Journal of Korean Literature 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.47

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pISSN : 1598-2076

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2021, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    Various aspects and meanings of character figuration of YongGolDae(龍骨大) in Korean classic narrative

    Eom Tae-ung | 2021, (44) | pp.7~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines how the Qing Dynasty general YongGolDae(1596-1648), who was at the center of the ByeongJaHoRan, was embodied in the narrative literature of the late Joseon Dynasty. As is well known, the YongGolDae is the main character of the ByeongJaHoRan, the one who inflicted great wounds on Joseon. To the Koreans, he was the object of fear. However, in Korean classical narrative literature, he is not only portrayed as a threat. By bringing historical events to the stage of the narrative, the victorious general YongGolDae is replaced by the defeated, and he is portrayed from a perspective other than the winner and loser composition. This proves that the figure of the YongGolDae has changed in a variety of ways within the broad spectrum of narrative literature of empirical and fictional narratives, and that the perception of YongGolDae and war has changed in the process. In order to examine this aspect, in this article, the characteristic aspects of the works in which the YongGolDae appears, ranging from works that correspond to empirical narratives to classical novels and tales have been derived.
  • 2.

    The Problem of Recovery after a Disaster: from the Perspective of the Nomadic People

    Kim, Dae-Joong | 2021, (44) | pp.45~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with the issue of 'recovery after disaster' based on various literature of the late Joseon Dynasty. The disaster situations mainly dealt with in this paper include the occurrence of wandering people due to famine and the occurrence of large-scale casualties due to infectious diseases. This paper explores how a country called Joseon worked in the event of a disaster and how the controlled class of Joseon Dynasty exercised its own agency and used survival strategies in a situation where the national response to the disaster was not very effective. Therefore, ultimately, the relationship between the state and individual agent emerges as an important issue in relation to 'recovery after a disaster'. For this reason, this paper concludes the discussion by intensively analyzing how the attempts of the controlled class of Joseon Dynasty to break away from the state's ruling system are represented in the literature of late Joseon Dynasty. This paper examines the issue of 'recovery after disaster' from a comprehensive perspective, and aims for interdisciplinary research that traverses social history, history of ideas, and political science based on the study of Korean classical literature.
  • 3.

    Aspects of the Experiences and Memories of Imjin[壬辰] War in Sino-Korean Poetry

    Gu, Bon Hyeon | 2021, (44) | pp.89~128 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    War is the greatest disaster that includes death, separation, famine, and disease. Paradoxically, war becomes an important subject of literature because it ravages the mind and emotions of people. This paper aims to clarify that creating literary works is one of the efforts to cure the aftereffects of the war by examining the Sino-Korean poetry created by poets who experienced the Imjin[壬辰] War in person. Sino-Korean poetry containing the experiences and memories of the Imjin War is divided into three main categories. The first is to express the horrors of the war. These poems show the aspect of using the method of contrasting the immutable natural objects with the ruined human traces, and the method of reusing the expressions of the former works that dramatically visualized war experiences such as Dubo[杜甫]’s poems. The second category is the literary works that commemorate the dead and the victims of Imjin war. Although many are dedicated for military commanders and soldiers who have died after establishing distinguished war service, some poets commemorated the unknown soldiers, virtuous women, filial offsprings who sacrificed for their country and family. The third category is the literary works that contain the desire for getting back to normal life. In these works, there is a sense of security of survival, unfamiliarity with the new home and surrounding, which is different from the past, and anxious hopes for the future. The above three types of works can be understood in various ways to heal the pain caused by war. It is necessary to record the horrors of the war to avoid repeating the same tragedy in future generations, and to commemorate the victims of the war is an essential element for the maintenance and development of the community. The recognition that building a new base of life is at least a responsibility for the victims can also be seen as part of an effort to overcome the sadness of war.
  • 4.

    Reconsideration on the Formal Characteristics of enlightenment-gasa(啓蒙歌辭) in Jeguksinmun(帝國新聞)

    SHIN, HYUN WOONG | 2021, (44) | pp.131~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examined the formal characteristics of the four enlightenment-gasa(啓蒙歌辭) works in Jeguksinmun(帝國新聞) and reviewed whether they are Gasa(歌辭) or not. Here, the Gasa is defined as a verse with style continuum of tetrameter and consists of three stages, ‘introduction(序詞)-body(本詞)-conclusion(結詞)’. The subjects of analysis are four works, in previous studies, were presented as arguments with high validity in arguing that they became the formal beginning of enlightenment-gasa. The analysis results of metric pattern and composition are as follows. On the metric pattern, diameter, tetrameter, and hexameter are mixed according to the content. The compositon is generally two-stage. These proved that the four works are not Gasa. In the analysis results of Chapter 3, the following two problems were raised. First, the definition of Gasa should be loosened to categorize the enlightenment-‘gasa’ into Gasa, or a new term suitable for the mode of enlightenment-gasa should be devised. Second, in exploring the formation process of enlightenment-gasa, research perspective should not be fixed at the text media, including newspapers, but be expanded to the performing media. The first problem is that it is possible when the exploration of the trends of poetry of the time and its previous era proceeds. Therefore, Chapter 4 briefly explored the trend of the works enjoyed and performed at the performance places, paying attention to the second problem. As a result, it was revealed that the single-form divisional work with tetrameter appeared and was enjoyed as early as a century ago, or at the latest half a century before the publication of Jeguksinmun(帝國新聞). These works took various forms crossing the boundaries of various modes to the extent that it was difficult to categorize them into the preceding specific modes. This resulted in the need for a new mode term for the enlightenment-“gasa”. Considering the trend of the works enjoyed and performed at the performance places, the term Gasa(歌詞) may be appropriate temporarily, but the ne term should be named through careful research in the future.
  • 5.

    The Theme of Yu Mong-in's “Aeguijeon”(愛鬼傳) and its Fictional Composition

    Solmi Chung | 2021, (44) | pp.159~199 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to clarify the form and subject of ‘Aeguijeon’(愛鬼傳), from the perspective of viewing it as a fictional work by paying attention to the creative aspect of Yu Mong-in (1559-1623). The eventual goal of this paper is to establish the literary and historical value of this work and expand understanding of Yu's life and literary world. ‘Aeguijeon’ has not been well known so far because it is not included in Yu's official collection of writings, Oujip. Instead, only Mukhogo, written by the writer himself only records this work. Originally this work has no title, but as the influence of Chae Soo's Seolgongchanjeon in the previous era can be found and several important fictional composition principles are also seen in this work, this paper named this work "Aguijeon." The 'fictional composition principles' found here are summarized into the following three. One is a parody of the existing literary style. Yu Mong-in dared various stylistic experiments in the work by parodying existing literary styles such as petitions to the king, recreating ghost stories prevailing at the time. Also, he metaphorically likens "Aegwi" to Kim Ga-si, a court lady who wielded power in the royal court of the time. For the last, he has used polysexual voice. Numerous ghosts appear in this work and their voices are revealed in various ways, all of which are conveyed through a message heard by Yu Mong-in from someone else. In addition, his own voice is mixed in the middle, and various languages and voices are mixed. Throughout these composition methods, Yu primarily tried to criticize the corrupted world of the time. At the time of writing this work, he was in an extremely unstable state living a politically failed life, and the critical consciousness of the court drove him to create this work. Meanwhile, he is expressing his pride in himself, who has lived morally perfect life throughout his life by expressing his resentment to the ghostly world, while expressing his delivery of his own depression. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to the literary value of ‘Aeguijeon’ as a fiction, which is a special work that reveals emotions such as sarcastic criticism, self-esteem, anger, fear and anxiety through human and ghost conflict.
  • 6.

    A study on narratives about women defeating monsters in oral transmission: Siberia Kubaiko, China Liji, and Korea Toad and Maiden

    JUNHEE KIM | 2021, (44) | pp.201~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores narratives about women defeating monsters, through the story of Siberia Tatar ‘Kubaiko’(Kubaiko for below), ‘Liji slays the snake’ from Fujian, China(Liji for below), and Korean ‘Toad and Maiden’(Toad for below). First of all, in Kubaiko, the main character Kubaiko revives his brother killed by the monster, through visiting the underworld as a guest, and she acquires superhuman abilities. In Liji, a girl, Liji is said to have entered the snake’s den with a sword and punished the snake which had demanded sacrifice till then. While in the two tales the female protagonists are clearly seen to overpower the monster, the maiden in Korean Toad appears as a sacrifice, who is relatively limited in free movement. However, the maiden was the only being that made the toad move, and played a role in making the monster public. Maiden is an ‘other’ excluded from the human community, and the community’s violence was another monster in this tale. However, the maiden and the toad, who are the others and outsiders to each other, cross the threshold and achieve temporary hospitality to fight off the monster. While the human community continued violence as a temporary measure excluding the weak, the maiden and the toad actively accept meeting with others. Their relationship was temporary and exclusive, but the people(human community) were able to be released from monster by relying on otherness they did not have. This otherness, the influence of ‘difference’ becomes the power to fight monsters in Toad. The maiden’s eradication the monster by allowing the other to move for her sake, shows an aspect of the ‘fighting ability’ that a female protagonist can have. Unlike Kubaiko and Liji, the Korean maiden was in danger of becoming a passive sacrifice without physical strength, but succeeded in saving herself and obtaining additional compensation by offsetting the disadvantage by meeting the others.
  • 7.

    A Study on Adoption Aspects of Concubine song of ‘I-mulkko’ saseol in Rice-planting Songs

    LEE SO YUN | 2021, (44) | pp.235~264 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the study carried out an analytic examination on the basic type and derived type of ‘I-mulkko’ saseol, it was found that when the landlord’s wife appears in the saseol, ‘I-mulkko’ saseol starts to get groundwork which leads it to an event. Especially, the point where the landlord’s wife who used to be the subject of sneer and ridicule becomes the subject of sympathy and pity seems to be establishing the groundwork where concubine song could later be joined to ‘I-mulkko’ saseol. Meanwhile, it is highly significant that the singers were all females in the case where the extended saseol of concubine song was combined to the ‘I-mulkko’ saseol. Regarding this point, it can be inferred that it is probably because the women who enjoyed the songs would have easily sympathized the landlord’s wife who feels miserable because of the concubine while men who enjoyed the song couldn’t easily sympathize the landlord who visits the concubine. Therefore, it can be said that the women enjoyers of the song could have actively engaged in turning the I-mulkko saseol into the event and accepting the concubine songs based on it. Another point that deserves attention is the existence of the concubine, who raises the landlord’s wife up to the subject of sympathy and pity from that of ridicule and sneer, and furthermore turns her into the ‘big mother’ who appears in the saseol of concubine songs, a type of folk ballad. Concubines, representing the reality of polygyny in the pre-modern men-centered society, were regarded as the subject of desire by the contemporary men and as the subject of hatred and anger by the contemporary women. Even though the directions of perception were different, as they were the subjects who get attention from both male and female listeners, concubines must have been the subject that can be talked about in the rice-planting field where both men and women worked together. Thus, the contrast in the perception of men and women towards concubines results in the unique phenomenon of taking the subject of concubines into work folk songs, and this phenomenon can be said to have broken the boundary of genre between work folk song and folk ballad. Therefore, we cannot overlook the concubine’s influence on the ‘I-mulkko’ saseol turning into an event and the acceptance of concubine songs based on it.
  • 8.

    Re-consideration on Choi Chi-won's Prose

    YU Subin | 2021, (44) | pp.265~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to raise questions about the existing perspectives that evaluated the prose of Choi Chi-won(崔致遠, 857~?) based on pianliwen(騈麗文) only and carry out a thorough review of the literary style and personality of his proses. Based on Gyewonpilgyeongjip(桂苑筆耕集), his prose collection written under the flag of Go Byeong(高騈, 821~887) during his stay in Tang China, all people from the literary men in the past to the contemporary researchers, have recognized Choi Chi-won as a writer of pianliwen. However, some proses different from rated pianliwen are captured in Gowoonjip(孤雲集) and Gowoonsokjip(孤雲續集) which were written after he returned to Shilla. On this paper, we tried to research the elements of pianliwen and the elements of ancient-style proses from his proses for the first time as he showed the slightly different literary style from the formal style since he returned to Shilla, unlike while he stayed in Tang China where he wrote only a formal pianliwen, and we thought it very important phenomenon regardless of the weight. First, it was needed to identify clearly what the elements of pianliwen are, in order to classify the elements of pianliwen and the elements of ancient-style proses from the proses of Choi Chi-won. Through his proses on Gyewonpilgyeongjip, we could find his techniques that used the related idioms of ancient events properly while keeping Pyeongcheuk(平仄) and Daejang(對仗) strictly in order to clarify his intentions. We continued to study his proses written after he returned to Shilla through Gowoonjip and Gowoonsokjip. At this time, we examined the proses by classifying into Jueui type(奏議類) which is same style of the prose written during his stay in Tang China and different style Japgi type(雜記類) and Biji type(碑誌類). First, for Jueui type, we found that there was not a difference formally from his prose during his stay in Tang China but he created and used the terminology such as ‘Jejam(鯷岑)’ or ‘Shinhak(蜃壑)’ which means ‘Shilla’ for the first time which showed a big difference in terms of the content. For Japgi type and Biji type, it was found that he showed new writing style away from the strict form of pianliwen. He could not obey the rule of Daejang and Pyeongcheuk as he quoted the original sentences as they are without adding or deleting from the sources of quotation, and even he did not follow the four-six letter rhyming couplets which is the basic form of pianliwen. This is explained that he focused on the contents rather than the form. As the background of this change, it is possible to present the situation of the Chinese literary world at the macro level and direct and indirect relationship with Chinese writers at the micro level. In short, it can be said that at least until the Tang Dynasty, the relationship between pianliwen(騈麗文) and ancient-style proses(古文) was not very exclusive, and the Chinese literary style was directly or indirectly accepted, creating a new style of writing. In brief, this paper is the result of our efforts to reconsider the writing style and personality of Choi Chi-won's proses. Based on this paper, if more detailed observation and analysis were carried out about the form and contents of his proses, we will be able to look at the stature of Choi Chi-won and the history of Chinese-language literature of Korea in a new light.
  • 9.

    Aspects of Collective Intelligence in 15th Century Gwan-gak Literature: Focusing on “The Preface to Hwanghwajip” in 1488

    Koo, Seul-Ah | 2021, (44) | pp.315~351 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study intensively analyzed the Preface to Hwangjip(皇華集序), which was created in 1488 by Eo Se-gyeom(魚世謙) and Kim Jong-jik(金宗直), in order to confirm the aspects of Collective Intelligence in 15th Century Gwan-gak Literature. In this process, it was revealed for the first time that Eo Se-gyeom's preface showed a significant difference in content and expression from the works contained in his collection of works. Also, through the difference in the writing method between the first draft and the revised manuscript, it was estimated who the subject of embellishment was. This preface was written to Dong Wol(董越) and Wang Chang(王敞) when they came to Joseon as envoys. At that time, the two envoys were evaluated as having both profound knowledge and etiquette, but their words and actions that harmed the cultural pride of Joseon around the ordinances(詔勅禮) made the minds of King Seongjong and his ministers uncomfortable. Therefore, it was necessary for Joseon to properly express the sense of civilization of Joseon through this preface. This preface was written in such a way that the most outstanding works were selected from among the outstanding writers. The final preface was written by Eo Se-gyeom. In this paper, Seo Geo-jeong's consciousness of civilization was used as a reference for comparison, and the revised final manuscript was compared with Eo Se-gyeom's draft. As a result, Eo Se-gyeom showed an aspect of excessively demeaning the cultural capabilities of Joseon while using many toadyish expressions that conform to the Hwa-i(華夷) order in the first draft. In the revised manuscript, which is presumed to have been censored by Seo Geo-jeong, such expressions are completely deleted, while the creative tradition of the Preface to Hwanghwajip is more actively utilized. On the other hand, Kim Jong-jik emphasized the cultural pride of Joseon to the utmost, but it was not finally adopted. Through this study, it can be inferred that there were fierce discussions and concerns within the Gwan-gak literature over the direction of diplomacy and civilization consciousness in 15th century.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Stylistic Characteristics of Yeonhaengshi(燕行詩): Universality and specificity of Yeonhaengshi as travel literature

    An, Soon-Tae | 2021, (44) | pp.353~383 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Yeonhangshi, poetry written by people who visited Beijing as envoys during the Joseon Dynasty differs from general domestic travel poetry. Yeonhaengshi is a kind of travel literature written during the course of their envoy to Beijing. So it looks similar to poems written on the way to a domestic tourist destination such as Mt. Geumgang. There are several studies on this issue, but there has been no result of studying the problem in earnest. Yeonhaengshi is a kind of travel literature. So, in Yeonhaengshi, we can check the characteristics that can be confirmed in other travel poetry. These are poems that describe what they saw, poems about history, and poems exchanged with those who accompanied them. It could be said to be a characteristics of the universal travel literature that can be confirmed in Yeonhaengshi. On the other hand, exchanges with Chinese writers, describing of Qing Dynasty, and lyrical recitations of the troubles of a traveller can be said to be unique characteristics of Yeonhaengshi that is difficult to find in other domestic travel poetry. In order to properly understand Yeonhaengshi, the realistic and experiential context of visiting Beijing, that is, the situation in which the poem was written, is a very important thing. Therefore, it can be said that the Yeonhaengshi have didactic style compared to general Korean poetry including domestic travel poetry.
  • 11.

    The acceptance about Qian Qianyi (錢謙益) by historians of Joseon Dynasty: Based on HaeDongyeoksa(『海東繹史』)

    JIN LIHUA | 2021, (44) | pp.385~422 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the excerption from Qian Qianyi(錢謙益)'s works in Han Chi-yun(韓致奫)'s HaeDongyeoksa, and then to elaborate the intellectual's understanding and acceptance of Qian Qianyi in late Joseon Dynasty. Until now, the discussion on Qian Qianyi's influence on the literary world in late Joseon Dynasty mainly focuses on two aspects. One is about literary creation and criticism, and the other is about his disloyalty. However, through the investigation, it can be found that the intellectuals in late Joseon Dynasty also paid close attention to Qian Qianyi's historical achievements. Excerpts from Qian Qianyi's works in HaeDongyeoksa proved the positive acceptance of Qian's historical achievements by intellectual of the late Joseon Dynasty. Facts have proved that Qian Qianyi's anthologies and works were widely spread after they flowed into Joseon. Various versions and transcripts of his anthologies ChuXueJi(『初學集』) and YouXueJi(『有學集』) can be found in South Korean library institutions. Of course, we can also see the literature materials that re edited his articles and poems into volumes. The anthology of LieChao Poems(『列朝詩集』) and DuShi Annotation(『杜詩箋注』) were also circulated in South Korea. He compiled Gui and Qian's Letters(『歸錢尺牘』), which included letters and Format and Specification of Letters(『簡式類編』) also circulated in Joseon. Qian Qianyi's records about Joseon in ChuXueJi, YouXueJi, LieChao Poems and DuShi Annotation were included in Han Chi-yun's history book HaeDongyeoksa. Han Chi-yun accepted Qian Qianyi's poetic history. Therefore, he didn't only affirm the historical value of poetry works and poet's shot biography in the anthology of LieChao Poems, but also distinguished poetry works from poet's shot biography and included them in the Yeamunji(藝文志) and Inmulgo(人物考) in the HaeDongyeoksa. In the compilation of history books, when Han Chi-yun excerpted Qian Qianyi's works, he not only abided by certain trade-off standards, but also excluded some contents that were difficult to accept from the standpoint of Joseon. In the choice of historical materials, we can capture the unique selection criteria and flexibility of the compilers. From this point, we can also see the deep thinking of a historian at Joseon Dynasty. The biggest feature of Han Chi-yoon's acceptance of Qian Qianyi's scholarship is that he approached it academically from a historical point of view. Accepting poetic history, self-cultivating and systematizing it shows his ability and vision as a historian. Like other Joseon intellectuals, he did not discuss Qian Qianyi's life review and did not criticize or advocate. This seems to have been Han Chi-yoon's principle of trying to maintain only thorough academic acceptance without adding any subjective value judgment or artificial evaluation in the complex situation of accepting Qian Qianyi in the late Joseon Dynasty. This special aspect of acceptance shows the diversity of discussions related to Qian Qianyi in the late Joseon Dynasty and proves the dynamics of the development of intellectual history in the late Joseon Dynasty.
  • 12.

    A Study on Kim Ryeo's Figuration of Writers in Exile

    Hong Jinok | 2021, (44) | pp.423~451 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzed Damjeong Kim Ryeo's exceptional attitude toward his predecessors Lee Hang-bok(李恒福) and Lee Gwang-sa(李匡師), both of whom were exiled, and its significance. In the history of Korean literature, Kim Ryeo received the spotlight for his high level of understanding of human beings, which was shown in his portrayal of marginalized people in society and his outstanding literary accomplishment by bringing such people to the forefront in his works. Kim left a long poem on the life of Lee Hang-bok in Chinese poetry on his journey to Buryeong, his place of exile. This study traced Kim Ryeo’s interest in Lee Hang-bok, among the many figures exiled to the northern regions, to the political persecution Kim Ryeo's family experienced during the reign of King Kwanghaegun. While their circumstances may have differed, Lee Hangbok, who pointed out the tumultuous reality amid the hardships and difficulties and defended his innocence, was a person who embodied the behavior that Kim Ryeo considered ideal. The next person Kim Ryeo recalled after he arrived at his place of exile in Buryeong was Lee Gwang-sa. Kim Ryeo felt a special bond with Lee Gwang-sa. As he became acquainted with the people directly related to Lee Gwang-sa in Buryeong, Lee Gwang-sa was no longer a person of the past but a person who formed a new "spiritual relationship" with him. Based on this bond and emotional intimacy, Kim Ryeo recognized Lee Gwang-sa as his predecessor and a fellow writer and tried to communicate with him closely through literature. The profound consolation and spiritual interaction for the exiled writers of the past show how Kim Ryeo's in-depth understanding of humans was not limited to the marginalized people in the society. The works on exiled writers are significant in that they show how Kim Ryeo transcended time and space to interact with the writers of the past whom he had never met in person.