Mountains and Streams (Sancheon) are the crucial venues for the spiritual ceremony from the Three Kingdoms Period to the Unified Silla Period. Younggo(迎鼓) from the volume of Buyeo in Biography of Dongyei of Chronicle of Huhan and Dongmaeng(東盟) of Goguryeo are the ritual ceremony for the heaven and one of the custums in Ye(濊), they valued mountains and streams the most. Then, it is not too much to discuss that mountains and streams in Korean traditions are the main gists of all contentions throughout the Three Kingdoms Period to Joseon Period.
However, it must be distinguished that the ceremony is not for the mountains or streams but rather for the safe guard god which is believed to be existed in those venues. The researches which are based on those literatures such as Chronicles of the Three Kindoms, History of Goryeo, and A true record of the Joseon Dynasty, New Topography of Joseon, it has been proved that the venues of mountains and streams are carrying the meaning of national borders, or regional defense areas, and even ritual place for the ceremony, dedicated to the ancestors of a community. In addition, Jinsan (the mountain where the safeguard god for the community live) seems to have a pivotal relation to the prosperous religion which initiated from Proto Three Kingdoms Period to Goryeo Period. There are amounts of similar examples that share the same distance and location with the Jinsan. And also people who lived in the fortress used to set their ancestors as the god of the prosperity and this means that those people wanted to have total obedience from the regional communities. Therefore, it is presumed that Jinsan illustrates regional influence and powers that which controls where.
As the results of the excavations, there are amounts of archaeological clues which support those venues are dedicated for the spiritual ceremonies such as Iseong, Selbong, Banwol, Buso, Gong, Gyejok, Hwawang fortress. The mountains where contain the ceremony venues of these fortifications have been recorded as a Jinsan in New Topography of Joseon, although this Topography is a record of a Joseon Period.
Additionally the direction of the Seonghwangsa Temple is the in the same line with those Jinsan. As of the historical records for the fortress, in addition, it is assumed that they were all discarded before the Joseon Period.
Therefore, the ritual venues for the ceremony in Jinsan of the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods are the results of the 'ceremony for the mountains and streams' and 'ceremony for the four gates in Silla' according to the Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms Period. Not only held the ceremony for defeating the enemies but also were diverse public events organized in the fortress. So it is in a way inevitable to find the relics of the ceremony in these fortress. Particularly, the researches regarding those fortress in Jinsan or in the Three Kingdoms Period are useful to define the main characteristics and backgrounds of those certain fortress.
However, there are some difficulties remained. First of all, it is hard to detect the purpose of the ceremony according to the relic in each case.
In the circumstances of less records evidences, it must be hard to find not only the purpose of the ceremony but also which artefacts have been posed for what objectives.
It seems to be required further researches on this areas. Not only the main fortress walls but also the gate and inside part should have put more light on in the future. Furthermore, it is definitely related to the entire research about hollow type relics (竪穴遺構). In the mean time, when the relics of ceremony event have been found in the near future which is clear evidence of the ceremony during the excavation, multiple investigations regarding the purpose, location and type of the relics should be conducted.