Journal of Korean Literature 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.82

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pISSN : 1598-2076
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2023, Vol., No.48

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  • 1.

    How Should College Education Respond to Large Language Models?

    Charles La Shure | 2023, (48) | pp.7~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The release of ChatGPT to the public at the end of last year had many in the field of education worried. In response, this paper explored the future of college education and artificial intelligence (AI). First, a proper understanding of how large language models (LLMs) “train” and “learn,” along with their abilities and limitations, was established. Simply put, while LLMs produce plausible linguistic output, they are “stochastic parrots” that have no actual understanding of language. Next, we examined the dangers of generative AI and discovered that they might help in the creation and dissemination of misinformation. Even if these AI are not used with malicious intent, the fact that their training data sets are drawn from the internet—which reflects majority thinking—means that they can perpetuate and amplify social inequality and hegemonic stereotypes and biases. On the other hand, if we consider what is missing from the training data, it is only natural that marginalized voices should be even more marginalized. In addition, leaving the issue of the socially vulnerable aside, LLMs can only be trained on digital data, meaning analog data is ignored. This is in line with the idea of “the destruction of history” put forth by Joseph Weizenbaum, an early critic who warned of the dangers of artificial intelligence. We then discussed the relationship between humans and machines and considered which relationships were problematic and which were desirable. Researchers in the aviation industry recognized the problem of automation bias from an early date, but this phenomenon can be seen in other areas of society as well. Put simply, if a human places too much trust in a machine, they abdicate their decision-making responsibility to that machine and thus fail to respond quickly to solve any problems that may arise should that machine malfunction. LLMs do not endanger lives in the same way that airplanes do, but a similar bias can be seen with them as well. A more important issue, though, is the fact that people are no longer seen as whole human beings but as computers. This tendency was evident long before the advent of computers, for example in the attempts to quantify human intelligence through IQ tests, but it is a problem we must be particularly wary of in the age of AI. Lastly, we considered means for college education to find its way in the present situation. Educators in the US in particular, while dealing with ChatGPT, have pinpointed not the LLMs themselves but the “transactional nature” of education as the problem. That is, they argue that education has long since become less a process of learning and more a transaction in which students receive grades and degrees. Given this transactional environment, it is no wonder that student would rely too much on ChatGPT. This over-reliance, however, comes with side effects: not learning how to think properly, a lack of sufficient academic information, and learning an AI-based writing style. In response, US educators have proposed both “stick” (strategies that make it difficult for students to use LLMs) and “carrot” (strategies that encourage students to learn like human beings, not algorithms) solutions, but the heart of the matter seems to be a sense of responsibility. Creating an educational environment in which students can develop a sense of responsibility for themselves is the path forward for education in the age of AI. If we do this, LLMs can become a useful tool rather than an enemy to fear.
  • 2.

    The Meeting of Historical Geography and Classical Literature Education -Focusing on the Exploration of Place in Playing Jeopo at Manboksa Temple-

    Kim Hara | 2023, (48) | pp.43~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I attempted to explore the historical and geographical specificity of the space represented in Kim Si-seup’s novel Playing Jeopo at Manboksa Temple. The spatial setting of this novel is Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do. Kim Si-seup actually traveled to Honam in 1462 when he was 28 years old and reflected his experience of exploring the Namwon area, including Manboksa Temple, in the creation of the novel space. Therefore, the place names mentioned in this novel serve as an important clue to the historical and geographical approach as actual places in Namwon town. The work of specifically defining the novel’s space in this way is expected to help understand the meaning of the novel’s narrative and the author’s creative consciousness. Places worth mentioning in connection with the narrative of this novel include Manboksa Temple, Jiri Mountain, Gaeryeong-dong, and Boryeonsa Temple. Manboksa Temple maintains its sense of place through Manboksa Temple Site in Wangjeong-dong, Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do. What is noteworthy about Manboksa Temple’s location is that it is located near a densely populated area of private houses near Namwon Eupseong Fortress and has existed as a temple for a long time, granting the wishes of the people of the town. And Jiri Mountain is the last place where the novel’s male protagonist, Yangsaeng, was seen, and is closely connected to the ending of the novel. Yangsaeng goes missing after saying he was going to Mt. Jiri to dig up medicinal herbs. From this ending, we can read his desire to protect his one and only love. Meanwhile, the fact that the ridge of Jiri Mountain can be seen in the distance from the grounds of Manboksa Temple implies that the starting point of this novel also encompasses the space that hints at its lonely ending. Boryeonsa Temple is a temple located at the foot of Boryeon Mountain, and its location is presumed to be Bangchon-ri, Geumji-myeon, Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do. This place contains the climactic moment of the novel when Yangsaeng, who was immersed in love with the heroine despite her many suspicious circumstances, was ultimately forced to accept that the heroine did not belong to the human world. Gaeryeong-dong is a space where the anonymous heroine mainly belongs, and Yangsaeng came to fully trust and love the woman during the three days he spent there. This is also the temporary burial place of the female protagonist who was sacrificed during the Japanese invasion of Namwon in 1379 or 1380. I was the first to raise the inference that this Gaeryeong-dong is the valley below Gaeryeongamji in Deokdong-ri, Sannae-myeon, Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do. Gaeryeongam was a temple near Jeongnyeongchi on Jiri Mountain, located on the road from Namwon, Jeolla Province, to Hamyang, Gyeongsang Province. The temple, built during the Goryeo Dynasty, no longer exists, leaving behind only a few traces. Kim Si-seup passed through this place in 1462 on his way from Namwon to Gyeongju via Hamyang. What is noteworthy about the location of Gaeryeong-dong is that it is located within the area of Jiri Mountain. This helps us understand the movements of the ending, where Yangsaeng enters Jiri Mountain and goes missing. For Yangsaeng, Gaeryeong-dong was a place engraved in his heart as it was the place where he spent the longest time with the heroine. When Yangsaeng, who valued one love more than Buddhist liberation, went to Gaeryeong-dong to check for traces of the woman, he had already entered Jiri Mountain. When he disappeared into Jiri Mountain, he had only gone a little deeper from where he originally was. Gaeryeong-dong, located at the starting point of Jiri Mountain, becomes an important coordinate in the movement of Yangsaeng who disappeared without having lost his one and only love.
  • 3.

    A Compassionate Perspective toward Public Leadership in Conflict Mediation

    Inkyung Lee | 2023, (48) | pp.85~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The study looks into the perception of intellectuals by focusing on public leadership for conflict mediation and the narrator’s views as described in literature related to legal folktales, also known as 訟事說話 (folktales dealing with trial processes). These folktales depict not only the trial processes of civil or criminal cases but also the complete case-solving process from the initiation of disputes to the investigation process and the final verdict related to the general administrative tasks of local officials. In the legal folktales written in literature, a diverse panorama of human lives unfolds, and the views of narrators consistently are biased. They prioritize Confucian ideology as an absolute value, unilaterally force a patriarchal societal order, and take it for granted to approve the class superiority of the nobility and to sacrifice individuals within family or kinship communities over individual self-realization in the public area. The narrators representing the consciousness of noblemen maintain distorted and biased perspectives towards lower social classes and women. The narrators who depicted the manifestation process of public leadership mediating various conflicts attentively observed the wisdom and judgments of several judges and consistently evaluated based on the values held by noblemen. They assessed the trial processes from their subjective standpoint but showed indifference to the impacts on the common people. They exclusively worried about a collapse of the communal order set by the nobility while ignoring the suffering of the socially disadvantaged who suffocated under such a stringent social order. The narrators evaluated the judges’ decisions by focusing on the defense of the social order that noblemen aspire to. At that time, those who read literary tales were all nobles with proficiency in Chinese like the writers. Those who read the literary tales in the Joseon Dynasty identified their social homogeneity as nobles while solidifying it. Reflecting on the literary utility of reading legal folktales, training for empathy to see from another’s perspective is the purpose of reading literature. In the legal scenes illustrated in legal folktales, there are plaintiffs and defendants, judges, and mediators as well as narrators who consistently observe and narrate. Readers can have an opportunity to interpret the ongoing dispute process from various angles through the perspectives of these diverse characters. Those who read also contemplate the fairest judgment, putting themselves in the shoes of a mediator. This process demands legal folktale readers for psychological tasks of empathy and self-reflection towards others. At that moment, moral imagination is required.
  • 4.

    Women’s Literacy and Literature in Korean ‘Cheongi’(傳奇) Novel

    Choi, Ji-nyeo | 2023, (48) | pp.125~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The male and female main characters of the Korean Cheongi novel are depicted as people with excellent ability of classical literature and composing poems, as they reveal their emotions and identity through literature and further form a mental bond with their lovers. However, considering the reality of women in Joseon Dynasty who lacked opportunities to be educated and trained for writing compared to men, these characters can be said to be somewhat unrealistic. In Cheongi novel, female characters and their surrounding environments are elaborately set so that women can have literacy and literary capabilities to secure novel probability. The status of heroins can be largely divided into noble class and middle and lower class. They were daughters of wealthy prestigious families, court ladies or Kisaeng(妓生) and all belonged to a small group of women who could access to literary arts in Joseon Dynasty. The experience and situation of female characters described in the novel also help the reader’s understanding of their literacy and literature. In the late Joseon Dynasty, the narrative role of literary works in Cheongi novel gradually weakens and the status of female characters are confined to middle and lower classes. Literacy and literature of female characters develop in a way that reflects the language environment based on classes, beyond the traditional custom of the genre.
  • 5.

    A Study on a Female Protagonist’s Suicide Attempts in Ogwonjaehapgiyeon

    Haejin Cho | 2023, (48) | pp.149~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates a female protagonist’s suicide attempts in Ogwonjaehapgiyeon, a work of fiction written in the late Joseon Dynasty. So far, one of the most interesting points in the work involves a female protagonist who tried to kill herself six times but survived. Nevertheless, her suicide attempts in fiction have not been structurally analyzed. I examined scenes and the corresponding meanings of the protagonist’s suicide attempts in Ogwonjaehapgiyeon. Hyeonyeong, the character who attempted suicide six times, was saved by other people such as a nanny, a character from Tang chuanqi named Liuyizhuan, a historical character, a widow, and father-in-law. She finally decided to live as they persuaded her to stop killing herself by suggesting other options. Many widows killed themselves when their husbands contracted fatal illnesses in 18-19th century Korea, a phenomenon that can be said to have resulted from oppression by the patriarchy. Ogwonjaehapgiyeon focused the debates on chastity between Hyeonyeong and the other people, making the narrative interesting. Also, the work asserted that people should not recommend that widows take their own lives.
  • 6.

    Chaesaenggiwoo(蔡生奇遇) Consideration of Satire -Focusing on Character Formation and Desire-

    Ahn, Ji Min | 2023, (48) | pp.173~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article takes as its subject of study the Yadamgye(野談系) short novel Chaesaenggiwoo(蔡生奇遇). The purpose is to examine Old man Chae(蔡)’s Satirical character, his son’s psychological phase of fantasy, and traces of women’s desires.Through this, I would like to reveal that the way of depicting characters and desires contributes to effectively taking on satire. Previous studies have tended to look at the work mainly based on the confrontation between Old man Chae(蔡) and interpreter Kim Ryeong(金令). It seems that there was a strong intention to place the work in the coordinates toward modern realism novels by highlighting aspects that dynamically show social status trends during the modern transition period. However, as that view has solidified to this day, it is thought that areas excluded from the work also clearly existed. This paper focused on three aspects of the excluded areas. First, contrary to the existing view that defined Old manChae’s character as ‘serious’ and ‘stern’, it focuses on the fact that the fallen noble class is effectively being satirized by acquiring a comical typicality that goes back and forth between desire and respect (ideology) around ‘whims’ and ‘memory loss’. Next, the description of the fantastic desire detected in the son Chae-saeng(蔡生)’s gaze, attitude, and emotions shows that this text is not only composed of the axis of the confrontation between old man Chae and interpreter Kim Ryeong, but also that there is another axis of generational conflict between father and son. This tells us that the text contains a fantastic narrative of the son’s dual desire to fulfill his desire that goes against his father’s teachings without seriously violating his father’s world. Next, we examine how the fantastic desire detected in the son Chae-saeng’s gaze, attitude, and emotions reveals the duality of hesitation between his father’s teachings (ideology) and his desire. In addition, it is revealed that the son’s narrative is being satirized by depicting the narrative of a foolish person’s megalomaniac desire and windfall as the miraculous fulfillment of the desire is achieved solely by the interpreter. Lastly, by analyzing the desires of old man Chah’s wife, Chae-saeng’s wife, and Kim Ryeong’s daughter, we examine how each woman escapes from traditional hierarchical relationships and society’s expected gaze. In doing so, this article aims to reveal that the text satirizes the downtrodden yangban class in the late Joseon Dynasty while unleashing the various desires of the members of the Fallen Yangban family.
  • 7.

    Qing Writers Whom Joseon Envoys Met in the Year of Daoguang and Xiangfeng -Focusing on the Data from ‘A Collection of Poetry by the Joseon People(韓客詩存)’-

    Jin Hong-mei | 2023, (48) | pp.213~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dao Guang(道光, 1821~1850) and Xian Feng(咸豐, 1851~1861) Period of the Qing Dynasty was a time when they faced internal and external conditions. During this period, evidential learning still held a leading position in the Qing Dynasty, but some writers began with a sense of crisis and promoted a useful learning for running a country, which drew support from the court and a favorable response from literature. On the other hand, Song School of Poetry had the greatest influence in literature at the time, and Song School of Poetry’s influence grew even greater with the addition of Tongchengpai writers with similar poetic tendencies. In this paper, the connections, exchanges, and tendencies of Qing writers who directly interacted with Joseon envoys during this period were examined based on changes in the Qing Dynasty’s academic style and literature. It is noteworthy that many of the writers who exchanged with Joseon envoys during this period were from Jinsa, so they had a high level of literature. In addition, it is presumed that many writers had a Suffering consciousness of friendship as they directly or indirectly participated in the Opium War or Taiping Heavenly Kingdom War. In terms of literary trends, it can be divided into Song School of Poetry and Tongchengpai , and in this paper, Zhang mu (1805-1849), who was a historian and had a very close relationship with the key figures of Song Si-pa, examined his academic trends, characteristics of poetry, and exchanges with Koreans. As for the Tongchengpai faction, the characteristics of poetry creation and friendship with Joseon writers were examined, focusing on the Zhu qi (朱琦, 1801~1861). Their academic trends and poetry style are thought to have had a certain influence on Joseon’s writers.
  • 8.

    Compilation of the Chinese Dongkuk Gisa Book Lists by Intellectuals in the Late Joseon Dynasty -Focusing on Lee Deok-moo, Han Chi-yoon, and Lee Kyu-kyung-

    Jin Lihua | 2023, (48) | pp.237~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focused on three Chinese Dongkuk Gisa book lists compiled by intellectuals in the late Joseon Dynasty. Lee Deok-moo(李德懋)’s Hwaingi Dongsa(華人記東事), Han Chi-yoon(韓致奫)’s Dongguk Gisa(東國記事) and Lee Kyu-kyung(李圭景)’s Jungwon Gi Dongsa(中原記東事) contain specialized books on the Korean Peninsula compiled by Chinese intellectuals. Lee Deok-moo’s Hwaingigidongsa contained 22 kinds of books, and Han Chi-yoon’s Dongguk Gisa collected 59 kinds of books. Lee Kyu-kyung’s Jungwon Gi Dongsa contained 23 kinds of books and inherited the contents of Lee Deok-moo’s books. Re-segmenting the literature contained in these books identifies the types of Korean Peninsula encyclopedia, administrative records and observations, books related to the institution of the Korean Peninsula, books on the art of war, poetry collections, and history books. And if you look at the narrative system, it can be said that Lee Deok-moo’s book list belongs to the Joseon-centered narrative system. Han Chi-yoon and Lee Kyu-kyung’s book list showed efforts to objectify their perception of their country in the East Asian Chinese character civilization beyond the Joseon-centered narrative system and can be said to belong to an objective narrative system. Through these three book lists, it was possible to see the process of intellectuals in the late Joseon Dynasty building an objective narrative system for their country. On the other hand, the collection of Chinese Dongkuk Gisa book lists written by Joseon intellectuals will be evaluated as valuable data showing their own perception and data that can help us explore the origin of the establishment of Korean studies in China.