Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2008, Vol.13, No.13

  • 1.

    Recording chronologically and Characteristic of the Celadons Excavated from Temple site in Gyoengnam Region

    강정미 | 2008, 13(13) | pp.3~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, the spectrum of studies on Koryo Celadon is broadened, steering away from theexisting trends to study the origination of Koryo Celadon, issues related to the period when Gan Ji Myong Celadon (Celadon with inscribed Chinese zodiac names), and Celadon as historical artifacts, to include the studies from the views that are focused onthe production and consumption structures. In the midst of such trend, the sample ceramic pieces excavated from sites where Buddhist Monks, the main consumer of high quality Celadon, used to reside, are serving as the standards of comparison analysis for demands and supply structures by different periods. Until now, places like the lost temple of Bohnchonniin Sachon, Jigok Temple of Sanchong, Wunneung Temple of Ulsan, Youngam Temple of Hapchon, Doksanni Temple of Gimhae, Mandok Temple of Busan, and Yongdangdong relic of Busan in South Gyongsang area are determined as the places where the Celadon were widely used during Koryo Dynasty. The Celadon pieces excavate from these relics are very diverse in its produces times, qualities and styles. Therefore, we could specifically determine the characteristics of Celadon used in South Gyongsnag area. This study was intended to determine the place of production and the production period of Celadon excavated from the 7 relics aroundSouth Gyongsang area by analyzing and comparing the types, decorating techniques, pottering methods of these Celadon against that of Celadon from other important places and chronological sample relics. The results are as followed. First, the vast majority of Celadon excavated in South Gyonsang region is confirmed to come from Gangjin. It is also clearly determined that the small portions were produced South Gyongsang region such as Taepyondong of Jinhae and Eeori of Namhae. Second, the Celadon excavated in relics of South Gyongsang region can be recorded chronologically in 4 phases according to the course of development. Phase 1 is the period from mid 10th century to mid 11th century, and the Celadon in this phase are very similar to the styles of what are previously known as Gangjin Celadon I and II. Phase 2 is theperiod from mid 11th century to late 12thcentury and the Celadon in this phase fall into the categories of Gangjin Celadon III and IV.Phase 3 are the period from early 13th century to late 14th century and the Celadon in this phase fall into the category of Gangjin Celadon V. Phase 4 is the period from early 14thcentury to late 14th century, which is the last periods of Koryo Dynasty, and the Celadon in this phase fall into the category of Gangjin Celadon VI. Third, some of the Celadon excavated in relics of South Gyongsang region is determined to be products of sites such as Taepyondong of Jinhae and Eeori of Namhae, and shows the characteristics similar to that of late 11th century to 12th century. Therefore, we could confirm in detail that the Celadon produced from South Gyongsang region were also consumed along with Gangjin Celadon. Fourth, the Celadon excavated in relics of South Gyongsang region proved, with a through analysis, the vague presumption which has been saying that the high quality Celadon maybe are from Gangjin site. And, this made available updated chronological orders for different styles. We also determined the production sites and chronological orders by comparing theCeladon from Taepyongdong site of Jinhae and the Celadon from South Gyongsang regions against each other.
  • 2.

    A study of Chronology on the Sinri klin of Ori, Gijang

    허선영 | 2008, 13(13) | pp.71~127 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A research of earth surface was conducted by me from February to July 2007 on the subject of ancient formation of ceramic art villages at Gijang county, Busan. The research, though it was just a survey of earth surface, is a significant work since no research has been conducted till now concerning pottery at Gijang area and reported officially to the learned circles. From the pottery located at Sinri village of Ori was discovered ‘design of lotuses and arabesques,’ an important pattern frequently appeared at ‘Cheongja Sanggam Daejeop’ (celadon porcelain inlaid bowl) in the 14th century. Also found are such patterns as ‘design of willows,’ ‘design of reeds’ and ‘design of cliuds and cranes’. The mentioned pottery was marred by posterity, so observation of his remained structure has become difficult. However, I decided that with the recovered slices, chronological research of the three remains is worth trying, so I brought them up as the object of my study. To determine the production period of the potteries, I first reviewed the kinds and techniques of production, together with patterns and abnormalities of the slices. Bowls and dishes were focal points of my survey as they are kinds that have been recovered most so far. Other items such as ceramic slices and kiln tools were also investigated. I have divided the remains into daily tableware and religious utensils. However, I have encountered limitation in studying the whole composition of pattern since most of the excavated slices were small sized. Nonetheless, I have classified them into main pattern and subordinate pattern based on general composition of patterns and their locations as well as their appearing ratio. As for production skill, I observed cutting shape of ‘Yutae’(special oil painting) and bottom of the slices, their firing technique, whether they are ‘Gapbeon’ (high-grade product) or ‘Pogae Gui’ fired one, and what material was used as prop. As a result of my observing the ceramic slices from Gijang area, I came to know that the most prominent features of the three potteries lie in ‘design of lotuses and arabesques’ celadon porcelains from Sinri potteries, and the utensil production for religious service. Through the above analysis, along with study of documentary records and comparison with other remains that were recovered from stable stratum or bearing dates, I could surmise the specific production period of each pottery. In particular, I could estimate production period of ceramic kilns at Sinri villages of Ori by comparing them with the season, authorities, land and chronological era inscribed at celadon porcelain, as well as abnormalities and patterns of the remains. As the result of my research I conclude that the pottery at Sinri village of Ori began production of ceramics at a period between 1350〜1370.
  • 3.

    A study on the flat formation the coaster town castle in the South Coast

    il Gab Lee | 2008, 13(13) | pp.129~181 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The flat formation found in the coastal town walls were succeeded and developed afterward and we can see them in Masan hoewonhyeon castle, which was governing castle before Joseon Dynasty period, Busan Danggamdong castle, Ulju whasanri castle, and Dongrae goeup castle. The flat formation in coastal town walls are divided into four types largely as square, round, ark, and trapezoid shape. As for location, the square shape was built on flat castle, the trapezoid and the round shapes were built on flat with mountain castle, and most of ark shape also was built on flat with mountain castle. In the case of coastal town walls in south coast, the town walls built with flat formation of trapezoid are few and the girth of the walls also smaller than that of land town and the others. Rather most of them had the ark shape. In the case of the land town walls and others, they were added or reconstructed to the precedent castle walls on the way of change working from soil walls to stone ones. However in the case of coastal town walls, most of them were built newly after opening Joseon Dynasty and then they were considered with the idea of establishing Confucian social status system and sovereign power of central government over local province and rank order of administrative unit accordant to reorganizing military defense system as well as their topographic condition. And also the reason that they had the new type of flat formation was to cover their weak energy said by the theory of divination based on topography. In the case of south coastal town walls, the trapezoid shape was the earliest flat formation and also the ark shape was made in the same period but their formation became changed by combining both shapes as it went to the age of latter part of earlier Joseon Dynasty. And also in the case of the high governmental status' unit in South coastal town, their walls' flat formation had the ark shape. Therefore the ark shape can be said the popular pattern in coastal town walls in the earlier Joseon Dynasty. Another thing to be considered in the flat formation of coastal town walls is that it could be changed according to the number of man who could enter together and its capacity to accommodation. Especially among the coastal town walls, the flat formation built in Gun and Hyeon with over 30,000 houses had the ark shape in majority. Therefore as shown in the comparing flat formations, the coastal town walls had a single construction pattern comparing to the others in the same period and it seemed from its topographic condition. The area was the strategic base in forefront place against Japan so owing to its military function, the walls construction was proceeded with consistency and stern control by the nation. And there was a ritual rule to construct town castle walls by selecting land shapes suitable to the rule among arranged ones rather than determining the flat formation according to the topographic condition.