Journal of Korean Literature 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.82

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pISSN : 1598-2076
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2023, Vol., No.47

  • 1.

    On Some Issues of Kim Cheon-taek(金天澤)’s Cheongguyeongeon(靑丘永言) as Seen through the Materials

    Cho, Haesug | 2023, (47) | pp.7~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article seeks to reassess the possibility that different kind of Sijo anthology existed in the early to mid-18th century, by examining from a material perspective and by shedding light on several distinctive aspects to the oldest extant anthology of Sijo called Cheongguyeongeon(靑丘永言), compiled by Kim Cheon-taek(金天澤) in 1728. The original handwritten version of the Kim Cheon-taek’s Cheongguyeongeon(靑丘永言) had remained unpublished, so the type printed edition published by the 朝鮮珍書刊行會 in 1948 was commonly referred to as the “珍本(original edition of) Cheongguyeongeon” and had been a central research material for a long time. However, the manuscript is attracting even more attention and interest amongst researchers after the National Hangeul Museum purchased the original materials and released the photocopied and the annotated edition in 2017. The Kim Cheon-taek’s Cheongguyeongeon is considered to be highly polished, far exceeding standard for one’s first collection in terms of well-organized structure, meticulousness in the selection of works and authors. Moreover, the compilation distinguishes itself from other collections for singing, in the sense that it included: preface and editorial notes to a work exactly the save as original, entire series for serial work, vast amount of Saseol-sijo(사설시조) at the end. Thus, it can be suggested that, just like Haedonggayo(海東歌謠), Cheongguyeongeon had similar versions produced before and after its completion, because the author put so much effort in it. Few distinctive aspects were examined in this study to grasp the intentions behind Kim Cheon-taek’s compilation and the circumstances behind it, Few of those are: the arrangement of works based on the structure, characteristics of prefaces included, the process of setting the “Yeohang-yukin(閭巷六人)” category, and the characteristics of content revealed through selected works. The results of the study indicate that Kim Cheon-taek aimed to reflect the musical aspect and changes in sijo of the time, conducted author verification and source validation, established the order of categories according to the role of sijo music and culture, arranged authors and works considering the ways of interpretation and enjoyment of songs, and writing preface by himself or asking it for the authors, thereby strove for a complete production of a sijo anthology resembling the tradition of nobleman’s poetry compilations. However, this process couldn’t be achieved overnight. It required endless efforts and considerations, including data collection and organization, analysis of works and author verification, selection and finalization based on comparisons with similar works. Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to recent discussions on Cheongguyeongeon(Park Sun-ho edition), which carefully examined the possibility of its connection with the Kim Cheon-taek edition, as well as recent studies that investigated the nature of sijo collections in the early to mid-18th century. Considering the internal completeness and the potential existence of an original or earlier versions, it seems it is more natural to assume a gradual progression towards the final compilation. The Kim Cheon-taek edition of Cheongguyeongeon differs significantly from the theatrical scripts for singing in the 19th century, which are more commonly referred to as “gajip”. The compilation is more suitable for the term “Sijojip(Sijo anthology)”. Therefore, even if Cheongguyeongeon(Park Sun-ho edition) or a few other collections appeared before or simultaneously with the Kim Cheon-taek edition, it does not diminish their significance or meaning as the “first” of its kind. The completion of the compilation can clearly be considered as a first ’event’ of the history of sijo, because this middle-class men was able to complete such a consistency structured collection of sijo out of his pride in singing culture and his extraordinary versatility. While acknowledging that the Kim Cheon-taek edition of Cheongguyeongeon is too well-polished to be considered as the first work, previous literatures made it challenging to rearrange the collection’s position in the sequence of all collections. Early researchers classified collections from a narrow perspective and arranged those with overly simplistic criteria. Now, new collections from the early to mid-18th century are discovered that an objective examination of their formation process can be made through investigating those. Unbiased investigations into the connections and influences between these materials will enable us to recognize that the editor’s interest promoted the diverse nature of compilation of the time, by adaptation and variation.
  • 2.

    The Contemporary Value of Heungbujeon from the Perspective of Material Well-being and Relational Harmony

    Haejin Lee | 2023, (47) | pp.45~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the characterization of the two main characters, Heungbu and Nolbu, and the ending of Heungbujeon, using the keywords of material well-being and relational harmony. It seeks to discover the contemporary value of Heungbujeon by discussing its possible meaning as it relates to the orientations of today’s Korean society. Heungbujeon presents Nolbu as an example of an individual who is preoccupied with the achievement of material well-being while neglecting the value of relational harmony. Heungbu exemplifies an individual who is preoccupied with relational harmony and somewhat neglects the value of material well-being. In a society where individuals live together, Heungbujeon bifurcates in two directions: an ending that excludes human characters like Nolbu and an ending that embraces them. It is the ending of the latter that resolves the conflict between members of society and implies an orientation towards a more harmonious society. Therefore, this article focuses on how this ending embraces a new resonance in today’s Korean society. The ending, in which the wealthy Heungbu rescues Nolbu, and the defeated Nolbu is given a chance to redeem himself, is highly suggestive of the conditions for restoring a harmonious society today, when the discourse of meritocracy spreads widely and social conflict and discord are intensifying day by day. When we consider an episode of the modern-day version of Heungbujeon in a recent popular drama, which is based on a true story, and the traditional thought for believing in the goodness of human nature, it suggests that Korean originally valued relational harmony as much as material well-being. It is hoped that the discussion in this article confirms that Heungbujeon is a text that can help us reflect not only on the late Joseon Dynasty, but also on Korean society today, and that it can contribute to the discussion of the contemporary value of Korean classic literature.
  • 3.

    Regarding the Poetry Collection “Gamjidangjip”(坎止堂集)

    Hong Jinok | 2023, (47) | pp.75~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper introduces and explores the poetry collection “Gamjidangjip”(坎止堂集) of Kim Jing(金澄), a scholar and literary figure from the mid-Joseon period, which has not been previously studied in literary history. In Chapter 2, foundational research is conducted to examine Kim Jing’s life and literary activities. Kim Jing’s life can be summarized as that of a politician who held various significant positions throughout his career, handling important state affairs from his late twenties until the end of his life. However, despite leading a relatively peaceful and stable life as a member of the literati, Kim Jing faced the challenge of constant conflicts with numerous opponents, leading to frequent demotions within the court. So far, only the prose writings titled “Cheongpungsego”(淸風世稿), which was compiled and published by his great-grandsons, Kim Jong-hu(金鍾厚) and Kim Jong-su(金鍾秀), have been transmitted, providing glimpses into Kim Jing’s political, scholarly, and moral aspects. The characteristics and literary value of the poetry collection “Gamjidangjip” can be summarized as follows. “Gamjidangjip” acknowledges the significance of providing a literary source that allows us to perceive Kim Jing, known primarily as a scholar and politician during the mid-Joseon period, from the perspective of a poet. The second book of “Gamjidangjip,” called “Hwadosi”(和陶詩) was composed during a brief period of approximately one month when Kim Jing was away from the court in the spring of 1669. While it is difficult to determine the precise timeframe of the poems included in the first book, considering the overall content of the collected works, they were likely composed during his middle or late years when he was also away from the court. Furthermore, it is highly probable that Kim Jong-hu and Kim Jong-su, who compiled and published “Cheongpungsego,” were the editors of “Gamjidangjip.” The collection was passed down through a close relationship between the two sets of brothers: Kim Igon(金履坤) and Kim I-bok(金履復), and eventually reached Yi Jo-seung(李祖承), a grandson of Kim I-bok, who, in turn, passed it on to Kim Jeong-hui(金正喜), a distant relative of Yi Jo-seung, who eventually became the owner of the collection. The collected works, characterized by depicting the personal aspects of an individual’s daily life rather than the public image of Kim Jing as a prominent figure in any particular group or society, hold significance. In other words, the poetry collection “Gamjidangjip” sheds light on the emotions and mundane aspects experienced by Kim Jing in his personal life and throughout his journey, rather than focusing solely on his influential political career or his dedication to scholarly pursuits.
  • 4.

    Kisaju from Paek-yŏng Collection -The New Aspect of Glossaries for novels and Dongguk Myeongsan Dongcheonjuhaegi-

    Solmi Chung | 2023, (47) | pp.103~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main objective of this paper is to introduce the bibliographic information and contents of Kisaju from Paek-yŏng collection along with its literary value. Kisaju is a Sino-Korean book written by a 19th-century scholar with diverse interests, in which he compiled and transcribed various literary works, excerpts, and information, based on extensive references to valuable literary sources. The book can be divided into five main parts: ① Chinese poems (詞) ② Records from Kanghanjib ③ Miscellaneous information on daily life and yangsheng ④ Unconventional records from Joseon dynasty ⑤ Miscellaneous information related to history, rituals, and laws. Among these parts, particular attention should be given to sections ③ and ④. Section ③ includes a partial transcription of the “Ilgaesimkwaechockorok”, which provides clues for a comprehensive understanding of the later period’s glossaries for novels. Unlike the other records in later Joseon period which mainly focus on Xi You Ji, Shuihu zhuan, and Xi xiang ji, “Ilgaesimkwaechockorok” primarily deals with Jin Ping Mei (金甁梅). Furthermore, unlike other transcribed fiction records, the Chinese pronunciation is provided alongside the Korean translation, allowing us to observe the diverse aspects of glossaries for novels. In section ④, parts of the main text of Dongguk Myeongsan Dongcheonjuhaegi (東國名山洞天註解記) are recorded. Dongguk Myeongsan Dongcheonjuhaegi has been known only to have its preface and postscript included in Wayurok (臥遊錄). However, through this book, we can partially examine the text and ascertain that it aimed to reorganize the geography of Joseon within the framework of Taoistic thought, based on the pride in nature of Joseon. Various research outcomes are expected in the future utilizing Gisaju.
  • 5.

    The Aspect of Puns in “Agi-tan” and the Writer’s Intention

    Ko, Jeonghee , Koo, Bonkwan | 2023, (47) | pp.127~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the aspects of puns used in “Agi-tan”(A Lament Song on Babies) and elucidate the writer’s intention. “Agi-tan” was written by the 19th-century Neo-Confucian literati named Koo Gang(具康, 1757~1832). He created numerous puns using homonymy of ‘Agi(baby)’ with various linguistic statuses such as the derivative suffix of ‘reduction,’ reanalyzed linguistic units and new words or expressions created by attaching ‘Agi’ etc. The writer couplets ‘extremely light and vulgar objects’ like ‘Jippul-Agi’(meaning a strand of a straw) and ‘human Agi(baby)’ based on the commonality of the sound of ‘Agi.’ Through this, he challenges the authority of the adoption system for its artificial resolution for being childless since the Neo-Confucian literati, considered the ‘baby(male heir)’ too critical, had established this system. And he expresses a voice of desperately missing his baby after sending him away for adoption. However, repeating ‘Agi(baby)’ countless times reveals a contradiction implying acknowledgment of the precious ‘Agi(male heir).’ “Agi-tan” is in line with the writer’s representative work “Buksaegok” revealing the self-contradiction of a Neo-Confucian literati with a subversive reservation about the Neo-Confucian social system.
  • 6.

    Choi Nam-seon’s perception of Dangun in Sonyun -Focused on Adoption of Dangungyo‘s Perception of Dangun in Sonyun-

    Park Seong Hae | 2023, (47) | pp.161~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the changes in the terms used to refer to Dangun in the text ‘Sonyun’. The analysis of this paper reveals that Choi Nam-seon adopted Dangungyo’s perception of Dangun. In Sonyun, Choi Nam-seon consciously distinguished “the spirit of Daehwangjo”, the founder and god of all things, from the actual figure Daehwangjo, who descended onto Taebaek Mountain. In addition, the emphasis on “Joseon” as the name of the nation and the implementation of a national narrative akin to a religious narrative are also examples of the writer’s adoption of the Dangungyo perception of Dangun. The findings of this paper regarding Choi Nam-sun’s perception of Dangun as revealed in Sonyun are important in that they confirm that the different terms used for Dangun in Sonyun are the result of Choi Nam-sun’s adoption of the Dangungyo perception of Dangun. This analysis is also meaningful in that it reveals that the universality of Choi Nam-seon’s Dangun theory was inherent to his early Dangun perception.