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pISSN : 2005-8284 / eISSN : 2234-3598

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2007, Vol.10, No.1

  • 1.

    International Discussions on Informed Consent in Clinical Practice and Biomedical Research

    Kwang-Ho Meng | 2007, 10(1) | pp.1~8 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Although informed consent is a core issue of bioethics at the international level, UNESCO’s International Bioethics Committee (IBC) has claimed that the issue of consent needs further discussion and consideration in light of advances in science and technology and the unique cultural characteristics of each society. Accordingly, the IBC formed a working group in 2005 at its Twelfth Session in Tokyo to develop a detailed report on consent. This paper reviews international discussions on informed consent, focusing on the Report of the IBC’s Working Group on Informed Consent, and discusses the IBC’s efforts to promote a greater understanding of the principle of consent through its follow-up actions such as translating and publishing documents, holding conferences, and establishing the Global Ethics Observatory and Ethics Education Programs.
  • 2.

    Medical Ethics Education in North-American Medical Schools

    CHEONG Yoo-Seock | 2007, 10(1) | pp.9~22 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Medical schools in the United States and Canada now include medical ethics education as an essential part of their curricula. Despite this, recent studies point to deep shortcomings in the literature on medical ethics education. Deficits exist in all areas of the literature: in the theoretical work done on the overall goals of medical ethics education, in the empirical studies that attempt to examine outcomes for students, and in the studies evaluating the effectiveness of various teaching methods. This article summarizes the main findings of three important articles concerning medical ethics education that were originally published in the journal Academic Medicine. This article also discusses the implications of these findings for medical ethics education in Korea. It is argued that further progress in medical ethics education may depend on the willingness of medical schools to devote more curricular time and funding to medical ethics.
  • 3.

    A Cross-Cultural Approach to Biomedical Ethics: Medical Decision Making

    SangMok Lee | 2007, 10(1) | pp.23~32 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The supremacy of individual consent and autonomy in resolving bioethical problems and medical decision making is increasingly being called into question in Eastern cultures, where long-standing customs and traditions often clash with the Western principles of autonomy, self-determination, and individual rights. In order to strengthen and promote medical ethics and bioethics in the East, a detailed understanding of the ethical traditions of both civilizations is needed. This study goes some way toward fulfilling that need by providing a cross-cultural comparison of Eastern and Western bioethics and examining Confucian and Western moral perspectives on medical decision making.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Possibility of Rational Communication Action Theory as a Methodology of Medical Ethics Education: Focusing on Habermas' Theory

    김진경 | 2007, 10(1) | pp.33~48 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Medical ethics education plays a critical role in forming the attitudes and values of prospective physicians who will directly engage in various, complex clinical situations in the future. In this sense, today's medical ethics education should have the goals of exactly identifying many different ethical problems faced in clinical situations and, to better cope with such problems, raising the skills of moral thinking and criticizing for making most rational decisions. One way to achieve such goals lies in Habermas' Rational Communication Action Theory that can be quite meaningful as a new methodology of medical ethics education. The theory considers language as the primary element of communication and stresses 'context' in which the element is used. In such context, parties of communication, the speaker and the listener, communicate with each other under a relationship of mutual respect and reciprocality. Both of them could promote a mutual understanding-oriented communication action through conversations and discussions and, as a result, reach a most ideal, universal consensus. Actually, Rational Communication Action may be embodied into a method of communicative discussion that is practiced during medical ethics education. Such discussion in which students participate should be based on mutual recognition. With the validity claims based, the context and legitimacy of discussions under communication are determined, ultimately drawing out a universal consensus. In the process of communicative discussion, students can learn skills of communication with others as well as those of moral thinking and critical judgment against given problems. In summary, Habermas' Rational Communication Action Theory allows students to raise their skills of critical thinking through such action and furthermore become aware and reflectively think of their problems by themselves.
  • 5.

    Problem Design and Evaluation for Nursing Students’ Problem-Based Learning in the Protection of Patients’ Rights

    Kim Ki Kyong | 2007, 10(1) | pp.49~60 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study designed and evaluated problems for nursing students’ Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in the protection of patients’ rights. The study involved a cross-sectional, descriptive survey with nonrandom, convenience sampling. The subjects, 113 senior students from two colleges of nursing, all agreed to participate in the study. Cho’s (2003) Procedure for Problem Design was applied and a measuring instrument of problem evaluation consisting of 7 items and 5 scenarios was developed by the author. Data was analyzed using a mean, t-test with the SPSS program. The mean scores for motivation were high, and statistically significant differences were not found between the two groups of students evaluated. The results suggest that PBL modules should be developed and applied to clinical conferences for students in order to improve the application of PBL. In addition, patients’ rights education through experiential learning should be implemented to change nursing students’ attitudes and improve their protective behaviors.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Level of Agreement between Impaired Elders and their Primary Family Caregivers: Problems in Family Proxy Assessments

    Meeae Lee | 2007, 10(1) | pp.61~72 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The study was carried out to identify whether or to what extent there is agreement between impaired elders and their primary caregivers with respect to their knowledge, attitudes, and opinions regarding long-term care. Three instruments were measured: 1) knowledge of the burdens on caregivers; 2) attitudes toward parent care; and 3) opinions on future-use of long-term care services. The study found statistically significant differences between patients and caregivers in their knowledge, attitudes, and opinions regarding long-term care, indicating that family proxy assessments might not reflect patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and opinions on long-term care. Accordingly, the study provides support for the proposal of legalizing proxy appointments to raise accuracy and dependability of family proxy assessments.
  • 7.

    Resolving Conflicts between Informed Consent and Patients' Privacy in Medical Emergencies

    Hye Young Jang | Hyun A Bae | Lee, Seok-Bae | 2007, 10(1) | pp.73~82 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article provides guidelines for obtaining informed consent in medical emergencies. Obtaining consent from patients in the emergency room can prevent appropriate and timely access to their evaluation and treatment. While mentally competent adults always have the right to consent, whether or not a minor has the right to consent depends up his or her mental capacity. As such, there is room for flexibility concerning the legal age for informed consent. After a judgment is made on the patient’s capacity for consent, the urgency of the situation should be considered. If medical treated is needed immediately, it should be provided, even if the patient is a minor. When there is enough time for getting consent, a physician should try to obtain consent from a patient or legal surrogate.
  • 8.

    The Development of a Research Ethics Education Program: Experiences, Current Situation, and the Need for Research Ethics Education

    Sung-Hee Ahn | SungSuk Han | In-Hoe Ku and 1other persons | 2007, 10(1) | pp.83~98 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the experiences, current situations, and educational needs of researchers in life sciences in order to develop an educational program for research ethics. A total of 267 subjects from medical center C participated in this study. The findings were as follows: 1) 43.8% of respondents agreed with the item, “I have included the name of a person in my research who didn’t contribute to my research,” while only 3.7% agreed with the statement “I have tried to minimize risk factors which could impact on participants during the research process”; 2) on the status of ethics education, the number of discussions or lectures regarding research ethics and ethical problems was very low; 3) the highest acknowledged educational need was for “scientists’ ethical responsibility and attitudes” (69.7%), while the lowest acknowledged need was for a “peer review system” (27.0%); 4) differences in educational needs were found among the different disciplines. In medical science, research misconduct, human and animal research ethics, conflict of interest, and peer review were highlighted, while in basic biological science, animal research ethics and the relationships among research members were emphasized. In nursing science, ethics education on authorship and referencing was widely regarded as lacking. These findings indicate that research ethics education is needed in order to support responsible research conduct.
  • 9.

    The Development of a Research Ethics Curriculum for the Life Sciences

    Hong Suk Young | 2007, 10(1) | pp.99~108 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to develop a research ethics curriculum for the life sciences at the undergraduate level. The aims of research ethics education should support the aims of the life sciences. Therefore, research ethics education should, in the first place, help to prevent research misconduct; secondly, it should respect the dignity of life. The educational program developed in this study places emphasis on the teaching of fundamental values related to research ethics. It is argued, furthermore, that for pedagogical purposes, good examples of research ethics are preferable to examples of misconduct.