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2010, Vol.18, No.18

  • 1.

    Bronze Sarmates’ mirrors with the Han elements of Han dynasty from the southern european part of Russia

    lee ji eun | 2010, 18(18) | pp.3~32 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The bronze mirrors are one of the popular categories from the burials of Sarmates. In the south of european part of Russia there are not only local products but also imports. Moreover archaeologies had been finding some mirrors with unidentified root. Giving attention to scheme and ornaments of these mirrors and comparing them with Chinese mirrors, author can find their prototypes from the Han mirrors. Every attribution at our objects shows distinction of certain Chinese types. Otherwise Sarmates' mirrors could be classified by the forms of handles. And then forms of frames around the central handle or knob. Decoration is the one of important attribution to find the prototypes of the Sarmates' mirrors with Han elements. Mirrors with square frame and geometrical ornaments are thought to imitation of type TLV. Round frame and ornament like a bracken are considered that they have some similarity with the Han mirrors with four knobs and for beings. Symbols (characters), which are consisted in curved lines, are similar to Chinese hieroglyph on the mirror of type "sunshine (ri guang)". Others also have some elements, which were at the Han mirrors. It’s thought, that the types reflect the traits of time. Meanwhile it’s interesting to check that these kinds of mirrors from the south of Russia were not just copy the Chinese original, because there are some local traits.
  • 2.

    The structural analysis development process of the Horse bit and bridle in the East Asia

    chang,yoon-chung | 2010, 18(18) | pp.33~59 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the macro perspective, this study heavily focuses on the development process of the horse equipment particularly the bits and bridles which have a stick ends. These objects seemed to be introduced here in East Asia (including Korea, Japan and China) from West and Middle Asia. Especially it should be highlighted that this work divided four different types according to the combination technique of the bits and bridles. They are as such: Penetration, All-in-one, Combination and Insertion. Penetration type has a small hole in the middle of the bits and the bridle was penetrated through the hole. At the end of the stick, then, there is a outer circle which to hold the bits. In case of All-in-one, the bridle and the bits are directly combined and stuck together. A hole or circle which is attached to the bridle are connected to the bits and this is a Combination type. Finally the Insertion type is the one which is known as the general bits and bridles and so bridles were inserted to the bits. This kinds of combined bits and bridles seemed to be identified from West Asia, Middle Asia and Japan throughout more than 1500 years in history. However, this is also very interesting to point out that all those findings have distinctive and unique feature which cannot be unified into one certain type.
  • 3.

    A study on the stone-build satatue of Vairocana Buddha at Bulgoksa temple in Changwon

    지강이 | 2010, 18(18) | pp.61~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The stone-build statue of 'wisdon fist'(Jigwonin)vairocana Buddha placed in Bulgoksa temple, Daebangdong, Changwon had never been researched alone since it was first introduced in 1965. The current temple was established on the abandoned temple site where the main statue was found. Unfortunately, we cannot figure out the purpose of the temple as no documentation remains. However, considering there exists Bonglimsa temple of which is one of nine Zen Buddhism temples in Changwon, it is inevitable to see the relationship between the main statue and Bonglimsa temple. Due to these circumstances, the study was conducted to find out the precise date of foundation through examining the style characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the specifications of Bulgoksa temple site by reviewing the examples of the statues in Gimhae and Changwon as well as other Zen Buddhism temples. Besides, through looking into the general social background of the period when they built the statue, we analogized the reason why they constructed Bulgoksa temple statue. Being similar to the seated vairocana Buddha in Biroam, Donghwasa temple, the Buddha’s robe is drawn between its legs creating a large-U-shape. Therefore we assumed it was made in late 9th century, which is not much later than Donghwasa temple statue’s construction. We understand that Gimhae and Changwon are places where Nohilbuduk and Daldalbakbak became Buddha, also we can understand this was passed down till the end of 9th century through a repositioning version of seated Buddha in Yonghwajeon temple which is thought to be a Vajrasana of buddha. It seems that the statue has nothing to do with Bonglimsa temple, knowing that Bulgoksa temple is highly suspected to be a non-zen buddhism since main Buddhas of Zen buddhism are usually metal. Historically, it was the most vigorous days of the end of Unified Silla Dynasty, from the mid-King Kyoungmun to King Hungang, when the Buddhist rituals were performed fervently and Changwon was a Silla-friendly area. Futhermore, most Vairocana Buddha’s statues those days were formed with round pagodas to show their condolences for the deads. Thus, it is possible to suggest that the statue was also built for the repose of the deceased in Donhwasa temple statue by landlords in Gimhae and Changwon under Silla’s influence. It could be seen as an example demonstrating central driven Buddhist ritual performed locally.
  • 4.

    A Study on Ceramic Ware of the Area Sangjang, Jangri, Gijang

    허선영 | 2010, 18(18) | pp.85~128 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A research of earth surface was conducted by me from February to July 2007 on the subject of ancient formation of ceramic art villages at Gijang county, Busan. The research, though it was just a survey of earth surface, is a significant work since no research has been conducted till now concerning pottery at Gijang area and reported officially to the learned circles. From the pottery located at Janganri village was discovered ‘Buncheong ware’ that retains inscriptions such as ‘Ulsan Jangheung Go(warehouse)’ and ‘Gyeongbu Je (festival).’ In addition, utensils used in religious services such as ‘Jajeop,’ ‘Hijun,’ ‘Bo’ and ‘Gojokbae’ were confirmed through the Janganri pottery. The place seems identical to ‘Janganri-hyeon’ of Ulsan recorded in 『Gyeongsang-doSokchanJiriji』(geographical book published in Gyeongsang province) where low grade chinaware were produced. The mentioned pottery was marred by posterity, so observation of its remained structure has become difficult. However, I decided that with the recovered slices, chronological research of the three remains is worth trying, so I brought it up as the object of my study. To determine the production period of the potteries, I first reviewed the kinds and techniques of production, together with patterns and abnormalities of the slices. Bowls and dishes were focal points of my survey as they are kinds that have been recovered most so far. Other items such as ceramic slices and kiln tools were also investigated. However, I have encountered limitation in studying the whole composition of pattern since most of the excavated slices were small sized. Nonetheless, I have classified them into main pattern and subordinate pattern based on general composition of patterns and their locations as well as their appearing ratio. As for production skill, I observed cutting shape of ‘Yutae’ (special oil painting) and bottom of the slices, their firing technique, whether they are ‘Gapbeon’ (high-grade product) or ‘Pogae Gui’ fired one, and what material was used as prop. As a result of my observing the ceramic slices from Gijang area, I came to know that the most prominent features of the three potteries lie in ‘Yeondang Chomun’ celadon porcelains from Sinri and Daeryong potteries, the ‘Buncheong’ chinaware (with inscription of authorities) from Janganri pottery, and the utensil production for religious service. Through the above analysis, along with study of documentary records and comparison with other remains that were recovered from stable stratum or bearing dates, I could surmise the specific production period of each pottery. As for the pottery at Janganri, I have surmised its production period through shapes of the remains recovered from 6 stable strata of pottery at Chunghyo-dong, Gwangju city, together with changed forms of religious utensils. I was also given important hint from the records on chinaware potteries at Ulsan county described in 『Gyeongsang- doSokchanJiriji』. As the result of my research I conclude that the pottery at Janganri started ceramic production somewhere between 1450〜1470.
  • 5.

    A study on stone Buddha Statues of Jijangjeon and Yongsanjeon in the Sungju-temple in Changwon City

    이희정 | 2010, 18(18) | pp.129~158 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Sungjusa is an old temple in Changwon City and it is said to be established in about early 9th century. Its inscriptions and buddha statues are mostly made after Imjinran(A War between Korea and Japan in 16C). An investigation for cultural assets carried in June 2009 confirmed the concrete environment about Buddhist cultural assets of Sungjusa. In the process of investigation, it is intriguingly confirmed for Seung-Ho to sculpture not only the Buddhist Sculpture at Jijangjeon but also the Buddhist sculpture at YongsanJeon, and many other Sculptures at many other places such as Eunginjeon(1684), Myeongbujeon(1684) at Jangansa Temple in Gijang nearby, Sudoam(Late 17C), Yongsanbojeon and Myeongbujeon at Duksa temple in Cheongdo, Bokwangjeon at Daejeonsa Temple in Cheongsong. Especially, the Statue of Yongsan at Sungjusa Temple was estimated to sculpture at year of 1681 with the sculpture at Jijangjeon by the fact of sculptured feature. Common features of the sculptures made by Seung-Ho are hefty body volume, slanting eyes, the feature of 2 ends of Geun that was turned over, the characteristics that the end of sleeves was turned to the direction of knees. Those above mentioned buddhist statues was featured by being made of buddhist stone called Kyeongjuwoksuk and produced in some restricted areas. The distribution of this stone was found on some coasts in Kyeongshangdo and Nakdong river area, which shows that the development of the maritime distribution and river canal has been utilized as a vehicle to move the stone mentioned. In a nutshell, this dissertation clarifies strong relationship between commercial route and the distribution of buddhist statues.
  • 6.

    A Study on the new icon of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara with the painting of Buddha in the 19thcentury.

    kim, mi-kyuong | 2010, 18(18) | pp.159~196 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about the new icon of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara in the late of Joseon Dynasty which a Buddha painting of 19thcentury and the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara have been amalgamated into. Taking note of this icon, the present writer contemplated the features of this and the appearance background through the examples, real statues and forms. Before 19thcentury, the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara was prevalent as the religious faith solely, and was either enshrined as the painting in the separate Avalokiteśvara palace or painted as the secondary status or one of Bodhisattvas of the upper painting. On the other hand, the new icon of Avalokiteśvara, which was blended with a Buddha painting, was painted below overall Buddha in the painting. This has two types. One is the form painting the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara and her left-right secondary status together with a rocky mountain for background as zoning the outline by a huge circle. The other is the form painting the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara sitting with her legs completely crossed and taking Samadhi(means a higher level of concentrated meditation) sign of hands solely. The present writer thought that the former emphasized ‘potalaka’ which is the world of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. And the latter formed her methods of asceticism to reach nirvana through listening to the sounds and to lead all living things to the paradise into the image of Avalokiteśvara in the state of Samadhi. About the background of appearance of the new icon of Avalokiteśvara is supposed to be the blooming mood of SeonJeong Gyeom So(means practicing asceticism with Seon and chanting a Buddhist prayer), the late-blooming Sukhavati(the pure land of the Buddha Amitabha) faith and the faith of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara still worked strongly in the public at that time. The icon of Samadhi sign of hands has appeared in the painting of Sukhavati and the image of Avalokiteśvara with the painting of Buddha in the 19thcentury. This has supported the above-mentioned truth greatly. Finally, the new icon of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara with a Buddha painting is a good example that showed not only the asceticism system of chanting a Buddhist prayer that practiced Seon and Sukhavati but also the Sukhavati faith in the late of Joseon Dynasty.