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2009, Vol.15, No.15

  • 1.

    Study on Regional Character of Settlement Location at the Latter Bronze Age in Gyeongnam Province

    Bae, Duck-Hwan | 2009, 15(15) | pp.3~22 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The settlements of the latter Bronze Age in Gyeongnam province are intensively distributed in Nam river valley and TaehwaㆍDongcheon river valley. The regional character is identified in points-the shape of dwelling, selection of its location. That is, Hyuamri-type dwellings range around Nam river but Ulsan-type dwellings in TaehwaㆍDongcheon valley are constructed on hills. Specially, this dwellings are divided into large and small classes by scale. The magnitude of settlement is expanded according to each regional character. The first opportunity of settlement building is the social-economic factor based on matter, I think, the natural environmental foundation as restriction and high requirements acts on complex conditions. Moreover, the united factors (communality as momentum of cohesion, popu-lation as main group and cause of scale enlargement, terrain potential as condition) emerge from physical settlement formation in historical inertia and ecological limitation. The living cohesion degree and scale compoundly effected by three factors become different. More population, higher communality and better environment, I think that the living cohesion degree and scale become larger. First of all, topographical conditions have an direct effect on location, field and shape of settlement. Basically these stipulations creates not only decisive factor choosing settlement location but also developmental result. Besides these are the most important factor determinating possibility and substance of land utilization as well as spacial formation deciding size and shape of settlement. In conclusion settlement location at the latter Bronze Age in Gyeongnam province expresses the placing and living difference of formation according to relation with nature to consider security and possibility filling up water, fuel, cultivated land as domiciliating will. Moreover the aspect that the settlement distributed around river as Nam river and TaehwaㆍDongcheon river is the aggregate of complex topographical factor systematically connected with flood and basin. The settlement of Nam river valley is constructed on sedimentary ground. The aspect of TaehwaㆍDongcheon river is identified in erosive ground. I think that this topographical difference finally influences living formation and thinking method. Further choice and shape of settlement become different.
  • 2.

    Bronze scoop from barrows of early iron age in the western part of Eurasian steppes

    이지은 , MaksimenkoV.Ye | 2009, 15(15) | pp.23~51 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In the steppe zone of southern‐eastern Europe, the western part of Eurasian steppes, from the barrows BC fifth–forth centuries of early iron age were found some unordinary bronze scoops. Many of them have a hemispherical shape. There are holes in the bottom and wall. Some scholars think, that these kinds of things can be the brazier. But they didn’t suggest the adaptable reason. There’s no study on these things in detail. Just at the preliminary reports of excavations and publications were written very shortly about them. Scoops can be classified into two groups by handles and plug. The first group includes the scoop with two handles in the upper sector. The plug in the side of scoops is characterized by the second group. By the way the second group can divide into two types. In the first type form is flatter than the second group’s. Holes are located in the bottom and the lower part of scoops. Moreover the form of them likes a circle, triangle or oval. In compare with the scoops of second type, they were made roughly. Usually they were discovered in the barrows, which belong to the archaeological culture Savromate. Openwork scoops come under the second type of the second group. General form of them is such as sphere. This kind of things were found from the rich barrows of Scythian rulers in the most western part of Eurasian steppes. As far as know, there 9 scoops in the western part of Eurasian steppes, including three from the area of Ural‐Volga, two from the area of Don, one from the north part of Caucasus and three from the area of Dnieper. It’s possible to know the five conditions, where and with what these artifacts were found. In this work authors give their view on multifunctional uses of objects. The first purpose – brazier and censer. Herodotus made a note about Scythian bath. After funeral ceremony, Scythian made themselves clean through the fumigation of the hemp in the Scythian bath. The second purpose – these artifacts could be using like a scoop for taking out the meat from the kettle. In some situations our objects were found with the kettle or spoon. The third function – people used them to make a cheese. Because of some of them were in the mound, so maybe people put them after funeral ritual and sacrifice.
  • 3.

    Spoons and Scissors found from Tombs of Song, Liao, Jin and Yuan Periods - Insightful research on Bronze spoon, iron scissors, coins and mirrors -

    정의도 | 2009, 15(15) | pp.53~136 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The researcher has reported that spoons and scissors found from Goryeo tombs were influenced by Liao Dynasty, China. In order to prove the influence, this work shed light on other research journals such as [Kaogu/Archaeology/考古] and [Wenwu/Cultural Relics/文物] published from China which contain all reported artefacts found from tombs of Song, Liao, Jin and Yuan Period. Firstly the spoons and scissors from the tombs were analysed and then coins and mirrors were studies together to understand the burial tendency. Therefore this research targets to comprehend the background of the spoon and scissor burial of Goryeo Period. Those tombs from Song to Yuan Period are all 195 in its numbers and total 21 tombs (which is 11% overall) contain Bronze Spoons and they are all found from Liao Period tombs. It is not too much to say that the number 11% reached actually over 20% given natural extinction, illegal trading, and damages. Nineteen spoons from Song (including North and South) Period were found and it only reached 3% overall, in the mean time same amount of 3% were reported from Yuan tombs. So it seemed that Song and Yuan tombs share similar culture of burying rather small amounts of spoons and this is clearly different from Liao Tombs. In case of iron scissors, eleven from Song tombs, nine from Liao, one from Jin Tombs and no scissor has been reported from Yuan tombs. So this is also showing that Liao contain rather high numbers of iron scissors. It is also interesting to point out that scissor-shape baked clay has been buried in Liao tombs and this is well proving that how Liao people treat scissor in their everyday life. To a certain extent, therefore, burial of scissors in Goryeo tombs could be influenced by Liao tombs. Coins, found more than 30% from Song tombs were only reported 18% from Liao tombs. In the mean time, Jin coins were around 15.8% but gold and silver coins were also buried together which is similar culture with South Song Dynasty. In case of Yuan tombs, more than 23.5% coins were identified and so it is highly likely that Song culture had influenced Yuan Dynasty strongly. Burial coins were definitely a tradition of Song tombs, and this is in line with Goryeo tombs' burial of coins. So this can be noted that coin burial in Goryeo period had a concrete influence from Song Dynasty, China. Mirrors, found from 18% of Song tombs, 14.3% of Liao tombs, 6.7% of Jin tombs, and 15.5% of Yuan tombs. Apart from Jin tombs, they are all similar in numbers. Therefore, the way of Song to bury mirror together inside the tomb had been inherited by Liao and until Yuan Dynasty. Given the fact that burial tendency of Song tombs has been similar to Liao tombs, Song's burial culture had influenced other Dynasties such as Jin and Yuan. In this sense, we could understand how Goryeo tombs ended up burying mirrors and Chinese coins. Using other words, Goryeo tombs highly influenced by Song and its culture. However, bronze spoons were most likely found from Liao tombs and the amounts are also high compared to other periods. So in case of the spoons, the culture of Liao seemed to have strong impact onto Goryeo tomb burials. Liao's hunting culture is main way of life and also it is generally believed that people of Liao always carried spoons everywhere with themselves. In this sense, Liao's burying culture of spoons with the deceased is quite normal customs. To conclude this work, it is reasonable to believe that Goryeo had close relationship with Liao, sharing and influencing food and funeral culture. This naturally led to Goryeo burying spoons to the tombs. In terms of the time scale, 11th century is the most reasonable time to accpet this culture. Presumably, early Goryeo had a tradition of regarding bronze spoon as a priceless object in relation with Unified Silla Period. This importance of bronze spoon perhaps was enhanced when Goryeo started to have a international connection with Song and Liao. Burying spoons in tombs were also settled since then. Regarding the result of the journal research, tradition of Goryeo burial culture has been influence by Song, given Chinese coins and mirrors. However, the spoons burial culture of Goryeo tombs are definitely impacted by Liao, given Liao tombs burial culture and dietary culture. Therefore, Goryeo tombs and its burial tendency well highlight Goryeo's international relationship with Liao and North/South Song Dynasties.