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2008, Vol.14, No.14

  • 1.

    A Study on Stone Lantern in Unified Silla

    정윤서 | 2008, 14(14) | pp.3~61 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The stone lantern was made of stone to light and occupied an important position as well as the stone pagoda and stupa. It represented the hope and also was called as a votive lantern or prospect lantern because of the meaning of sacrifice. In the Korean Peninsula, the stone lantern began to be made from the period of the Three States and the study shows that fact through the important factors of foundation stones and support stones remained in the ancient ruined temple, but the ancient stone lanterns up to now verified are all limited to temple stone lanterns. It was written in the early Sutras, 『Ekottara gama (增一阿含經)』that lotus lantern sacrifice was stressed to build the charity. In the 6th century, as 『Prad pad n ya-s tra (佛說施燈功德經)』and 『Karmavibha ga-n ma-dharmagrantha-stra (佛爲首迦長者說業報着別徑)』were published, the lantern sacrifice was held in high repute. This kind of lantern sacrifice was recorded in the book, 『Sam-kuk-you-sa』and it said that Ohjin stretched his arms to the temple, Bu-seok-sa to perform lantern sacrifice. And also, it was produced to aim at King's health, present age saving, and it had the character of defense of nation, which was written in the book,『Dong-mun-sun(東文選)』,「Shilla-su-chang-kun-ho-kuk-sung-pa l-kak-deung-lu-ki(新羅壽昌郡護國城八角燈樓記)」 This thesis examines not only the structure of the stone lantern, but also the type of the stone lantern through the Hwasaseok, Okgaeseok, and Yeonhwadaeseok centering around Kanjuseok. Thinking these facts collectively, the formative character of Unified Shilla stone lantern is researched and as the period of the Unified Shilla stone lantern is set, the changes of the form can be examined. through the Buddhist image Daejaseok and stupa stereobate. The object of the research is to find the formation object of stone lantern and symbolism of stone lantern as a sacrifice. Up to now, the number of the Korean stone lanterns is about 280 and that of Unified Shilla is around 90 and among them, Wanhyoungseok is totally 24. These 24 stone lanterns are divided into 4 categories. The first specific difference is Ganjuseok. The octagon Ganjuseok-type is 14, the double-lion-type is 3, Yeonsim-type is 6, and person-type is 1. Second, the formation of Hwasaseok is divided into three categories whether how many light windows are and embossed sculpture exists or not. Third, the type of Okgaeseok is divided into 3 categories whether the decoration on the top is or not. Finally, Yeonhwadaeseok which flower patterns, Gueflower, and Yupmoon are scarved on the Yeonpan is divided into 5 categories. With these clarification, there is difference in the structure. What is the most different is the form of the smoke hole. The octagon Ganjuseok stone lantern differs in the structure of the foundation stones and support stones, and a coupling scheme of the upper parts. The double-lion-type stone lantern has difference in the structure of the Hadaehaseok and Hadaesangseok, and Ganjuseok prop. Yeonsim-type stone lantern are distinguished from the structure of the Sangdaeseok and Hadaeseok. The complete stone lanterns of Unified Shilla can be divided into 4 period from early 9th century to 10th century. Especially, in the 9th century, the stone lanterns were intensively made, and at the third period, according to the appearance of the Yeonsim-type stone lantern, it was getting more splendid and variety. At the 4th period, in the early 10th century, through the rapid schematization and degeneration, the transformation of the stone lantern appeared and some kinds of formal characters remained and aesthetic parts decreased. At last, the symbolism of the Unified Shilla is known with sacrifice ceremony, the purpose of the stone lantern and worship before the image of Buddha. The stone lantern is a facility for lantern sacrifice and it was held outdoor like Hyang sacrifice. Especially, the reason why the Unified Shilla stone lantern was located in the open is that it was hard to held the ceremony because of the inner structure. Through the arrangement of the stone lantern, the research showed that it was related to the worship before the image of Buddha.
  • 2.

    Aspects and Characteristics of the Established Period in Koryeo Roof Tile of Gyeongnam District

    Kim Ki-min | 2008, 14(14) | pp.63~102 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The Koryeo Dynasty is a period transferred to the Middle age after the ancient times came to the end in the history of Korea. The Koryeo Dynasty attempted to construct a powerful centralism by accepting the policy of Hanization. However, the Koryeo Dynasty could not help groping a political stability focused on local powerful aristocrat families before the king Hyun Jong centralized the power in the early 11th century. The study thought that the establishment of Koryeo roof tilehad the same orbit as such a social change and that would have a lot of differences in time and form among each region. In the study, Koryeo roof tile meant having technical properties and pattern styles differing from the United Silla, the former stage of Koryeo Dynasty, in the concept of technical history, not in the concept of a chronology. The study could separate the Koryeo roof tile from the roof tile of the United Silla with use of large-sized paddle-beat pattern, fashion of fish-bone pattern and roof-end tile with sun-halo design. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to aspects of the established period of the Koryeo roof tileand to examine its characteristics in the side of technical history by limiting its scope of space in Gyeongnam district and its scope of time in the established period of the Koryeo roof tile. The study selected five remains that the study could grasp the transferring process from the roof tileof the United Silla to the Koryeo roof tileand attempted classification of form and setting-up of each stage regarding composition of patterns as the main property to grasp aspects of the established period of the Koryeo roof tile in Gyeongnam district. In addition, the study pre-examined use of large-sized paddle-beat pattern, fashion of fish-bone design, the appearing process of section mix-up pattern and the outbreak of roof-end tile with sun-halo designappointed in the existing research performance. On the basis of the above, the study reconstructed the developing process of the Koryeo roof tile in the stage Ⅶ. As an aspect of the established period of the Koryeo roof tile in Gyeongnam district, in the event of the plain roof tile, the single pattern stage of fish-bone design in the existing well-known large-sized pattern didn't appear in Gyeongnam district. The tradition of middle-sized line-beat patternand a double-pattern composition in top and bottom having kept until the 10th century was revealed to large-sized paddle-beat pattern, the first Koryeo roof tile in Gyeongnam district, and the fish-bone roof tile of a double symmetry in top and bottom while large-sized paddle-beat pattern was combined with fish-bone design in the 11th century. Also, in the event of mix-up design, a double-pattern composition in top and bottom of the roof tile of the United Silla was succeeded to a double-pattern composition in symmetry of top and bottom, the 1st stage of the Koryeo roof tile, and transferred to a triple-pattern composition in top, middle and bottom, not appearing through pattern-mixed process. In the event of roof-end tile, semi-rectangle ovary patternwas not appeared in Gyeongnam district before the established period of the Koryeo roof tile. The typical Koryeo roof-end tile was appeared while the flower-pattern tile of printed roof-end tile with lotus design in the United Silla was combined with newly introduced semi-rectangle ovary pattern in the 11th century. Roof-end tile with sun-halo design was appeared while the flower-pattern tile side of semi-rectangle ovary-printed roof-end tile with lotus design was gradually reduced. The dating of the established period of the Koryeo roof tile was set up to be the first half of the 11th century on the basis of fish-bone design with inscription 'Daepyeong' excavated in Jeongrimsaji, Dongpyeonghyeonseongji and Sacheon SeonjinJinriseong and a Dongraegoeupseongji construction related article. Through the above, the study regarded the creative process of a new pattern through fusion between the tradition of local manufacture and the introduced innovative manufacturing elements as the technical characteristic of the established period of the Koryeo roof tile in Gyeongnam district.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Bodhisattva Statues in 16th Century

    김광희 | 2008, 14(14) | pp.103~136 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    In 16th century, the policy of oppression with Buddism of King Yeonsangun and King Jungjong period and the policy of rivive Buddism of King Myeongjong period which there was an extreme opposistion period which is oppression with Buddism and revival of Buddism. The period is very important one because if was a stepping-stones between 15th century and 17th century. With reflecting phases of the times like this, the satues of Bodhisattva were made. The satues of Bodhisattva were seven during 16th century. They were composed of alone statues or assist of traid statues. The study of the Statues of Bodhisattva of 16th century is limited and the synthetic study is imcompleted. So this report has an object the grasping the characteristics of Bodhisattva and its making background. In 16th century, the statue Bodhisattva of shaped-cloth Surplice and Samkaksika were prevalent. The main characeteristics was summarized as diagramming, simplicity and omission. The satues of Bodhisattva in 15th century succeeded th the form of the Post-Goryeo, from the view-point of the second cylindrical crown detailed expression of hair and Muktahara ornament shidded its body. Gradually square-shaped features, gorgeous wooden crown which was attached after they were made separately and attached ornaments, omitted hair, omission of Muktahara and ornaments. The most popular Bodhisattva in 16th century are Avalokite Vara Images and Ksitigarbha Image. In 16th century, to Nirvana to the Land of Paradise belief and relief the pains in the actual world were characteristic. Specially, Ksitigarbha Image of the Saviour of the world. The statue of Mutitude Ksitigarbha and ten great Kings of hell. were appeared. So we can sew statue of Ksitigarbha, statue of Do-myeong, statue of King Mu-dok, statues of Ten Kings in the Royal palace of the underworld. From the view-point of materials, the gilt-bronze statues, and the dry lacquer statues were the main current of 15th century. In 16th century, wooden statues were increased. This change shows that the supporting center switched over the mass from the Royal household and the Gentry. In the 16th century, the supporting center are Buddhist Monk and the mass. And Sculptor make Buddhist statues are the Monk-Sculptors. So, the supporting center switched over the mass from the Royal household and the Gentry and Buddhist belief is the humble classes. The chief aims are the satues of Bodhisattva made in the 16th century is go after death to Nirvana to the Land of Paradise and the character of invoking a blessing which the pains in the actual world are dissolved and the descendants and a local resident concentraded Buddism.
  • 4.

    The stoned Buddhist Triad of Gijang Jangansa’s main temple and late Joseon Dynasty’s Buddhist statue

    이희정 | 2008, 14(14) | pp.137~163 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Only few major temples located in Busan have Buddhist sculptures of late Joseon Dynasty and those are at Beomeosa(Dongrae), Jangansa (Gijang). Within those areas, Haedong-Jido indicates that many big and small Buddhist temples were existed near Gijang area. It not only has the record of Seonyuhsa and Chijeongsa but also has the record of current existing temples such as Anjeoksa and Jangansa. Unlike many other temples, Jangansa (located in Busan Gijang-gun Jangan-eup Jangan-ri) stands on the same location as it was first constructed. Therefore, it still has many Buddhist artifacts which are the relics of the late Joseon Dynasty. These are the main temple, stoned buddhist triad (Seokjosamsebulsang) (1657), Eungjinjeon and Nahanjeon Buddhist statue (1684), and Myeongbujeon Buddhist painting (1856). One of the most recognized artifacts is Nokwon's stoned buddhist triad (Seokjosamsebulsang). Strong facial impression and its dress not only well represents sculptor's characteristics but also well sculpted Buddha's iconology in order to the temple's demand with difficult stone. Although Nokwon was Suhwaseung (Head of the Buddha Sculptor) of Gijang Jangansa's stoned buddhist triad (Seokjosamsebulsang), he also worked together with Jasu as his Chahwaseung (Deputy Head of Buddha Sculptor) of Ungcheon Sungheungsa Judgement Hall's Mokjojijangsiwangsang (it is now removed to Haeinsa Judgement Hall). Even though, the sculpted time are varies, their similarity leads future generation to assume either they are friends or classmates of same type of school. Since Myeongjun, Hakryun, and other sculptors who were involved in stoned Buddhist statue (Seokjosamsebulsang) do not have similar pattern, they might be a group of sculptor that the temple randomly employed for supporting purpose. In addition to this, all of main temple, Judgment Hall, and Eungjinjeon of Jangansa's Buddhist statues are made of stone. It is because of geographical strength that the supply of stone was easy in Guryongpo, Gampo, and East Sea area. I have been researched stoned Buddhist statue of Gijang Jangansa's Main temple to study late Joseon Dynasty's Buddhist statue, however, there are still many questions remaining because of lack of information of Buddhist statue of late Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, I would like to continue the study of Buddhist statue of late Joseon Dynasty with analyzing with more data and characteristics of Buddhist statue of Busan and Gyeongsang Province area.
  • 5.

    A Study of Jaeji Hwawon in the late Joseon Dynasty: Official paintings of Byeon Bak, a Jaeji Hwawon in Dongraebu district in the 18th century

    이현주 | 2008, 14(14) | pp.165~211 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    This paper aims to examine the scope of official activities in drawing and painting among local painters who were in full swing by providing a general idea of a local painter (Jaeji Hwawon) in the late Joseon Dynasty; and to understand the features in the works of Byeon Bak, a representative local painter who carried out the official duties in drawing and painting at Dongraebu district in the 18th century. In the late Joseon Dynasty, a Court painter became broadly classified into two types, which was a painter at Dohwaseo and Jabidaeryeong Hwawon, a selected Court painter for special tasks during the reign of King Jeongjo. Likewise, painters in the local district were divided into a dispatched painter from Dohwaseo and a local painter (Jaeji Hwawon) when the legislation for dispatching a painter from Dohwaseo or Jabidaeryeong to a local district came into effect in the 18th century. A local painter, Jaeji Hwawon, is the person who performed official duties in drawing and painting at military and administrative districts of his native places. Byeon Bak, the local painter of Dongraebu district in the 18th century drew many military and administrative pictures while filling various government posts. His representative works such as <Dongraebusungeoldo: the documentary picture about defense of Dongrae Fortress> and <Busanjinsungeoldo: painting of defense of Busanjin Fortress> are describing the war scene at Dongrae Fortress at the time of Japanese Invasion in 1592 in which geographical location is clearly described and realistic and tragic war scenes are reflected. In his last work <Weaguando>, Byeon Bak drew Weaguan, the center of a good-neighbor policy of Dongraebu district with a bird's-eye-view so that the disposition of Weaguan at that time can be analysed effectively. Moreover, his landscape painting followed the realism of landscape painting of Jeong Seon. This confirms the trend that Jeong Seon's brushwork spread extensively even in the local district. Judging from the cases of <Dongraedokjindaeamun: the front gate of Dongraebu district> and <Sacheosukkyobi: a stone monument>, there is somewhat the likelihood that making a hanging board and a verse couplet carved or written on a plank which is put on a pillar was left in the hands of a local painter who was good at brushstrokes. Since Jaeju Hwawon was a native of the local districts and did not have an ideal environment that they could learn basic knowledge of painting, the quality of their works was somewhat behind from the aspects of depth and organization of paintings compared to the works by central painters. However, they were well acquainted with history and geographical features of their workplace so that they were in a better position to draw pictures in great details. Considering the possibility of forming a local style of painting through the division of a dispatched painter from Dohwaseo and local painter, the study of Jaeji Hwawon cannot be neglected. Therefore, further research should be directed at finding a new Jaeji Hwawon and their works; examining the relationship between a dispatched painter from Dohwaseo and Jaeji Hwawon; and giving a close look at the spread of a central painting style to local districts.
  • 6.

    The study on the Buddhist Monk Portraits made by Okin In Tongdosa

    김국보 | 2008, 14(14) | pp.213~240 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Buddhist Monk Portrait, the object of worship, is about thousand now made almost after Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. sixty seven out of a thousand have preserved in Tongdosa, twenty six out of them check up when made it or even who. This thesis study to draw a Okin's style of painting through five works made by Okin out of twenty six in Tongdosa, especially two works, painted by Okin and make a comparative study the Buddhist Monk Portraits of being unknown in Tongdosa. and genealogy of Okin in painters on the basis of painters together recorded Buddhist painting made Okin. As a result, Okin have been in activity in Gyeongsangbukdo and moved to Tongdosa with Jiyeon made the Gwaebul(掛佛) at Tongdosa in 1792. Also Okin should seem to sit at Jiyeon's feet and Seungwhal been in activity with him should seem to sit at Okin's feet. Okin's style of painting runs as follows. The keynote of painting's form are to be Pungdaes hanged down on the upper portion of picture, the pattern of mat and the Sutras on the table beside a person and the keynote of painting's style are to be Monk'clothes, patterns of it's wrinkles, for example, shaped like a Younji(kinds of mushroom), shaped like 'Ω' on monk's robe etc. Through this fact, the Gyeungpadang, Ilbongdang and Eunganmdang out of Buddhist Monk Porrtaits in Tongdosa are the works of Okin or the interrelated work of Okin.