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2011, Vol.20, No.20

  • 1.

    The funeral groups of Koisug burial mound on the Lower Don

    V.S.Yatsenko | 2011, 20(20) | pp.3~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The article is devoted to the funeral groups of Koisug burial mound. The analyses of Koisug cemetery complex as well as publications of previous investigators lead us to the conclusion, that this group of burials belongs to northern (Kumo-Manych) of province of Maikop- Novosvobodnaya community. Though the unified burial ritual, there two separate subgroups of burials inside it were observed. It was difficult to define the reasons of clear-cut distinction between these two groups for the lack of complexes and their local phenomenon. It is practically impossible to define chronology disparity of these burial places. Only one subgroup of Barrow No5 in the time frame from the end of 41 till the middle of 37 BC can be dated. One shouldn't insist on different sources of influence or migration as both subgroups can be compared only to psecupskij variant of Maikop-Novosvobodnaya community. The reasons of distinction are only observed in the degree of conformity with Maikop funeral ceremony. In all probability, it was an observation of funeral rites in Maikop tradition that emphasizes on the high social status of the buried.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Buddha Images Carved on the Cliff in Dojeon-ri, Sanchung

    김순정 | 2011, 20(20) | pp.55~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Rock Cliff Buddha Images of Dojeon-ri were carved on the cliff surface of the Yangcheon River, which flows through Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam Province. The 32 Buddha images all sit on the lotus pedestals and have circular haloes behind the heads and bodies. There are many different ways of dressing and finger signs with the covered-shoulders style dressing method and the Gongsu type finger sign dominating among them. Unlike the Buddha images with a feeling of massiveness in the 9th century, they are planar throughout the bodies and have schematized clothes creases, which suggests that they must have been built around the 10th century. The inscriptions are found in three to five columns on the right or left side of the Buddha images. Most of them are severely worn out and thus difficult to read. In the 10th century when the Buddha images were built, the powerful clans were active throughout the era of confusion. People chose Buddhism for their spiritual peace, and the period saw a large number of Buddhist rituals. The Buddhas whose names were checked were the main Buddhas of the Rock Cliff Buddha Images of Dojeon-ri are Amitabha and Bhaisajyaguru, which are good examples of Buddhas people believed in for seeking out fortune in this world. The cliff stands along the river, which must have been used as the main traffic route for years. The cliff surface must have been regarded as the ideal place to carve Buddha images as a result of a combination of Buddhism that was popular in those days, the faith of mountains and rivers, and faith of rocks.
  • 3.

    The Restoration of GeojeHyeon(巨濟縣) and the Movement of Chiso(治所) in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Gwangchul Kim | 2011, 20(20) | pp.89~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    GeojeHyeon(巨濟縣) was abolished in the late Goryeo, and was moved into GajoHyeon(加祚縣) far away from GeojeDo(巨濟島). The time of movement was from the end of Wonjong(元宗) to the early King Chungryeol(忠烈王). The movement of GeojeHyeon was caused by the Sambyeolcho(三別抄) resistance and the strict restrictions of government. GeojeHyeon was returned in the early Joseon Dynasty after 150 years from the movement. GeojeHyeon moved into GajoHyeon was restored into GeojeDo in the fourth year of King Sejong's reign(1422). When GeojeHyeon was restored, the Chiso(治所 ; administrative office) was located in SuwueolRi(水月里), the east GeojeDo. Its Chiso was equipped with a wooden fence, but lacked castle for administrative office in province. After GeojeHyeon was restored, the Chiso was moved in two separate occasions on 1426 and 1451. The second Chiso was moved into the SadeungRi(沙等里) in the eighth year of King Sejong's reign(1426). In this place, built a castle named as SadeungSeong(沙等城). The circumference of wall was 2,511 cheok(尺) and the height of it was 9 cheok(尺). By the way, the Chiso of SadeungRi was moved into GojeongRi(古丁里) again in the first year of King Munjong's reign(1451). The reason of movement was because SadeungSeong’s small and there is not enough water. On the other hand, the Chiso of GojeongRi had a large expanse of plains with the abundance of water. The Eupseong(邑城) located on the GojeongRi was equipped with wall, castle gate and jail of about 40rooms. The circumference of wall was 3,638 cheok(尺) and the height of it was 13 cheok(尺). As mentioned above, after GeojeHyeon was restored, the Chiso was moved from SuwueolRi into SadeungRi, from SadeungRi into GojeongRi. The Chiso was located in the east coast of GeojeDo. It shows, through change the Goryeo Dynasty into the Joseon Dynasty, the distribution of resident, the movement of the stronghold of community leader, the administration and the traffic network was changed in the Geoje(巨濟) community.
  • 4.

    A Study of the Priestling Image Pair on the Kshitigarbha Paintings in the 19th Century

    안정수 | 2011, 20(20) | pp.113~148 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    There were many Buddhist paintings combined with new icons and various expressions in the 19th century. In this circumstance, appearance of Priestling Iamge Pair on the Kshitigarbha Paintings was one of the great changes. Until now, the 18 paintings expressing the Priestling Image Pair in the 60 paintings appearing the Priestling Image remained among the 90 pieces of the Kshitigarbha Paintings. It is the most feature of this image that the elements as an arrangement(配置), a clothing(服飾), a taking thing(持物) of the expressions in the existing Priestling Image are different. The reasons in this change are an implication of an change and an emphasis of value in the role of the priestling. Meanwhile, the Kshitigarbha Paintings with expressing the Priestling Image Pair produced in the late 19th century are related to monk painters working in Gyeongbuk and Gyeonggi area according to possession places and record in the paintings. So, there is one possibility that the monk painters as Eungseok(應釋) and Chaehoon(軆訓) worked in the Gyeonggi area recognised and learned the new icon which is the Priestling Image Pair came in the Gyeongbuk area while they stay in the Gyeonggi area. There were the different expressions of the Priestling Image Pair each area. the Kshitigarbha Paintings with expressing the Priestling Image Pair from the Gyeonggi area were the same style of Jiyeon(指涓) because Eungseok(應釋) and Chaehoon(軆訓) borrowed the icon. After that, painters as Changsoo(昌秀), Junglin(仲獜), and so forth in the Gyeonggi area followed the expression. However, painters in the Gyeongbuk area put the Priestling Image Pair into the Kshitigarbha Painting in the lead of Haeuneungsang(霞隱應祥) who was a representative painter of Sabulsan-pa(四佛山派) in the late 19th century. As a result, there is a surmise that the painters in the Gyeongbuk area added some elements: a circular sparkle behind a head(頭光) and a circle to cover icon(圓圈) on the Priestling Image Pair to attempt to express the creative and various Priestling Image Pair more than the painters in the Gyeonggi area.
  • 5.

    A Study on Sakyamuni Platform Paintings in Northern Kyungsang Province During 19 Century

    김수영 | 2011, 20(20) | pp.149~192 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Paying attention to the fact that Sakyamuni Platform Paintings made in the late nineteen century were mostly concentrated in Northern Kyungsang Province and they had been painted throughout the century, this study investigated the changes of Sakyamuni Platform Paintings in Northern Kyungsang Province during the time period. First of all, this study pointed out that a group of paintings were appearing from the painting works known as Amitabha platform paintings of Northern Kyungsang Province in the 19th century, presumably indicating that the main Buddh image in the paintings could be Sakyamuni. However, such assumption was made by the conventional understanding that Sakyamuni in Hangmachikjiin is the original Sakyamuni and the paintings were named according to Kupyumin (form of hands). The image of Sakyamuni in Sulpubin has been persistently observed in the Buddhist paintings from Goryeo Dynasty to the 17th century of Chosun Dynasty. Although Sulpubin Sakyamuni wasn’t much popular image for the paintings due to the then prevailing Hangmain Sakyamuni, which appeared in the 16th century and widely accepted in the 18th century, it could be confirmed by a Sakyamuni platform painting (Gerchoam, EunhaeTenple) that Sulpubin Sakyamuni was also painted in the 18th century. Therefore, Sulpubin Sakyamuni, which began to be widely loved after the late 19th century, can be regarded as the retro style of Buddha painting. In the meantime, it holds our attention that there were appearing the images of Buddha in Hangmainsuin in Amitabha Platform Paintings. It doesn’t imply that the hands of Sakyamuni and Amitabha were mixed in the paintings, but suggests that there is a possibility that Naeyouninsuin (the arm formthat stretchs straightly just as cloud comes down to save people), which combines Naeyoung image of Amitabha that advocates salvation for all people and a faith in Sukhavati (the pure land of the Buddha Amitabha) that wishes the rebirth in the land, transformed. The reason why this unprecedented image could be accepted in the paintings was that at that time the painters based their religious belief on Whaumsasang (idea of Avatamska) shared by the disciples of Whansungjian who worked in Northern Kyungsang region. The images of Hyupsi Buddha in seated position, which started to be sincerely adapted in the Buddhist paintings of the region in the 19th century, can be classified into 2 types by seated posture: Byunhyoung Yoonwangja and Byunhyoung Bankaja. The image of the seated posture was adopted from that of Kwaneumbosalpainting and it was widely diffused to Seoul, Kyunggi, Chungcheong regions, not to mention the entire areas of Southern Kyungsang province, having been influencing greatly on the Buddhist paintings in the 19th and the 20th centuries. The images of a shining light over Buddha (circled shining light on his head and inverted U-shaped light oozing out of his body), which were popular in Gwaebul paintings in the 17th and 18th centuries, started to be adopted as the lights of Hyupsibosal in the Buddha Platform Painting of North Kyungsang province in the 19th century and got widely used for the entire genres of Buddha paintings in the region. The trend seems gradual but to have kept expending to Seoul and Kyunggi areas. The plinths on which a main Buddha sits on in Baddish paintings of Northern Kungsang region in the 19th century are divided into two categories: the plinth equipped with lotus-shaped seat on a hexagonal pedestaland the lotus stem-shaped plinth that stretches up. The hexagonal plinth can further break down by the height of the plinth. The art works in which painters drew the high seat are rectangle with a long vertical line and vice versa. It tells us that the size of the plinth determines the size and shape of Buddhist paintings. In addition, because of the size of the rear wall facing seated Buddha’s back in small-sized a Royal palace or SmallBuddhist temples, rectangular shape of Buddhist paintings were actively adopted. Also, the lotus stem-shaped plinth, which got popular after the 19th century, seems related to the size of Buddhist paintings. Through the thorough investigation, this study could identify that Sakyamuni Platform Paintings of Northern Kyungsang Province in the 19th century reflect transitional aspects covering from the late 18th century to the early 19th century and show the regional distinctions only found in that province. These characteristics have something to do with activity boundary of Sabulsan Buddhist monks who painted Sakyamuni Platform Paintings of the region in the 19th century.