Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2007, Vol.11, No.11

  • 1.

    A Study Fortification Angle of the stone Castle of the Period of the Silla : Focucing face stone of the body Angle

    Lee, Hyung Jae | 2007, 11(11) | pp.3~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    According to the Cultural Heritage Administration's statistics, about three hundred(300) various castles are scattered all over the country. This study is to fractionize the typical style for country with the Stone Castle of the Period of Silla selected by this study as the central subject and to classify its characteristics, which will be useful research material for applying it as another verification material in addition to the chronological recording of the excavated relics in judging the early days of originating the stone castle, etc. First, our Stone Castle was originated from Goguryeo Dynasty in the ancient times and it's appeared in the early days the ways of building the Baekje Dynasty-lined and Goguryeo Dynasty-lined stone castles are nearly the same. In the later days, the Goguryeo-lined stone castle began to use the similar way of constructing the castles with Silla Dynasty-lined castle based upon wooden castle construction Second, Goguryeo-lined castle was built on the basis of mud castle construction like Guknae-sung(castle) and, it's appeared, in its later days it was changed to Silla-lined stone castle. In early days of Baekje Dynasty the castle was built in the basis of mud castle construction and in its later days their castle was developed to ston overray mud castle. Third, as the result of analysing the angle of constructing more than one hundred (100) castles, the castle whose construction angle is less than 10°was identified as Silla-lined and 10~19°as Goguryeo-lined and more than 20°as Baekje-lined. Fourth, this study with executing its related research selected, recorded & introduced only places which the time of the peculiar construction of the Three States appeared on a part of the researched places is identified based upon the archeological specimens. This study is to file and describe the findings researched as the aboves, and some raise objections of Guyhyungsung of plate-stone building for special castles and Yogo style castle construction. Judging that by visual building technique instead of its structure, the conclusion of the pending question was left for future settlement. As far as the Korean castles all about are concerned, the fact that all the stone castles were remodelled & repaired into Silla-lined castles according as the Three States in the ancient times were unified and led to the Unified Silla might make the conclusion of the pending question obscure. If, however, we excavate and research the whole of the castles concerned all-inclusively by division, as far as its simplicity is concerned, any different factors such as building technique for each division, etc. were discovered and, therefore, it's considered that this study will be useful and of a great help to derive out wider and more reliable judgment of chronicle discrimination of their initial construction and improvement, etc.
  • 2.

    A study on Jindangu at Gyeongju : The buryng method and offering gets

    Choi, Eun Ah | 2007, 11(11) | pp.37~71 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Archaeologists have continuously investigated historic sites of three Kingdoms and Unified Silla period since 1930s. Through these surveys, we confirm that there are potteries which are various shapes and different sizes at the bottom of buildings. Even though we founded many kinds of personal adornments in the wood monument at the Hwangyoung temple, these personal adornments have been come into spotlight because of Jindangu in 1980s. After that time, metal and small instruments were identified at the historic sites and finally, Jindangu was generalized. Jindangu is divided with the sporadically placing and fixed setting according to a burying method. the former is used with various remains including vessels, ornaments, living appliances and the latter is to dig a hole and bury vessels utilizing a brass bowl with a lid, an earthenware, a necked jar. I examine a change and characteristic according to the burying method and offering gets of Jindangu. The occurrence of Jindangu, sporadically placing type in Hwangyong temple. Thereafter the setting type begins and uses various potteries. The establishment and prevalence of it, usually using a brass bowl with a lid, small soft earthenware, a herd burying type emerges after individual burying type. After that time, a kind of pottery shape is changed and jar with long body and short-necked jar with a flat bottom are used as Jindangu. Therefore Jindangu is emerged when a nine-storied wood monument of Hwangyong temple is constructed, as Buddhist ritual was adopted on the concept of the god of the earth that represents the existing aboriginal belief and Taoism. I think that the royal capital was constructed by branch-ruled system(條坊制) and rapidly diffused together. Moreover, a ritual work becomes more various and complex after unified Silla period.
  • 3.

    A study on the Supplementary Defensive Castle of the Coastal Town Castle in the South Coast

    Lee, Il Gab | 2007, 11(11) | pp.73~123 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The supplementary defensive castles(Chisung, 雉城) at a town castle located at a small town along the coast waters of the south sea were representative fortifications, which were built as a set of structures and a town castle's subsidiary facilities along with impregnable protective castle walls, castle gate grounds, moats, and lower defensive and offensive walls built on top of a castle(Yeojang, 女墻) during the Joseon Dynasty period, so those data is really important to understand the structure and construction methods of fortifications at the coastal towns of the south sea at that time. In case of Gyeongsang-do, there existed town castles built in a location where provincial higher administrative units along with Daedohobu(a kind of local administration, 大都護府) and barracks at Gyeongju, Gimhae, and Changwon, and the town castles showed a difference in size from other town castles belonging to the lower administrative units by one point five to two times. These aspects show that the higher level the administrative units, the more supplementary defensive castles and besides, at the town castles having barracks and naval barracks, the much larger numbers of supplementary defensive castles in the town castles were planned and built in comparison with other town castles built at general counties or prefectures. The basic numerical value of supplementary defensive castles in town castles was divided into 6-site-location and 12-site-location in the Joseon Dynasty period. In other words, the two types of supplementary defensive castles were as follows; the 6-site-location consisted of four fully-grown bulls and two right-left symmetrical castle forms at the main gate site ; the 12-site-location consisted of four fully grown bulls with two supplementary defensive castles respectively at the left and right of main gate site. Therefore, the fact that more than 12 locations of supplementary defensive castles were built proves that the Joseon people fortified their defensive facilities to protect town castles from the Japanese pirates at that time who frequently committed provocative acts especially at the coastal town castles along the south sea; thus it is presumed that the Joseon people's fortifications project once centered on Hasam-do during the early Joseon period turned its most emphasis on the coastal areas of Gyeongsang-do, i.e. coastal town castles along the south sea. Among the coastal town castles, inland town castles and supplementary defensive castles of Youngjin Castle(營鎭堡城) was the square type ground plan used for building for the longest time and the next was a rectangular-base with narrow flat upper section, and the last was a rectangular form. It is found that in the former times on King Sejong's 15th year ruling period(1433), there had been a lot more frequencies of a rectangular square with almost the same ratio of length over width, which was used either by Naesangseong where barracks and town administration commonly co-existed or by town castles built in the higher level unit towns among the administrative districts. Next, from after the 15th century through the 16th century, the ground plan for the supplementary defensive castles was mainly a regular square and a rectangular; in contrast, rectangular base with narrow flat upper section diminished or extinguished. Likewise, in case of naval forces Youngjin Castle built before and after the 15th century, the regular square had been a main-stream, and such convention was passed through the early-middle Joseon Dynasty periods to the later period of Lee's Dynasty. In addition, in King Sejong's 15th ruling period(1433), rules and forms for supplementary defensive castles in town castles were applied, and accordingly, rectangular base with narrow flat upper section form castles were built; however a square form and a rectangular form were also continuously used in building supplementary defensive castles. Besides, in case of rectangular formed castles, it is found that it had been longer used than the rectangular base with narrow flat upper section form castles and also the standard for building rectangular base with narrow flat upper section form castles wasn't observed well at that time. Up to this time, it has been presumed that the fact that supplementary defensive castles had various ground plans with different length and width in the same town castle was due to the difference in measurements and the length of periods for castle construction. However, supplementary defensive castles were built with difference in length between castles to serve mutually supplementary functions and that's why a square, a rectangular, and a rectangular-base-with-narrow-flatupper- section form were used together in building supplementary defensive castles of inland town castles in Youngnam District including coastal town castles along the south sea. Thus, it can be concluded that the supplementary defensive castle construction was done with width and length decided by its surrounding geological condition or castle circumference and in case of Youngjin Castle-the higher administrative and military command system, it had supplementary defensive castles built with a greater length and width. Next, the five-meter length standard[which was the established rules and forms at that time] of the supplementary defensive castles were usually observed and they were built near the coastal town castles along the south sea. In addition, such rules and forms of five-meter are found in the supplementary defensive castles of Youngjin Castle built during King Sungjong and Jungjong periods and the same with the supplementary defensive castles of later built Dongrae town castle; thus it can be said that the rules and forms of five-meter-long measurement had been observed continuously through the whole periods of Jeosun Dynasty. Therefore, coastal town castle built along the south sea areas, as indicated in case of supplementary defensive castles, used a single construction pattern in their numbers and size of defensive facilities including supplementary defensive castles in comparison with the other districts' during the same periods, which fact proves that the coastal areas along the south sea, due to military function as a strategic stronghold against Japanese pirates invasion, were under strict castle-construction control from the government, thus consistently carrying out with castle-construction project.
  • 4.

    Types and Featuresof Korean Artificail Flowers

    Hwang, Su Ro | 2007, 11(11) | pp.125~154 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In the history of mankind, there's no place where flowers didn't exist. Flowers have been a symbol of divinity, beauty, prosperity and desire. Natural flowers are a natural purification created in accordance with the laws of nature. But artificial flowers are a non-natural culmination made based on man's worship for nature. Natural flowers have limits in life and shape because they are govern by the laws of nature. In contrast, artificial flowers can be made by hand in any shape. They also never wither. Artificial flowers an art of expressing beauty, which may be imperfect only with natural means. They have human ideal and desire implied. Flowers made by hand with wholeheartedness are not only an expression of supreme respect for the beauty of nature, but also a visible embodiment of human ideal and desire. In Korea, artificial flowers were used as a crown's ornament or ceremonial article already in the period of the Three Kingdoms. They were made of silk or paper in the Goryeo and Joseon periods to be widely used for royal or private rites and rituals, apparently showing their elaborate, brilliant qualities. Making and using artificial flowers were based on an aesthetic will to perfectly show the very quality of flowers, that is, beauty. For example, Manbulsan, a model mountain whose shape is described in "Samgukyusa", is associated with a true aloeswood mountain because it was made of the same wood and has mounted accessories like a model royal palace and a model tower. Other accessories of the model mountain like model trees, birds and animals all of which are swayed by the wind remind us of Suparyeon, Junhwa as extra large-sized and Jamhwa, for example, Sagueonhwa. At royal banquets in the Goryeo and Joseon periods, Jidangpan, which was curtained with a floridly tasseled flag, and Junhwa as enormously sized were often used. They had their own device that makes model bees, butterflies or birds move. This suggests that Manbulsan of the Silla period is the origin of artificial flowers for ceremonies of the later ages. Like Manbulsan of the Silla period, various types of Jamhwa, for example, Sagueonhwa which was used for court ceremonies in the Goryeo and Joseon periods and various types of Sanghwa, for example, Suparyeon were not just imitating natural flowers, but representing the ideal of life. In making artificial flowers as foresaid, leaves, bees and butterflies and various kinds of auspicious birds were also artificially made, giving the feeling of liveliness depending on human motions or outside environments. As shown in Malbulsan, Jidangpan, Suparyeon and Byeolgahwa, Korean artificial flowers not only represented an ideal world as, but also had technical features that could excellently express the sense of activity. This suggests the necessity of restoring and developing such ideal and techniques related to artificial flowers which were used for Korean traditional ceremonies.
  • 5.

    The Representation of Joseon by Fujisima Takeji : with a Focus on the decoractive paintings

    Kim, Jung Sun | 2007, 11(11) | pp.155~179 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Recent scholarly understanding of Fujishima Takeji(1867-1943) has been groundbreaking in its reassessment of the artist through its exposition of the orientalist style of Fujishima as reflective of Japan’s imperial aspirations. While accepting the basic premises of this new perspective, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of the decorative painting style that Fujishima pursued throughout his career. Fujishima’s oriental interest began in Joseon. Upon touring there for almost one month beginning on 25 November 1913, Fujishima demonstrates how he felt about Joseon in his article “Impression After the Joseon Tour” published in Bijutsu Shinpo in March of 1914, Fujishima describes Joseon as ‘a place that reminds us of a lost past’, and a space ‘that reminds us of Japan’s dynastic period’. This view, as the aforementioned research has pointed out, shares a common context with western orientalist artists who romanticized the ‘everlasting Orient', and the ‘lost past’ untouched by modernization and development. On the other hand, this inclination is also a characteristic of the new decorative painting style that Fujishima created at this point in his career, after having devoted four years to the study of decorative painting in Europe. The term ‘decorative painting’ is seen in numerous records and is believed to refer to highly embellished paintings modeled on decorative murals. The decorative painting style that Fujishima pursued is based on the assumption that a decorative painting ought to consist of more than mere colors and lines, but must also hold ideals, meaning and reference mythology. What is more, it must possess hints of an illusion and subjectivity, and must bear a deep and significant relationship with the spirit of the times. The ‘unrealistic and fantastic’ image of Joseon recalling the ‘lost past’ brought a change in Fujishima that could be understood as his return to the literary culture and symbolism that he had attained during his education in Europe. From Joseon, Fujishima was able to discover not only colors and lines, but also a mentality of ‘decorative painting ideals and significance’. These images of Joseon that reminded Fujishima of Japan’s past (the Tenpyo era) also enabled his creation of ‘the classics of the Orient’ in which Asia shared one culture centered upon Tang China. In the image of an ancient Orient constructed by Fujishima, a contemporaneity is achieved whereby Taiwan and Joseon, colonies from the end of Meiji to the Taisho period, are united through Asia as a single organic entity. The decorative paintings of Fujishima demand further academic clarification as to whether the role of orientalist is one that represents characteristics of decorative painting inseparable from the reigning zeitgeist. The decorative painting of Puvis de Chavannes, which Fujishima held as an ideal until his final days, typically included buildings and people adorned in garbs reminiscent of ancient Greece. I believe that while borrowing oriental themes and motifs, these ancient worlds as depicted in western decorative murals were also imported into the new decorative painting that Fujishima tried to complete through his series, the ‘Classics of the Orient’.