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2012, Vol.21, No.21

  • 1.

    Ethnographical tradition about female-warriors of the Caucasus

    Bogachenko Tatiana | 이지은 | 2012, 21(21) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In the article the facts about women-warriors of the Caucasus, beginning from Greek-Roman tradition to the records of European travelers of the XVII-XIX centuries, are analyzed. Amazons were very famous as women-warriors in the Caucasus. In earlier cases, the mythological motifs of the Amazons completely dominated, which had a significant influence on the Roman and medieval authors and the authors of the New times. However, in the recordings, relating to later time, we see the intension to "ethnografize" the material maximally, to represent the female- warriors of the Caucasus as a real phenomenon. In parallel, from the turn of eras, there fragmentary and not very clear evidence appear, though connected with the myths of the Amazons, but perhaps with ethnographic background (foremost the recording of Strabo). The New times authors’ information of ethnographic character about militant women of Caucasian peoples is not considerable, fragmentary and not always reliable, related only to a few groups: Abkhaz, Circassians and Ossetians. Their common feature is that they are represented through the prism of the Amazonian legend and are exposed to its strong impact. As a rule, these sources carry only one clear fact - that women ride on horseback and possess weapons, hunt, and i.e. involved in everyday life of society on an equal basis with men. These facts do not give us reason to assert that a woman was considered by society as a military force, and women's participation in the military actions was a common occurrence for peoples of the Caucasus.
  • 2.

    The Role of Haein–sa(海印寺) Temple as the Site for the Carving of the Ganghwa Woodblock(江華經板) - Koryo Tripitaka(高麗大臧經)

    CHOY YOUNGHO | 2012, 21(21) | pp.31~62 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This paper attempts to shed light on Sites for the Carving of the Ganghwa Woodblock-Koryo Tripitaka and the crucial role the Temple played in creating the Ganghwa Woodblock-Koryo Tripitaka in the mid-13thcentury. Much evidence is present that individual carving workshops run by temples, such as Haein-sa and Hageo-sa(下鉅寺 or下鋸寺) Temples in Mt. Gaya(伽耶山), accumulated sufficient experiences in woodblock printing of the Buddhist scriptures well before the project for the second edition of Ganghwa Woodblock-Koryo Tripitaka commenced in 1236, and that their expertise was promptly enlisted by the National Printing Woodblock Agency in an early stage. and it can be said with a reasonable certainty that in 1245~1246, minimum of 3 carving workshops(中房·東房·西房) were placed under the supervision of the National Printing Woodblock Agency. Also, as of 1247, during the reign of King Gojong, the Jinju(晉州) Regional Printing Woodblock Agency operated at least 2 workshops in Jinju and Namhae(南海). The case of Haein-sa Temple in particular deserves much interest. Haein-sa Temple in the mid-13thcentury was well qualified to be the site for the carving of the Ganghwa Woodblock-Koryo Tripitaka in terms of the skills of printing personnel, the adequacy of material resources and the advantages of geography, which were all believed to be put to good use by the National Printing Woodblock Agency. Haein-sa Temple’s involvement would have been assured with the existence in its library of the 1098 edition of the Flower Garland Sutra(大方廣佛華嚴經 : 晋本) and the Khitan Tripitaka(丹本大藏經) alone, which were used as the resource materials for the Tripitaka. As a result, The project of carving the Ganghwa Woodblock-Koryo Tripitaka in the mid-13thcentury was an opportunity for Haein-sa Temple to faithfully perform its religious and social obligations to the country, while creatively developing the Buddhist culture and tradition.
  • 3.

    Yunjangdae at Daejangjeon of Yongmunsa Temple, Yecheon

    se deok oh | 2012, 21(21) | pp.63~96 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    A pair of Yunjangdae, a sculpture representing the canon belief is located inside Daejangjeon of Yongmunsa Temple in Yechon. Many studies have been made for its academic value as the only Yunjangdae in Korea. However, there was no significant attention to Daejangjeon where Yunjangdae is installed. It is absolutely true that Yunjangdae as the enshrined object in the temple forms a separate relation with Daejangjeon, and therefore it is important to figure out the organic relation of the two in the history of art. Thus, this study attempted to prove organic relation between Daejangjeon and Yunjangdae. The results are as follows. First, when the reconsideration of sub facility of Yunjangdae in Goryeo period which was known as the precedent relics of Yunjangdae at Daejangjeon of Yongmunsa Temple, it raised a necessity of further study as it is hard to determine if sub facilities of Yunjangdae in Hoiamsa temple site and Hyeeumone temple site except for sub facility of Yunjangdae in Youngkuksa Temple. Second, when the review of relics in Daejangjeon in the two previous periods, it could figure out elements of precedent period by means of architectural type examination of Daejangjeon of Yungmunsa. And, comparing with specific architectural type with 17th century 3×2 type Buddhist temple, it attempted to examine if specific method reflected Yunjangdae. It showed that in the appearance it resembled the precedent period relics and the specific architectural method had the same architectural purpose with other examples in the 17th century. Third, it assumed that ancient method might remain through revision and repair process from Goryeo, the first established period, by examining the specific method in Yunjangdae, but actual elements of ancients cannot be verified. The possibility of resembling Yunjangdae at large rather than in specific manners is acknowledged. As such, this study figured out artistic meaning of Yunjangdae of Yongmunsa temple, and concluded that it has archetype of those of the Goryeo period and it shows transitional feature of Yundae through the late Joseon period.
  • 4.

    The Japanese western art in the 1910’s and the Joseon - Focus on Yuasa Ichirou, Hujisima Takeji -

    KIM JUNGSEON | 2012, 21(21) | pp.97~126 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The study’s purpose to investigate the problem of “representation,” how modern Japanese paintings represented colonial Korea beyond existing colonialism and in the formation process of Japanese western art in the 1910’s. Departing from the traditional discourse of colonialism based on binary opposition, the study attempts to verify that the Joseon-related works of Yuasa Ichirou and Hujisima Takeji, who visited Joseon in 1913, closely relate to the then Japanese western art. To achieve this, the study first investigated previous discourses focusing on Japanese painters’ travel essays in the 1910’s. Additionally, the study separately researched their interest in Joseon, focusing on the situation around 1913, the confrontation between old and new Japanese western art. It is demonstrated that Yuasa Ichirou and Hujisima Takeji, who had visited around that time, opposed the governmental art exhibitions’ academism and were encouraged by the colony experience to find potential new modes of expression. Moreover, their work began to change with their trip to Joseon. Although it is difficult to deny that the new bright colors, powerful touches, simplification of objects, and nonobjective trends correspond to the then Japanese discriminative Joseon image, they do establish a link between Joseon and bright colors or antiquity. Thus, the fact that Joseon (the other) provided an important place for forming modern Japanese art must be reevaluated.