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2010, Vol.17, No.17

  • 1.

    A study on the polished stone arrowhead in neolithic of Korea

    LEE DONGJU | 2010, 17(17) | pp.3~32 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Although the Polished Stone Arrowhead (Maje seokchok) has been one remains with some important features in Neolithic of our country with the Jeulmun pottery, so far, the concrete and comprehensive review of it hasn't been come true. In this study, after organizing recent data from a comprehensive survey and then categorizing by type, I'd like to review by the recording chronologically of each region and the mutual relativity. As a result, it has been confirmed that the Stone Arrowhead (Maje seokchok) was found in the lower classes of the Press down-patterned pottery (Apinmoon earthenware) stage of the eastern coast in the Korean Peninsula, especially focused on the ruins of Osan-ri and Munam-ri at the first time. Since then, it has been considered that the Press down-patterned pottery (Apinmoon earthenware) which was recorded chronologically as the former part of the Neolithic Age has been spreaded primarily into the southern coast of Korean in the process of diffusion. After as connected into the Jeulmun pottery stage of the middle part in Neolithic, while the east coast had a strong feeling of being cut off, these characteristic elements had the most appearance and development when they emerged suddenly in the northwestern coast centered on the remains of Gungsan-ri Oncheon and Jitap-ri Bongsangun Hwanghaedo. If considering the cultural characteristics of pottery, it has been appeared that some elements were combined with one of the South Coast region. Finally, it is determined that the middle part of the Neolithic Age represented as the Jeulmun pottery had been formed in the process of spreading to the south.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Ulleungdo's Horizontal Entrance Outer Stone Coffin Tomb In Three Kingdoms - Unifed Silla Period

    Kim, Ha-Na | 2010, 17(17) | pp.33~82 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Ulleungdo is the place where Usan existed, which later became subjugated to Silla by Lee Sabu who was the ruler of Haseulraju in 512, despite the numerous horizontal entrance outer stone coffin tombs of Silla existence, the study on the subject is still very insignificant. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to explore when and what region's influence the Silla culture was introduced to the island together with horizontal entrance outer stone coffin tomb by examining the horizontal entrance outer stone coffin tombs distributed throughout Ulleungdo region. In Chapter II, will be summarization of distribution and status of the horizontal entrance outer stone coffin tombs found in Ulleungdo up to this date. In Chapter III, there will be attempts to establish classification and stages by the type of tombs and chronically record them through the excavated relics. In Chapter IV, based on the changing process and property of such tombs, the influx process of horizontal entrance outer stone tomb in Ulleungdo region was reviewed by analyzing in comparison with the materials found from the tombs in Samcheok and Donghae regions in the vicinity of the east coast, and Andong and Uiseong regions in northern Gyeongbuk. As for the results, The horizontal entrance outer stone tombs in Ulleungdo region were first built in mid 6th century. Later, Ulleungdo's own tomb style was settled down with a strong characteristic of original settlers and continued to be built until 10th century. The excavation remains from the 6th century middles which are a time where the horizontal entrance outer stone tombs flows initially the 10th century respect remains are confirmed Judging by the remains that mostly consist of Silla earthenwares and buried prestige goods such as a piece of bronze crown, bronze bell and gilt bronze buckle that represent indirect governing behaviors of distributing the prestige goods to the local ruling class and guaranteeing certain positions during the process of Silla unifying the neighboring countries, it is considered that this place was recognized as an important region and managed accordingly. Under the current circumstance of lacking sufficient data on Usan nation besides the literature about subjection to Silla in 512, the materials of tombs suggest the ideas on the process of Usan becoming a tributary to Silla.
  • 3.

    The statue of the Four Devas carved on Pagoda and Their meaning in Unified Silla

    Kim Ji Hyun | 2010, 17(17) | pp.83~112 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The Pagodas, in Unifed Silla , are decorated in relief with various images. the statue of the Four Devas(four heavenly guardians of Buddhism) of those image are affiliated with Suvar aprabh sottamar ja-sūtra(金光明經) in the latter part of 7th century. and located various floors of Pagoda. About this, We arranged Pagodas carved the statue of the Four Devas by caces and classified by floors of Pagoda carved these. and examined their meaning of symbols with being made pagoda in early. Pagoda carved in the Four Devas can be divided into four types. This show obvious local charater. Ⅰtype is carved the statue of the Four Devas on the first floor of Pagoda and Ⅱtype, another image, anoter floor of Pagod with them on the first floor of it. Most of these show in GyungJu. and in early. Jeolla-Do show Ⅱtype and Ⅲtype, the statue of the Four Devas with various images on the first floor of it. Gangwon-Do, Ⅲtype and Ⅳtype, the statue of the Four Devas with various images on the upper stereobate of it. and Gyeongsandbuk- Do in and around AnDong․Uiseong show all. Ⅰ․Ⅱtypes, in Gyeongju, among them has in common, the Four Devas carved on the first floor of it. As stated above, the advent of the statue of the Four Devas has a close relation to Suvar aprabh sottamar ja-sūtra(金光明經) in the latter part of 7th century. About this believe the reasons and meaning, the statue of the Four Devas carved on the first floor of it, is Sarira Reliquary carved the statue of the Four Devas of three-story stone pagoda at Gameunsa Temple Site, in 682. especially, reliquary into eastern pagoda is Palace Building-shaped reliquary, the figuration of the Buddha's Land conception. and if this were made in Pagoda, the Four Devas is located on the first floor pagoda. and this mean the world of them in Sumi Mountain. their upper floor, Buddha's Land. this is related to the floor of being enshrine Sarira in Pagoda. for example, three-story stone at Wonwon temple site in Gyeongju, three-story stone of four lions at Whaeom temple in Gurye, the West Pagoda at Whaeom temple in Gurye, etc. these has the Hole for Sarira into second Roof Stone or second floor of Pagoda. In the middle of 8th century, Pagoda has the new form of the hole for sarira into the first floor of it. Since then, this show general form in Unified Silla. This suppose one of the reason that vaiorus image including the Four Devas carved the first floor of pagoda have to migrate the upper stereobate. But this will solve the vaiorus way my thinks. and first, we will research three-story stone of four lions at Whaeom temple in Gurye.
  • 4.

    A study on the Chronology of chinese(Song~Yuan) Spoons - tenancy Fishtail-edge spoon -

    정의도 | 2010, 17(17) | pp.113~160 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Most of the spoons of Song and Won Dynasties, China, have been found from Buddhist temples or sites, tombs, and underground treasure pits. This work is trying to classify the periodical orders of the artefacts which contain the absolute time period and then the results of this work may be beneficial to understand spoons of Goryeo and Joseon in Korea. Spoons of Song Dynasty seemed to maintain the tradition of Tang Dynasty without any big changes in its shape, but the edge of the grip begun to wide in the triangle shape. This change can be also found from the Liao Empire, Northern Region, and the decorations were appeared in the wide part of the edge such as pair of fishes or the edge was shaped like the webbed feet of duck. This tendency is definitely different from the broadened spoon edge of North and South Song Dynasties. It seemed that this wide edge finally influenced late Liao Empire and the shape of swallowtail (two divided edge) had been launched since then. From the "Chinese Spoon and Chopsticks Chronological Order" research result which was identified by the writer, it can be highly likely that this kind of swallowtail edge had been started from late Liao Empire and then settled in the Jin Dynasty(Jurchen) until Won Dynasty. The name of 'swallowtail' has been given as of its two divided edge shape. When it comes to review the ones from Liao Empire and Song Dynasty, the edge seemed to be widened. The spoon found from the Yojinguk Princess Tomb of those periods, has clearly distinctive edge shape with pair of fish decoration. Firstly, it has been widened with the fish body inscription and then secondly the tail of the fishes were added which result broadening the edge shape further. Therefore these two steps of widened edge finally found from the 'swallowtail' edge spoons in Sonhwayo Tomb M3, M1 mural painting, and Jin Dynasty(Jurchen). This is also important to signify the fish decoration. Usually fish decoration appeared as a pair and this is because fish pair represent male and female or a couple's amalgamation and happiness which finally draw a large offspring prosperity. Particularly the mirrors with pair fish decorations were very popular during the Jin Dynasty(Jurchen). Engraving the pair fish to the spoon edge had been started from the Liao Empire and then it influenced the Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) more broadly. After the decoration was introduced to the Jin, it seemed that people made the decoration more simplified which resulted the swallowtail-edged spoon. Therefore, swallowtail-edge was only named because of its shape. But this is more important to point out that its shape is actually descended from the fish pair. The name of swallowtail-edge then can be named as a "fish-tail edge". In the mean time, these kinds of fish-tail edges seemed to be found from late 13th Goryeo Dynasty. The "x" shape scissors found from Goryeo tombs were also fall into late 13th century and this result is widely accepted in the archaeological field. However, fish-tail edge spoon was already appeared in early 12th century in China and even 'x' shape scissors were found in late 11th or early 12th century. It should be highlighted that Jin Dynasty(Jurchen) and Goryeo had long-time international exchanges without any disruption. Potteries and mirrors were also imported consecutively but the 'fish-tail edge' spoons were imported after a century. Big question was lied here. Why those spoons and scissors which were found in 12th century in China had appeared in Korea after late 13th century?It is so difficult to answer this big question right now and there is such a huge gap of a century. I will let the question be answered any time soon.