distribution in the woodblock textbook. The purpose of publishing the woodblock textbook was to engrave and preserve the woodblock itself, rather than publishing the book. The woodblock is a tool for drawing out the book, but it is also a cultural asset in itself. The distribution of poetry through the textbook was almost impossible. The reality of such literature distribution raises the need to fundamentally doubt the continuity of literary history.
  • 12.

    On the current significance of Mighty Baby seen through the movie The Witch

    Sim,Woojang | 2021, (43) | pp.343~380 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    We reflect on the excessive emphasis on the spirit of resistance in the study of the legend of Mighty Baby. This is because this trend has reduced the extended understanding of the legend of Mighty Baby. We think this is why research on the current significance of the legend of Mighty Baby was insufficient compared to myths with similar characteristics. Therefore, this study compares The Witch and Mighty Baby and tries to find a new meaning of Mighty Baby in a wider range. This is because the movie The Witch uses the schema of Mighty Baby but shows a completely different appearance. The character structure of The Witch is consistent with that of Mighty Baby. In both works, there is a triangular structure of a baby with outstanding abilities, a mother who is afraid of the baby's splendor, and a powerful man who tries to kill the baby. In addition, the two works are similar in detail. Unusual things happen before and after birth, and through this, the child's excellent abilities are confirmed. There is a process of moving away from death, and growing into a new person in a special space. The Witch shows the opposite view for Mighty Baby. By setting general character to be a woman rather than a man and making the femininity hardly visible, it overthrows the anti-femininity of Mighty Baby. The mother character, which has an ambivalent personality, was also divided into two, eliminating the contradictions of the mother character and being free from the burden of murdering the baby by the mother. In addition, Ja-yoon Koo, the protagonist of The Witch, acts proactively and subjectively differently from the mighty baby. Ja-yoon Koo makes the biggest reversal by showing a strategy to lure Dr. Baek according to her own needs. In this way, The Witch summoned the Mighty Baby schema because of the expectation and fear of another form of excellence faced by our times. The Witch mainly deals with genetic manipulation, but robot technology and artificial intelligence technology also raise expectations and fears for excellence. In the face of the so-called posthuman era, The Witch attempts to resolve the contradiction between expectations and fears of excellence through the logic of coexistence rather than exclusion or praise. In this sense, it is highly likely that the schema of Mighty Baby will continue to be summoned to create new stories about excellence.