Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2012, Vol.22, No.22

  • 1.

    Burial Custom of the North Huns Determined from the Burial Styles of Animal Bones -Focusing on the tombs of Mongolia-

    chang,yoon-chung | 2012, 22(22) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine how animal bones were buried in the tombs of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia in China, determining whether the burial styles of animal bones found in those tombs, which has been just deemed one of nomadic burial customs, were actually what were applied by the Huns as an ancient nomadic tribe. The findings of the study showed that the burial styles of animal bones excavated from the tombs of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia varied according to where those tombs had been formed. According to the kinds of animal bones, those tombs can be largely classified into those located in the east and west of Arhangai Aimag. In the west, more specifically, animal bones found in the Huns tombs were mostly from sheep, which were in more cases combined with goat bones. Most containers excavated from the tombs also had sheep bones inside. In the east, while, the kinds of excavated animal bones varied in accordance with where the Huns tombs were formed or what remains were associated with those tombs. Nevertheless, most of those bones were still from sheep, which were found combined with cow or horse bones. Containers from the tombs usually had a mixture of sheep, horse and cow bones inside. In the Huns tombs of Mongolia, animal bones were in most cases found inside the tomb hollow, followed by in the space of the dead body's burial or his or her belongings' burial, inside the container, inside the walls of the tomb hollow and in the stone mound or topsoil of the tomb in order. In the Huns tombs of Inner Mongolia in China, while, animal bones were mostly found in the space of the dead body's burial or his or her belongings' burial. Therefore, placing animal bones inside the walls of the tomb hollow or putting them in the container may be regarded as one of the characteristics that the Huns tombs of Mongolia had. The tombs where animal bones were found generally had Chinese bronze mirrors inside. Accordingly, the period when regions having those forms made exchanges with China could be divided into three stages. Key regions that maintained relationships with China from the first to third stages were Akhangai Aimag and Bulgan Aimag. While, it was the second stage when Tov Aimag emerged as another mainstream in relationships with China.
  • 2.

    A Review of Excavated Yeongseon-dong Shell Mounds Possessed by Dong-A University Museum -through this Activity of Busan Archaeology Meeting in 1930-

    LEE DONGJU | 2012, 22(22) | pp.31~52 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The pottery with applique decoration designated as Treasure No. 597 and Possessed by Dong-A University Museum is known to be excavated in the Yeongseon-dong Shell Mounds of Busan. Also it has a very unique features among other examples of Neolithic pottery in Korea because it's difficult to find examples. In addition, various relics excavated from the same collections was housed, but according to the specific circumstances at the time of investigation or this remains uncertain even of the small intestine tend inspector currently. Moreover, the artifacts excavated shell mounds of the same Yeongseon-dong has already been compromised in the process of urbanization under Japanese occupation period. Since Chosun Residency-General is installed by Japanese Empire in 1906, even while occupying Jeolyoung island to equip the military facilities of Army and Navy in Busan. Drawing or photo shoot had been strictly limited by reason of military facilities protection, this is because why there did not leave any of the map. In addition, even at the time of the terrain completely changed by a number of aberrations in the process of reclamation work , one of the reasons is difficult to identify the location. It remains to be designated as a national treasure enough to recognize the importance of relics excavated, but its value would have to be detracted if you don't grasp the academic circumstances surrounding the discovery details and the nature of relics and artifacts, etc. In this regard, this paper was investigated on the nature and context of Busan Archeology conference activities discovered and then examined the remains, the corresponding to the dawn from archeology at the time of Japanese occupation period in Korea, and through the late 19th century map, with localization of the ruins can't be found even a trace, and more the exact account of the possession by Dong-A University Museum, and more the nature of Artifacts.
  • 3.

    The status order through the typology of Ara Gaya stone-lined pit burial tomb

    Choi, Gyong-kyu | 2012, 22(22) | pp.53~98 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The research on the Gaya Empire has been interpreted as confederacies of the center of Geumgwan Gaya in Gimhae and Dae Gaya in Goryung, due to that, Ara Gaya has been lacking research. However Dohangri tombs which is center of Ara Gaya’s tombs started up construcitng the large wooden outer coffin since the middle of the 4th century and then the beginning of the 5th century,As the principal part of large fief of burial tumulus , stone –lined pit burial tomb was constructed. That is excellent compared to Geumgwan Gaya and is the same level compared to Dae Gaya. The growth an development of Ara Gaya appeared in the process of change of burial. By researching of the stone-lined pit burial which is the peak of Ara Gaya, l could look through the foreign situation and the ruling class of Ara Gaya in those days. However, the recent studies tend chronological study of the artifact-centric and the research of the burials have tendency to be diachronic study from wooden outer coffin to stone chamber tomb with tunnel entrance. Therefore in this paper, I tried to make typology by applying to the previous wooden outer coffin and stone-lined pit burial as the concept to coffin to discuss the growth and development of stone-lined pit burial in Ara Gaya. As a result of typology, wooden outer coffin and stone-lined pit burial could be divided into 4 types,1,2Ⅰ,ⅠⅡ type of upper hierarchy in stone-lined pit burial tomb subdivided into two types, depending on the scale, the form of burial of the living with the dead, the qualities of director’s remains:Ⅰ type into three small types,Ⅱ type into two small types stone-lined pit burial tomb Ⅰ type in Ara Gaya in the 5th century was performing burial of the living with the dead and was buried with considerable prestige goods such as bard and iron armor. This is to say that the outward expression of Ara Gaya growth appeared simultaneously with the construction of stone-lined pit burial tomb. The differentiation type of stone-lined pit burial tomb is corresponding to the presense of king(王) of Ara Gaya and the below strata(上-下旱岐層). At last, the differentiation of the elites through the typology of stone-lined pit burial tomb is realized important archaeological phenomenon which was showing the political grow go Ara Gaya.
  • 4.

    Typology of Gaya Pottery

    Park, Kwang Choon | 2012, 22(22) | pp.99~130 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Representative Gaya pottery style are divided into two categories; East and West types of Nakdong River and DaeGaya types. The word type had been used since 1960 when Kim Won-ryong had been named East and West types of Nakdong River. However, there were few researches on the naming issue after the settlement of the term 'type'. This is caused by lack of the perception by archaeologist including myself who study the meaning of the typology under the category of classification. Therefore archaeologists misused the meaning of the form(index of the usage), type and style(index of time and place) and this brought more difficulties to understand the meaning of the 'type'. First of all, the meaning of the 'type' will be discussed and then this work will highlight other problems to interpret the definition of two Gaya pottery types aforementioned. As a result, the definition given by Kim Won-ryong had been proved to miss the meaning of 'type'. Furthermore, compared to the Eastern type(Silla pottery), Western type(Gaya pottery) had been hold several problematic issues. It is same to the DaeGaya typology and also this typology could not explain the pottery found from the tombs of Hapcheon, Namwon, Hamyang, Hadong and Yeosu. Therefore this work mainly discussed the long-necked jar setting with the dish with a lid. Newly adopted types are usually pointed around Seomjin-River and they are primarily set with more than two different types. This work therefore mainly highlights new Gaya type pottery compared to Silla pottery and also insists the importance of each different locality. Among the historical archaeology, the record of the history should not be ignored. However, it should not be trusted by all means.
  • 5.

    Forms and Development of Concave Tiles during the Period of Beakje Kingdom

    kimsungi | 2012, 22(22) | pp.131~160 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The concave tiles used during the Baekje Kingdom era could be classified into those without hanging low jaws and those with ones. The concave tiles without hanging low jaws could further be categorized into pressing, step-shaped and engraved types whereas those with hanging low jaws could be subdivided into the type with inscription and that without, being possibly broken down in more details depending on the manufacturing methods and kinds of patterns. The origin of the concave tiles employed by the Baekje Kingdom might be traced up to the step-shaped concave roofing tiles as found to have been used in some remains unearthed in Gyeongdang region of Pungnap-ri Fortification and in Buyeo area, a fact suggesting that tiles of the pressing type were produced under the influence of Chinese roofing tiles as evidenced by the remains unearthed from the temple site of Gunsu-ri and that such influence prompted roofing tiles to develop into the type without inscription of those with hanging low jaws. The concave tiles with hanging lower jaws of the type without inscription in roof-end tiles were found to have progressed to the type with budding and tortoise patterns as seen in the remains unearthed from Geummajeo region. Although there are drastic deviations in each researcher's compiling of the chronology for the tiles used for the Anhak Palace in the Goguryeo Kingdom, it can't be denied that the motives of the plant and tortoise patterns shown in the center of concave tiles must have been borrowed from the tiles with inscription of the Baekje Kingdom era. By the way, the concave tiles of the type with inscription as unearthed from the Mireuk Temple site turned out to have been made in application of the technologies of arabesque pattern combined with the pattern found in the inner case of the Sarira containers unearthed at the site of the Wanggung-ri 5-story pagoda. The concave tiles with inscription having appeared later at the site of Jeseok Temple showed that they did not inherit the traditional technology of concave tiles as used for concave tiles in Mireuk Temple but were found to have uniquely combined two techniques of tortoise and arabesque patterns. Such techniques of placing plant designs such as budding pattern and tortoise in the center of roof-end tiles were continuing to exercise influence upon production of concave tiles in later age.
  • 6.

    Purpose of Publishing New Guidelines on Fortress Construction for Walled Cities during the Joseon Dynsaty and Archaeological Research on the Guidelines

    Sim, Jeong-Bo | 2012, 22(22) | pp.161~188 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Throughout history, Korea's defense strategy against foreign invasion consisted in clearing the field and entering the fortress. To be more specific, Korean ancestors first removed all crops from the field and entered the fortress. They then waited until the enemies grew tired and began to withdraw. It was at that moment that Koreans started attacking them. Considering such a traditional policy of "clearing the field and entering the fortress," construction of Yeonhae Walled City meant searching for a new defense strategy. That was because it was lamentable to lose people, livestock and crops that had still remained in the field. For a walled city, a variety of fortresses were constructed and the examples are stone fortress, earthen fortress, walled fortress and fortress composed of a wooden barricade and mud. During the Goryeo Dynasty, earthen fortresses were the most common. On the other hand, at the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty, both earth and stone were used and the inner part of the incline in the fortress body was built according to the construction technique used for the capital. However, during the 20th year of King Sejong, the Korean government published The New Guidelines on Fortress Construction. These guidelines were mainly about recommending masonry for walled cities. For example, all fortress bodies had to be built with stone and the inner parts of inclines made of earth and sand had to have a staircase made of stone. In the same year, King Sejong ordered construction of major defense facilities, providing guidelines on outer wall, outwork and storage. Stone fortresses came to be built following Choi Yun-deok's suggestion in March of the 16th year of King Sejong. At that time, Choi constantly argued for constructing stone fortresses. To elaborate on his position, he pointed out that during the Goryeo Dynasty, all fortresses had been made of earth and that it had been just a waste of human resources because these fortresses had been useless. He also added that since stone is everywhere in Korea, it must be used to construct fortresses so that they can be used permanently. Following the advice of Hwang Bo-in, then Minister of War, The New Guidelines on Fortress Construction were published and stone became the official material of walled cities. The guidelines were drawn up by an organization called Sujseongjeonseonsaek. However, using only stone for walled cities resulted in collapse shortly after the completion of a fortress. That is why during the 25th year of King Sejong, Lee Bo-heum asked the government to respect again the construction technique used for the capital to construct fortress bodies. Archaeological research allows these changes to be observed in the process of extending Ungcheon Walled City. Such research also makes clear that after the first year of King Danjong, the construction technique of the capital was used again. In other words, before this period, a stone staircase was built on the inner wall of a fortress while later on, an incline made of dense earth and sand was used instead. This explains why during excavation, it is important to study how the foundation of a fortress body was built and to see if construction and reconstruction were carried out.
  • 7.

    A study on the Woijang(外藏) of Ganghwa-Capital-Woodblock(江華京板) Koryo-Dynasty's Tripitaka(高麗大臧經) in the Haein-Temple(海印寺)(Ⅱ) ― the review about a making specific character of the Koryo-Dynasty's Woodblock

    CHOY YOUNGHO | 2012, 22(22) | pp.189~214 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to review the making specific character about the Koryo-Dynasty's Woodblock(高麗刻板) of Ganghwa-Capital-Woodblock- Koryo-Dynasty Tripitaka's Woijang which located in the Haein-Temple. The target of this study is the Koryo-Dynasty's Woodblocks of total 71 kinds. This paper is consisted in two parts: first, analysis of making-planner & second, making-system of the individual Woodblock. Among these Woodblocks, there are 4 kinds woodblocks, which include the Zonggyeongrok(宗鏡錄), so it can be defined as the Dogam's product-woodblock(都監板). Because these one had been made at the Koryo-Dynasty's Daejangdogam(大藏都監) & Bunsa-Daejangdogam(分司大藏都監). In addition to these, 26 kinds woodblocks can be included the tripitaka "Nammyungcheonhwasangsongzengdogasasil(南明泉和尙頌證道歌事實)", so they can be classified as the Dogam's product-woodblock(都監板) or semi-Dogam's product-woodblock(準都監板). Because making- planners of the individual Woodblocks had been related to an operation of the Daejangdogam & Bunsa-Daejangdogam. also professional personnels & material resources of the Daejangdogam & Bunsa- Daejangdogam were used to the process making-Woodblocks. Moreover they had been utilized as the cooperation of a Buddhist-monk and a officialdom(敎俗) that has operated to a making-system of the Daejangdogam & Bunsa-Daejangdogam.