In the article the facts about women-warriors of the Caucasus, beginning from Greek-Roman tradition to the records of European travelers of the XVII-XIX centuries, are analyzed. Amazons were very famous as women-warriors in the Caucasus. In earlier cases, the mythological motifs of the Amazons completely dominated, which had a significant influence on the Roman and medieval authors and the authors of the New times. However, in the recordings, relating to later time, we see the intension to "ethnografize" the material maximally, to represent the female- warriors of the Caucasus as a real phenomenon. In parallel, from the turn of eras, there fragmentary and not very clear evidence appear, though connected with the myths of the Amazons, but perhaps with ethnographic background (foremost the recording of Strabo). The New times authors’ information of ethnographic character about militant women of Caucasian peoples is not considerable, fragmentary and not always reliable, related only to a few groups: Abkhaz, Circassians and Ossetians. Their common feature is that they are represented through the prism of the Amazonian legend and are exposed to its strong impact. As a rule, these sources carry only one clear fact - that women ride on horseback and possess weapons, hunt, and i.e. involved in everyday life of society on an equal basis with men. These facts do not give us reason to assert that a woman was considered by society as a military force, and women's participation in the military actions was a common occurrence for peoples of the Caucasus.