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2018, Vol.11, No.2

  • 1.

    Understanding Quranic Jesus Based on Its Narrative on Crucifixion

    Ah Young Kim | 2018, 11(2) | pp.9~44 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Did Jesus die on the cross and then rise from the dead? This question has generated vigorous discussion between Muslims and Christians for more than fourteen centuries. The long history of Christian-Muslim encounter has seen Christology as a primary issue of controversy, often the subject of acrimonious debate, rarely productive of interreligious understanding. Aware of this, some scholars from both religions argue that Christology should be put aside because Islamic meanings of Christ are quite different from those of Christian theological confession: There can be nothing theologically agreed upon on this matter, they argue, because Islam rules out any incursion of the human into the sphere of the divine. While the Quran elevates Jesus above other mortals, he remains no more than“a subject of the history of prophets”by which God guided humankind until revelation was sealed by the final prophet, Muhammad. Christians and Muslims have differed sharply especially over the question of whether Jesus Christ died on the cross; Christians affirm that he did and Muslims insist on the basis of the prevailing interpretations of Quran 4:157-158, that he did not. The Quran indisputably denies the core of Christian doctrine, that is, death at crucifixion. In other terms, God’s prophet could not be killed by human beings. The Quran clearly speaks on the people’s intention to kill Jesus, only to fail because of God’s intervention. However, discussions and analyses show what a rich and diverse range of answers to this question have historically been seen as legitimately supported within the Muslim community. I believe that there can be room to find common ground regarding the reason why crucifixion had to historically occur, especially based on the understanding on the human condition. The crucifixion represents an urgent and ongoing call – addressed to Christians and Muslims alike - to faith in the divine power which redeems, transforms and delivers through suffering love; and only through this faith, we can overcome evil with good.
  • 2.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYARIAH LAW IN MALAYSIA - IMPLICATIONS FOR MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS

    John, Cheong | 2018, 11(2) | pp.45~79 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The establishment of Syariah law in Malaysia’s pre-independence history is examined with respect to Malay customs and the sultanate. Post-independence developments and legislative reforms in Malaysia’s legal system that favoured syariah law strengthened Islamic law but weakened Malay customs (adat ) in areas such as kinship and marriage which introduced social conundrums. Conflicts also surfaced over its authority and applicability over interreligious relationships with non-Muslims. The article discusses Christian witness and relationships with Muslims in these areas of contestations in order to understand the hurdles. Furthermore, the article also seeks to promote specific proposals which aim to prompt cooperation from the Church to engage in Malaysia’s coming future. This paper concludes with an incarnational theology of ministry and reasons for guarded optimism in light of recent socio-religious dissensions amongst the ummah in recent decades.
  • 3.

    The Understandingof the Issue of Yemenirefugees in Korea

    Kwon Jee Yun | 2018, 11(2) | pp.81~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The issue of refugees is a very serious issue on the global agenda. According to the recent report by UNHCR, there are 685,000,000 homeless people around the world, and more recently, there are an additional 16,200,000 people. From this number we can see that one out of 110 people are expelled refugees or are seeking asylum. In recent past, a number of 448 Yemeni people entered the Jeju area in Korea without visa in order to apply for refugee status. This is a significant issue in all of Korean society especially in the Jeju area. There are serious arguments for and against the Yemeni engagement policy in regards to the people who are applying for refugee status in Korea. Furthermore, angry public opinions insist on the abolition of refugee law and participation in the Refugee Convention. Given the angry public opinions, the government must find answers to the current pressing problem. More importantly, the public does not want refugees to become members of the Korean society. Their understanding of refugees is that they might be potential criminals. These opinions are related to Islamic terrorism as well as the problems seen with refugees in Europe. It is also deeply connected to Xenophobia and Islamophobia. As a result, there is a division within the Korean community: us and them. Therefore, the refugees are excluded from the society and are discriminated. Despite the fact that Korean society is no longer a monocultural society but a multicultural one, the problem of exclusion and discrimination still persists throughout the country. Considering the situation of the Yemeni refugees from a Christian mission perspective, how should the church address this issue? Volf’s concept of “exclusion and embrace” can provide the answer to this question. In his book Exclusion and Embrace: A Theological Exploration of Identity, Otherness, and Reconciliation, the Croatian theologian, now a professor at Yale, Miroslav Volf, explained that so many of the sins we commit against our neighbor are acts of exclusion. He writes that in order to move from exclusion to embrace, there needs to be moments that provide space for repentance, forgiveness, creating room within oneself for the other and healing of past memories. The Korean Church should make room to embrace the Yemeni refugees without exclusion, discrimination, and fear towards Muslim refugees in Korea, despite social and religious obstacles.
  • 4.

    Understanding and Forecasting the Turkish-Kurdish Dispute

    Kim, Sung Woon | 2018, 11(2) | pp.113~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper aims to understand the long-lasting Turk-Kurdish dispute. Comprised of 500 tribes which share a common language, religion, culture, and history, the Kurdish people are the world’s largest stateless nation. Unable to establish a geographic state, the Kurdish people are dispersed throughout the borders of numerous countries; roughly 15-20 million in Turkey, 10 million in Iran, 5 million in Iraq, and 2 million in Syria today. The fact that a nation exists without a state is not always a dire problem. In fact, not all nation groups have an independent state of their own nor particularly desire to have an independent state. However, oftentimes when an oppressive ruling nation and a minority nation exist under the same state, political dispute occurs. Turkey, comprised with 80% Turks and 20% Kurds, is one of the states in which such a dispute constantly surges. Though there are also problems of the same nature in Iraq and Iran which has recently gained international attention, the Kurdish related problem in Turkey has a special layer of complexities. Even amongst the Turks, some argue that though the Kurdish request to gain independence must not be accepted, their political, cultural, and religious rights must be respected, while others refuse to acknowledge the presence of Kurds at all. In addition to refusing their presence, they also claim the Kurdish problem is a result of outside forces creating an artificial presence to divide Turkey and lead it to its downfall. To makes matters more difficult, Kurds do not have a unified understanding and definition of their problems. Turkish Kurds exist with diverging interests and are divided by numerous factors. The Turkish Kurds religious affiliations are many and religiously incompatible. The religions practiced are, Sunni Islam, a Shia faction, Alevi, and a mixed divided faction of Yezid. Similarly, their languages are divided to Kurmanci and Zaza, which are not able to provide mutual linguistic communication. Socially, the nation is divided by the Asiret clan. In addition to these complexities, the Kurdish problem is an international problem which draws the interest of numerous nations. Beyond Turkey, Iran, Syria, and Iraq which are directly affected by the Kurdish problem, the Western political powers which have been using Kurds as a tool for their power play are also deeply involved with the issue. For such reasons, it is difficult to understand whether the dispute is related to the independence of Kurds from Turkey or for the two nations to live compatibly under the same state, in addition to who would have the ability to solve such a dispute. This paper approaches the issue as a communal problem shared by Turkey and Kurdish rather than a single-sided oppressive situation by examining the historical background and progression of the issue. Using this approach, this paper offers a forecast of how the Turk-Kurdish dispute will progress in the near future.
  • 5.

    Theoretical Grounds of the Islamic Revival Movement - Focused on the Concepts of Jahiliyyah-Salafism-Tajdid-takfir-Jihad -

    Weonjin Choi | 2018, 11(2) | pp.151~186 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Recently most world religions are growing in size, but Islam is increasing particularly rapidly. In addition to growing in size, Islamic communities are attempting to restore their original teachings and ideals for the Islamic community. For the author, the purpose of this paper is to explain the theoretical grounds of the following; The Islamic revival movement, its origins, its development until now and finally, the current acceleration of the Islamic revivals. The Islamic revival movement was one of the most important social movements of the world in the 19th and 20th century. Muslims believed that for a Islamic revival, the only way to revere their situation was to oppose modernization. Islamic revivals took different shapes and forms according to how different groups interpreted the Quran, Hadith, and Sunna. Each group sought revival and even employed immoral and violent methods at times to bring about desired results. In order to understand the theoretical grounds of the Islamic revival movement, the author believes understanding of the concepts of Jahiliyyah; Salafism; Tajdid-takfir; Jihad, and how these are interrelated are essential. The author concludes that revival proponents are attempting to obtain their Islamic identity, continuity, certainty, and finally Islamization of the world throughout the movement.
  • 6.

    Understanding Ayaan Hirsi Ali’s Reformation

    Steve Yim | 2018, 11(2) | pp.187~220 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    For the Korean Church in the 21st century, Islam is one of the most difficult topics to understand. “What is Islam to us?” It is not easy to answer rightly, since Korean churches have little experience with the Muslim world. One of the ways to get a balanced picture of Islamic world is to listen to the voices of those who were insiders of Islamic societies with reformist perspectives. Ayaan Hirsi Ali was an active insider of Islamic Fundamentalism, but later became critical activist against Islam and the Islamic terrorism. Recently she suggested an Islamic reformation as a way of solving Islamic terrorism. In her book titled“Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now (2015),” Hirsi Ali insists Islam is responsible for the Islamic terrorism and therefore, Islam needs a reformation to remove grounds for committing terrorism from the Islamic teachings. If the reformation can be achieved, the Islamic civilization can coexist with other civilizations. In support of this view, there are many Muslim scholars and activists who insist on the Islamic reformation. Furthermore, for change to happen, non-Islamic civilizations need to cooperate with Muslim reformists to reform Islam and the Islamic society. Hirsi Ali’s view on Islam and the future of Islam will be helpful for the Korean church to build a balanced understanding on Islam and Islamic world.