Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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pISSN : 1975-6852

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2007, Vol.12, No.12

  • 1.

    A study on habitation with fireplace range in center of the Korea Peninsula : Focused on Hanam Misa-ri Area

    Kim, Jae Ho | 2007, 12(12) | pp.3~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The survey found that fireplace range in habitation. There are constructions and inflection method differences between the bare ground and fireplace range. Through the difference you can see various change of culture. Habitation with fireplace range in center of the Korea Peninsula is studying about structure and regional distinguishing mark, expansion aspect, origin by increasing data. Through comparative study a plane form and structure difference have explained by relation of beginning and end. A study on the habitation with fireplace range classifies into six categories, base on plane form of changed. Also survey spatial and cultural difference without change of time through comparison and examination of assemblages at each habitation. This could apply difference between possession space and level as well as difference between a plane form and structure changed. By examining literature data you confirmed meaning what habitation changed.
  • 2.

    A study on the Fotress Wall as Ritual ceremony Priest

    Jung, Eui Do | 2007, 12(12) | pp.31~103 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Mountains and Streams (Sancheon) are the crucial venues for the spiritual ceremony from the Three Kingdoms Period to the Unified Silla Period. Younggo(迎鼓) from the volume of Buyeo in Biography of Dongyei of Chronicle of Huhan and Dongmaeng(東盟) of Goguryeo are the ritual ceremony for the heaven and one of the custums in Ye(濊), they valued mountains and streams the most. Then, it is not too much to discuss that mountains and streams in Korean traditions are the main gists of all contentions throughout the Three Kingdoms Period to Joseon Period. However, it must be distinguished that the ceremony is not for the mountains or streams but rather for the safe guard god which is believed to be existed in those venues. The researches which are based on those literatures such as Chronicles of the Three Kindoms, History of Goryeo, and A true record of the Joseon Dynasty, New Topography of Joseon, it has been proved that the venues of mountains and streams are carrying the meaning of national borders, or regional defense areas, and even ritual place for the ceremony, dedicated to the ancestors of a community. In addition, Jinsan (the mountain where the safeguard god for the community live) seems to have a pivotal relation to the prosperous religion which initiated from Proto Three Kingdoms Period to Goryeo Period. There are amounts of similar examples that share the same distance and location with the Jinsan. And also people who lived in the fortress used to set their ancestors as the god of the prosperity and this means that those people wanted to have total obedience from the regional communities. Therefore, it is presumed that Jinsan illustrates regional influence and powers that which controls where. As the results of the excavations, there are amounts of archaeological clues which support those venues are dedicated for the spiritual ceremonies such as Iseong, Selbong, Banwol, Buso, Gong, Gyejok, Hwawang fortress. The mountains where contain the ceremony venues of these fortifications have been recorded as a Jinsan in New Topography of Joseon, although this Topography is a record of a Joseon Period. Additionally the direction of the Seonghwangsa Temple is the in the same line with those Jinsan. As of the historical records for the fortress, in addition, it is assumed that they were all discarded before the Joseon Period. Therefore, the ritual venues for the ceremony in Jinsan of the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods are the results of the 'ceremony for the mountains and streams' and 'ceremony for the four gates in Silla' according to the Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms Period. Not only held the ceremony for defeating the enemies but also were diverse public events organized in the fortress. So it is in a way inevitable to find the relics of the ceremony in these fortress. Particularly, the researches regarding those fortress in Jinsan or in the Three Kingdoms Period are useful to define the main characteristics and backgrounds of those certain fortress. However, there are some difficulties remained. First of all, it is hard to detect the purpose of the ceremony according to the relic in each case. In the circumstances of less records evidences, it must be hard to find not only the purpose of the ceremony but also which artefacts have been posed for what objectives. It seems to be required further researches on this areas. Not only the main fortress walls but also the gate and inside part should have put more light on in the future. Furthermore, it is definitely related to the entire research about hollow type relics (竪穴遺構). In the mean time, when the relics of ceremony event have been found in the near future which is clear evidence of the ceremony during the excavation, multiple investigations regarding the purpose, location and type of the relics should be conducted.
  • 3.

    Portraits of Gang Min-cheom In Eunryeolsa Temple in Jinju

    Lee, Hyun-Ju | 2007, 12(12) | pp.105~128 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presents two portraits of General Gang Min-cheom(963~ 1021) enshrined in Eunryeolsa Temple in Jinju City (Gyeongsangnam-do Province). Gang Min-cheom was a great general during the Goryeo Period. When So Bae-ab invaded with an army of 100,000 soldiers, he went to war with another great general, Gang Gam-chan and defeated the enemy completely at Heunghwajin. During the reign of King Munjong, his memorial tablet were enshrined in the Gongshingak, the memorial for meritorious retainers. The two portraits are assumed to be the original copy and a copy from the original. The figure in the portraits is seated in full length and looking at the left side. And the sitter wears an official uniform of the Goryeo Period and Bokdu, an official hat that was given to the person who passed the national examination, holding a mace in both hands. The original copy is an excellent artwork that captured the sprit of the figure through fine and gentle brush strokes and impressive color effects on the silk canvas. On the other hand, the copy was drawn on the two pieced hemp canvases, presenting the old style that centered on thick brushes and lines. The copy is assumed to be copied in later times or to be retouched afterwards. There are other copies of the portrait that handed down to: the one from the collection of the National Museum of Korea, Sukcheong-gak and Dubangyoung-dang. It has been documented that Gang Se-hwang copied two portraits in 1790 and Gang-yio retouched to color some worn parts of the portraits. So the possibility that Gang Se-hwang's works are among the existing ones cannot be ruled out. The two portraits in question are valuable as data in light of the relations between the original and the copies that are enshrined in Gyeongsangnam-do Province. I hope the outcome of the present paper will be a step toward a further study of the trend, that is, an increase of the number of copies and transfer of the copies.
  • 4.

    A study on White Pocelains of the Early Josen Dynasty in the South Gyeongsang-do Region : Focusing on site of Baengnyeon-ri, Hadong

    Kim, Yoon Hee | 2007, 12(12) | pp.129~163 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A local White Porcelain Kiln of Joseon Dynasty is of wide distribution across the country. It indicates that a local White Porcelain Kiln was made and used all aver the country when it reached the particular time. Therefore the purpose of this thesis is about grasping the point of type, form, characteristic of White Porcelain digged up from site of Baengnyeon-ri, Hadong. It is going to be studied in comparison with the central Kiln in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do. Site of Baengnyeon-ri, Hadong is located in Jingyomeon, Hadong, in the south Gyeongsang-do region. The burningground, a layer heaped naturally, the wall of a pottery kilnwas found. But the construction of a pottery kiln was not shown as it had been destroyed. The recent cultivation has destroyed a pottery kiln and this resulted in many problems in understanding the production process of white porcelain. Accompanying remains are soup bowl, cup, bottle. Among them, black inlaying White Porcelain, carved engraving jar, shape of fish bottle are shown. There remains are shown with Central Kiln Style and The local White Porcelain Style. The local White Porcelain Style has tendency to elaborate in detail or not to decorate. This may imply that there were human resources between local kiln and central kiln. And White Porcelain digged up from site of Baengnyeon-ri is products for civilian goods in 15~16 century in the south Gyeongsang-do region. It is special feature of White Porcelain soup bowl produced in 15~16 century. Avobe all things, Disappearing bowl's inside carving line is special feature in 15~16 century. And Increasing of productivity which is producted in Hapcheon, Sacheon, Sancheng is in connection of economic relation and politica relation at that time. This thes is with the object of grasping the point of type, form, characteristic of White Porcelain digged up from site of Baengnyeon-ri in Hadong, and making clear the relation from Gwangju and the south Gyeongsang-do(specially Baengnyeon-ri in Hadong). This thesis for A Study of White Porcelains of The local White Porcelains Style and situation of advanced White Porcelains Style of the early period of Joseon Dynasty.
  • 5.

    Wooden Seated Statue of Three Buddha In Beomeosa Temple, Busan, and Hui-Jang's Status

    Lee, Hee Jung | 2007, 12(12) | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Beomeosa temple which is located in Geumjeong-gu, Busan, is one of the temples that have been maintaining its competent status since its establishment in Unified Silla Period. The main dharma hall, especially, is one of a few remaining structures of mid Joseon period. Within the main dharma hall, the wooden seated statue of three Buddha created in mid Joseon Dynasty is enshrined. The statue was created by seven sculpting monks including Hui-jang and its details are recorded in the Bulsanggimun(The Record of Buddhist Statues, 佛像記文)that has been separately kept by the temple. Hui-Jang, a monk and a sculptor of Buddhist statues was active during the period of mid and later Joseon Dynasty. The preceding studies resulted that Gumi Sudasa temple's Wooden Seated Amitabha Statue of 1649, Gumi Wongaksa Temple's Wooden Seated Bodhisattva Statue of 1649, Jinan Geumdangsa Temple's Wooden Seated Statue of Three Amitabha of 1650, Cheongdo Daeunam's Wooden Seated Amitabha Statue of 1654 were the creations of Hui-Jang. Through the recent research on the designation of cultural properties, we could understand about ten years of Hui-Jang's activities as a sculpting monk including the creations of Busan Seonamsa temple's Buddhist statue in 1658 and Busan Beomeosa temple's Buddhist statue. For many years, Hui-Jang's work on the Buddhist statues has depicted; a pretty thick side on the upper garment, a special emphasis on the right shoulder's wimple as a feather, a wrinkle between the legs that are spread, and a wrinkled sleeves toward the knees. Hui-Jang's noticeable features are also presented in Tongdosa temple's hall of the medicine Buddha and hall of the pure land of Amitabha, and it has the same features with those created in 1650's. In 1638, Hui-Jang began his activities as an assistant monk for painting. His activities flourished up to the creation of Beomeosa temple's statue in 1661. Hui-Jang's activities took place in and around the provinces of Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do. It has been confirmed that there were sculpting monks who followed the idiom of Hui-Jang. There is only a slight differences in the facial features, the proportion of body, and carving techniques where sacerdotal robe becomes thinner and softer; however, the other sculpting monks like Bo-Hae and Ji-Hyeon followed the Hui-Jang's style, and it is assumed that Hui-Jang's style led differently during the mid and later 17th-century than the early 17th-century. Namely, those Buddha statues created during the latter period of Joseon Dynasty either by Hui-Jang or bears the Hui-Jang's idiom could be located within the provinces of Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do. If there are increases in the research works and studies on such topic, then it will be possible to approach the issue of sect which is one of concerned topics in the study of Buddha statues, which created during the latter period of Joseon.