Traditional medical ethics which underpins its basis on ‘four principles’ is not sufficient for guiding doctors in complex medical situation. This paper explores Dasan (茶山) Jeong Yakyong’s thought about the concept of Mercy (慈) in Mokminsimseo (牧民心書) that may work as a guidance for modern medicine. Firstly, we try to understand Dasan's thought and the keynote of Mokminsimseo (牧民心書). Nextly, this paper explain the meaning of what is Dasan (茶山) Jeong Yakyong’s the concept of Mercy (慈). Finally, we emphasize that Jeong Yakyong’s the concept of Mercy (慈) can be the principle of doctor's professionalism.
Over the last few decades ‘respect for autonomy’ has emerged as one of the most important ethical principles governing modern medicine. This is due at least in part to the influence of Beauchamp and Childress’s Principles of Biomedical Ethics. However, there seem to be two major problems with this principle of respect for autonomy: one is that it has become something of a dogma; the other is that the concept of autonomy is unclear. In many areas of life, including that of medical care, it is difficult to discern which agents are truly autonomous, which decisions (or acts) are truly autonomous and, accordingly, which of these are to be respected. It seems that a better understanding of autonomy is very much needed. This article responds to that need by providing a careful examination of both rationalist and care-based conceptions of autonomy. It argues that rationalist conceptions of autonomy cannot account for cases of akrasia, and that care-based conceptions of autonomy help to illuminate the intimate relationship between autonomy and the emotions.
The normative principles of medical ethics are classified into two categories: traditional ethical theories (utilitarianism and deontological ethics) and empirical principles like the Hippocratic Oath. Each of these two streams of medical ethics has strengths and limitations. This article presents social contract theory as a new approach to understanding medical ethics. On this view, medical professions are based on social contracts for protecting patients from therapists with no licenses. These social contracts consist of hyper-norms, general or whole social contracts, regulations, stewardships and personal contracts. Medical professionals and medical societies both must uphold all of the social responsibilities (including legal liability) of these contracts. In order to strengthen the observance of these social contracts, this article proposes a process of medical ethical decision-making based on social contracts. Additionally, to reduce patient-physician conflicts, this article identifies the appropriate decision-making participants and argues for the necessity of hierarchical clinical ethics committees.
This study was designed to assess the degree of cancer patients’ awareness of the nature of clinical trials (CT) and to provide basic information for further research in developing systems of protection for vulnerable patients. Patients diagnosed with cancer and admitted for chemotherapy or receiving outpatient treatment were surveyed. The survey consisted of three parts to gather information on (1) patients’ awareness of the nature of CT in general, (2) patients’ awareness of CT from medical perspectives, and (3) the relationship between intent to participate in CT and financial compensation. Eighty-five patients participated in the survey. In the first part, many patients answered that they would participate in the study lest they be put at a disadvantage for not participating, while others said they would participate because they felt they would receive special treatment. In the second part, scores were lowest in men, the elderly, the unemployed, and those who participated as a result of decisions made by their spouses. In the third part, rewards influenced women more than men, and patients in their 60s expected a greater reward than those in other groups. Most cancer patients may not be sufficiently aware of the nature of CT and may be vulnerable when making decisions by themselves. Therefore, it is necessary for patients to receive more information on CT and for the information to be presented in terms that patients can easily understand. A system for the protection of vulnerable patients may also be needed.
Happiness is one of the most important values or goals in life. Stress is one of the factors that can negatively affect levels of happiness, and medical students can experience high levels of stress during their studies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of happiness among medical students. The study used Q-methodology, which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item. Thirty-four selected Q-statements from each of 34 subjects were classified into a normal distribution using a 9-point scale. The collected data were analyzed using a PC-QUANL program. Three types of perception of happiness were identified in the subjects: ‘comfort’ (15 persons), ‘self-satisfaction’ (10 persons), and ‘accomplishment’ (13 persons). When there are programsoffering opportunities for leisure activities, such as rest and travel, medical students’levels of satisfaction go up. On the basis of these findings we suggest that the concept of happiness should perhaps be included in the medical curriculum.
This study was designed to compare the effects of two teaching methods, i.e., ‘Theatre of Situations’ and ‘Pro-Con Debate’ on moral intelligence, moral sensitivity and moral judgment of students taking nursing ethics classes. Two-group pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects, 87 nursing students, were randomly allocated to two groups, i.e., experimental group A, ‘Theatre of Situations’ consisting 45 students and experimental group B, ‘Pro-Con Debate’ consisting 42 students. The same four nursing hypotheticals dealing with ethical issues or dilemmas were used for both groups. Each of ‘Theatre of Situations’ and ‘Pro-Con Debates’ was conducted for 150 minutes after 450 minutes of regular nursing ethics lectures. Data were collected before and after the classes to measure moral intelligence, moral sensitivity and moral judgment of the subjects. The data were analyzed by a paired t-test using SPSS. The findings from this study are as follows: (1) in group A, moral meaning perceived by the subjects (a sub-domain of moral sensitivity) was significantly improved; (2) in group B, kindness and tolerance (sub-domains of moral intelligence) were significantly improved. Both methods are recommendable for enhancing nursing ethics education.