Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2009, Vol.16, No.16

  • 1.

    A Study on the organic matter bit found from Ancient Korea and Japan

    chang,yoon-chung | 2009, 16(16) | pp.3~28 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This work shed light on the technology and development of harness production and influences between Korea Peninsula and Japan, focusing on the comparisons of the shapes of bits and handle-connected sticks in the entire bit and bridle structure. Also this study includes the technicians of bit and bridle in both countries. As a result of this, it is note to remember that metal handle-connected sticks were not identified in the early stage the Kohun period in Japan but snarling shapes had been reported the most. This fact can also be found from Three Han period in Korea Peninsula. Also Kingi Area has rather less examples while Okayama, Nagano, Gunma and Miyazaki areas produced amounts of handle-connected sticks. It is interesting that those areas (from Okayama to Miyazaki) show less numbers of tombs compared to Kingi Area. Therefore it can be presumed that bits and bridles are not reflecting social and political environment in Japan but rather showing personality or occupation of the deceased.
  • 2.

    A Study on Silla Artefacts found from Okinosima

    Park, Kwang Choon | 2009, 16(16) | pp.29~52 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Two islands Tsusima and Okinosima play a connecting role of Korea and Japan. Slightly laid in eastern side compared to Tsusima, Okinosima located in 145 km from Busan and its side in total is quite small: east-west 1.5km, south-north 0.5km. Therefore, Tsusima has always been highlighted to understand ancient connection between Korea and Japan rather than Okinosima. However, it should be discussed that Silla artefacts found from Okinosima are enormously crucial and those overwhelm the Tsusima artefacts. Since 1954 three academic excavations were conducted in Okinosima. There are 23 ritual relics in the middle of the island and Silla artefacts are as such: iron nail from Am-sang site, horse harness, gold ring, glass plate from Am-um site. Those artefacts are all found mainly from the royal Silla tombs in Korea. Other artefacts seemed to be buried in between late 5th to early 6th centuries. According to the historic written records on 'Three Kingdoms History', Wae(refers Japan) attacked Silla frequently in the time of 5th to 6th centuries and this means Wae and Silla had quite negative relationship. However, artefacts found from Okinosima and Osaka area are mostly made for royal or high class group. Then, the historic records and the fact do not match each other. The background of those 5th century artefacts can be presumed that Silla envoys stayed in Okinosima during their trip to Osaka and then prayed for the Sea God for their safety. In case of the 6th century artefacts, they could be understood in the same context of 5th century artefacts. However, 'History of Japan' recorded that Iwai Revolt which happened in 527. According to the record, Silla asked Iwai to stop Wae's expedition to Silla and Silla contributed amounts of precious jewellery to Iwai. In this process, Silla might send envoy to Iwai in Okinosima and the General of Iwai welcomed the envoy and then held religious or ritual services in Okinosima.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Lacquered statue of Ksitigarbha buddhisattva in Won-myeong Temple, Kimhae

    Lee, Hee Jung | 2009, 16(16) | pp.53~76 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Won-myeong Temple is located in Daedong, Kimhae, Gyeongnam province, and it enshrines a body of Lacquer statue of seated Ksitigarbha buddhisattva within its Ksitigarbha hall. The height of statue is 75.5cm, it has a stable body posture and a good body proportions with a realistic facial features, it has a very distinctive characteristic such as a natural and tendered appearance of sacerdotal robe. Due to the equal belief, it has been presumed to be a lacquered statue. In January of 2009, there were two phases of examinations and has found, not only the raw material called as lacquer but also valuable materials as such as Wish Writings which has been restored in gold varnishes, a book of the Sutra of the Lotus, a recorded document of anniversaries and a Bottle of Five Jewels. According to the Wish Writings of lacquer statue of Ksitigarbha buddhisattva placed in Won-myeong Temple, it was created in the year of 1336-the 2nd year of Tokon-Temur, and it has been repaired in the year of 1737 due to the gold varnish wear outs. It also indicates that there has been a prior restoration. The Buddha statue's restoration has begun about 70 before and after years of Choseon period which is around the year 1650. The record shows that the statue was originally placed in Mt. Cheong-hwa's Baek-reon Temple which falls under the current jurisdiction of Sobo-myeon(a subdivison of county), Geun-ui county, and it is believed to be relocated to Won-myeong Temple after the close out of Baek-reon Temple. Won-myeong Temple's lacquer statue of Ksitigarbha buddhisattva is a traditional bald headed Ksitigarbha buddhisattva which conforms the Sutras, a stalemate face as it has lost weight and robe's crease expressed on the dignified and stable leg reflects the elegant style of Koryo in late 14th century. Other than the 1348's Ten-story Pagoda of Gyeongcheon Temple; a bald headed Ksitigarbha duddhisattva is extremely rare case of buddha statue; however, there are diverse forms of icons in buddhist paintings which applicably shows a result of a wide spread in buddhist paintings within the society of late Koryo. One thing not to be overlook is the place of preparation for the Kimhae Won-myeong Temple's lacquer statue of seated Ksitigarbha buddhisattva, it is important to note its origin placement of Geun-ui, Gyeonsang province. Sejong's authentic record of the geography (Sejong-sil-rok-ji-ri-ji) or the Dong-guk-yeo-ji-seung-ram which have bases on the records of Koryo shows that paints have been produced in Gyeongsang province the most followed by Jeonlla province and Choongchung province. The most of craftsmen who provided goods to the Koryo's royal family and high ranking officials were also from Gyeonsang province. In other words, Gyeonsang province had an advantageous condition than any other areas to prepare those painted statues. It is not irrational to emphasis the importance of relevancy between the paints and Gyeongsan province area, repeatedly; that is, a lacquer statue has begun to be prepared in Gyeongsang province for a long time; the best lacquer statue exist in Bonghwa Cheong-ryang Temple and Won-myeong Temple enshrines a lacquer statue of Ksitigarbha buddhisattva(1336), a lacquer statue of seated compassion buddhisttva (the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy) is in Yeong-deok and a 15th century's lacquer statue of seated compassion buddhisttva in Daegu Pa-gye Temple (restored in 1447); and those cease to exist as such as a lacquer statue in Hapcheon Hae-in Temple(1448), Gyeongju Gi-rim Temple's a lacquer statue of seated compassion buddhisttva (1501) of 16th century and Andong Suh-ak Temple's a lacquer statue of seated Tri-Loka Buddhas. There could be a number of possibilities for the continuations of lacquer statues in Gyeongsang province such as a fine quality of paints and existence of craftsmen those who prepared the Knshitsu statues traditionally. Won-myeong Temple's lacquer statue of seated Ksitigarbha buddhisattva is the one and only bald headed style Ksitigarbha buddhisattva in Korea with a preparation year of 1336. The statue is very important in studying the late Koryo's buddha statues, and it is also valuable piece of work to identify the aspects of buddhist culture during the Koryo period.
  • 4.

    A Study on Painting of Śākyamuni's Preaching Assembly by Busan Wongwangsa Temple

    김수영 | 2009, 16(16) | pp.77~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Painting of Śākyamuni's Preaching Assembly kept at Wongwangsa Temple features Buddha, and 6bodhisattvas, Gaseop, Anan, 16arhats, and Four Heavenly Kings around Buddha, attempting to partially change the motifs of background depiction, the image support, and emblems. Notably, the depiction of the water surface, which is rarely found in Joseon Śākyamuni's Preaching Assembly paintings, is impressive. The said work inherited the 18th century tradition of Buddhist paintings produced in the Gyeongbuk region, attempted to partially change the motifs, and heralded the appearance of new-style Buddhist paintings in the 19th century, thereby drawing attention. A total of 17 people including the head monk painter, Yeongnin, participated in the production of the work. From the comparison of painting styles, the painting style of Yeongsu, rather than that of the head monk painter, is more prominent in the workl; thus the production of the work of Wongwangsa Temple presumably have been led by Yeongsu. Also, the work partially accommodates the painting style of monk painters from the Gyeonggi region in terms of depiction of figures and shades of colors. Exchanges with monk painters in the Gyeonggi region might be possible because the monk painters had worked together in the construction works at Jikjisa Temple or Namjangsa Temple. The work was estimated to have been produced in the same period that the Vairocana Platform Painting presented in the Birojeon Hall of Beomeosa Temple was. Both works are confirmed to be similar in many aspects such as the provisoin of offerings and the painting style. The great donator, Chigyu, appearing in the work of Wongwangsa Temple, is one of the monks who were engaged in the reconstruction of Beomeosa Hermitage, and his portrait has survived to the present time. From the wording (‘Siam jungchang Daegongdeokju, and Yangseboam) in the portrait, he is believed to have been engaged in the reconstruction of the temple. Notably, From the deleted content (the shrine's name deleted) from the work of Wongwangsa Temple, and the big crosswise length, the work is presumed to have been hung in the hermitage reconstructed by Chigyu.
  • 5.

    A Study on Trends of Painting Gyeongjikdo in the Late Joseon Period Found in Two Pieces of <Nonggawolryeong 12 Gokbyeong>

    이현주 | 2009, 16(16) | pp.109~136 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In the old times of this country when Confucianism ruled society, agriculture and sericulture were the main economic bases of people. Gyeongjikdo was a painting whose aim was to recognize the labors and pain of agriculture and sericulture. It has the form of court painting at first. As the country approached the late Joseon period, Gyeongjikdo became more and more wanted by noblemen and ordinary people. Works of Gyeongjikdo that still remain were in most cases painted between the late Joseon period and the end of the Joseon dynasty. This study examined two pieces of <Nonggawolryeong 12 Gokbyeong> which were presumedly painted by the order of Jukrim Park Ju Yeon(1813~1872) who lived in the region of Dongrae in the 19th century. In the study, substantially, this researcher tried to determine when the above two pieces were made by analyzing their features and styles of illustration and examine who ordered and painted the two works and the purpose of painting them. Out of the two, one is the original which was painted by Songam. It consists of painted images which illustrate agricultural and sericultural processes for each month. The images also contain Nongawolryeongga that corresponds to each month. For this reason, the original was titled 'Nonggawolryeongdo'. Findings of the study can be summarized as follows. First, both of the two pieces clearly reflect features of Gyeongjikdo painted in the late Joseon period. And out of them, one is the original and the other is its imitation. Second, fundamentally underlying the painting of the two pieces were Park Ju Yeon's family background and scholastic disposition. Third, the two pieces of <Nonggawolryeong 12 Gokbyeong> were painted considering geographical features of Dongrae where their painter resided. The original painter of the two works, that is, Songam was probably a painter of the region officially called Dongraebu. Fourth, the original as mentioned above was painted by Songam since the 1830s. Its imitation, whose painter was unclear, was made before 1908. This study found that such imitations were frequently painted according to customers' particular intentions. The supply and demand of paintings in that way allowed this researcher to presume that in the late Joseon period, regional painters could be more active in the late Joseon period . In conclusion, the above two pieces of <Nonggawolryeong 12 Gokbyeong>, which were painted in the region of Dongrae and still remain, are very meaningful in that they reflect features of Gyeongjikdo of the late Joseon period and painting trends of the region.