This study was designed to examine the attitudes of biological scientists concerning research ethics education and the role of government agencies in promoting research ethics. An explanatory letter was sent via e-mail to the members of the Korean Society for Molecular and Cell Biology requesting participants to respond to an on-line questionnaire. Although most respondents claimed to be aware of the main issues in research ethics and the importance of research ethics education, 121 (or 69.1%) of the 175 participants experienced no formal training in research ethics education. The preferred formats for research ethics education among respondents included seminars at research institutes (98 respondents, 56.0%) or college courses at the undergraduate or graduate level (50, 28.6%) for less than 8 hours (117, 66.9%). Data processing and recording (122, 69.7%), authorship (109, 62.3%), and the management of research funds (105, 60.0%) were regarded as the most appropriate topics for education. Sixty-eight respondents (38.9%) reported some experiences with ethical dilemmas in conducting research and 135 (77.1%) showed interest in consulting an ombudsman if available. Chi-square analysis detected significant differences between principal investigators and other researchers concerning specific views on how research ethics education should be implemented in research institutes. To promote research integrity, respondents recommended that government agencies support research ethics education and construct an equitable, reliable, and transparent funding system for research. Jurisdiction and regulatory bodies to investigate research misconduct were also recommended.