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2013, Vol.23, No.23

  • 1.

    A Comparative study of the Physical Constitution between Yeanri Bones, Mongolian and Uzbekistan

    KIM JAEHYUN | 2013, 23(23) | pp.1~22 | number of Cited : 2
    Materials of the study are measurements of 431 pieces in all. consisting of 30 pieces human bones from Yeanri(Age of the Three Kingdoms) in Korea, 22 pieces of Scythian, 149 pieces of Mongolian and 230ieces of Uzbekistan human bones are used. These data directly examined by the author. With all these materials, 30 cranial measurements were obtained and then compared using 9 cranial indices(M8/1, M17/1, M17/8, M47/45, M47/46, M48/45, M48/46, M52/51, M54/55). Other was used by the Principal Component analysis and Cluster analysis in Dendrogram. Based on the measurements, heights were presumed using Pearson's formula and compared with heights of modern Koreans. Analysis of the results, 1. In the skull measurements of Uzbeks, it seems that the skulls of both males and females are in the process of change from long cranial to short cranial in terms of the longer-breadth index (M8/1) in cranial. 2. The principal component analysis, however, indicates that Uzbeks in the Bronze Age are distantly related to those in the Middle and Modern Ages. 3.In particular, males in the Bronze Age show physical characteristics that are remarkably different from those of males in different ages of Uzbekistan in Virchow's total facial index (M47/46) and nasal index (M54/55). 4. In contrast to males, however, females in the Bronze Age seem to be closely related to those in the other ages of Uzbekistan in their physical characteristics. As a result, the former are in close proximity to the latter in Virchow's total facial index(M47/46) and the principal component analysis. 5. Consequently, it can be said that the physical characteristics of Uzbek females have undergone continuous developments, while keeping their original essence, in the course of time from the Bronze Age to the Modern Age. In contrast, there seem to be no such continuation of physical characteristics in case of males. The nasal index(M52/51L) makes this claim more plausible. 6. When compared with most Mongolians and people of Yeanri of Korea, Uzbeks are totally different, as there are great differences between the two groups in orbital index(M52/51) and nasal index(52/51L).
  • 2.

    Change and evolvement of a square-shaped dwelling of the period of the Three States in Kyeongnam province

    jeong woo hyeon | 2013, 23(23) | pp.23~57 | number of Cited : 2
    There have been lots of achievements for pit dwellings of the period of the Three States but it is still a particle. Many of them only focus on fabric analysis of individual elaiosphere or analysis of interior facilities like Goodle and the pit dwelling with circle or oval shape is studied a lot but a square-shaped dwelling is less investigated, because it has been found and its data has been collected recently. So, I pursue an investigation, focusing on figuring out the structure, change and development phase of a square-shaped dwelling of the period of the Three States in Kyeongnam province. I subdivide housing places of the square-shaped dwelling, found in Kyeongnam province, into eastern part and western part, based on the geographical water system and set servitude. Next, I find out structural features of dwellings around plan shape, intercolumniation, old facilities and size. I discriminate periods by reading a chronology of earthenware, found at tumulus because relic, found in living spaces, suffered a heavy damage and soft earthenware had little change in formation. The shape of dwelling had become slandered from 1st periodand 3rd period and many of square dwellings were found in the eastern part and the rectangle was found in the western part. Astylar style had been constantly used for intercolumniation from 1st periodandto 4th period and many other types had been used stage by stage and other types, except astylar were extinct in 4th period. Old facilities with Goodle type had been expanded from the east to the west from 1st period and with wood-burning stove type had been expanded to entire area between 2nd periodand 3rd period. The size reflects the regionality and the middle size one was the most in the eastern area and there were equally small, large and extra-largeone. But the small one was largely found in the western area. The square-shaped pit dwellings started to emerge at the eastern area in 1st period and they were expanded from the east to west, after that, and they were found in entire Kyeonam province in 3rd period. Two facts that the square-shaped pit dwelling were settled in the upper region of the Nakdong earlier than the lower areas and the square-shaped dwellings were spread from the lower areas of the Nakdong mean that housing culture of Silla was extended to outside through exchange with Gaya. But, it is though that Jinju suffered a change through cultural assimilation with Baekje than Silla for the geographical reasons and Gyeseong-ri of Changnyeong of the eastern area’s square-shaped pit dwellings are similar with those of Baekje and there is lots of earthenware, related to Baekje than Changnyeong. So the unilateral cultural diffusion from the east to the west can’t be made. Also, the 4th period is judged as a transition, when the pit dwellings became surface structures, through reasons that the pit dwellings were rapidly diminished and the number of surface structures, found, was increasing.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple in Namwon, Jeonbuk

    최은령 | 2013, 23(23) | pp.59~90 | number of Cited : 1
    Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple is now placed in Hall of the Amitabha Buddha alone. This image had been recognized as wooden Buddha image in the past. But in a X-ray examination, it was known that inside of the image is empty and the image was made of cloth and lacquer. let's see its manufacturing technique. Central Geaju, white hair, and eyes were put with modifier. Both hands were made in wood. Layer of dry lacquer shown on X-ray photo is head part(頭部) 12 layers; for its thickness, head 0.9~1.0cm, body 0.8~1.0cm. Robe sleeve over neck nape, clothes wrinkle lines on arm and leg of the image were expressed very thick. After building form with dry lacquer layer, lacquer, wooden powder, or soil powder were mixed and then added to express abundant outer appearance. As a result of identifying through hole for preservation inside breast(腹藏孔), inside of the image is empty and texture and unevenness of clothes wrinkle lines for hemp cloth on surface of inside could be easily observed. Surface treatment of inside was not done with other materials, and scratched track and clay between narrow, dense wrinkle lines remained partially. Let's see characteristics of iconography for Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer. The body is slim, and volume of breast is emphasized, and the image is in the state of tightened sitting posture. The primary and secondary marks of the buddha’s body shows thin, round shape; ear, eye, mouth, and nose are soft; Fleshy protuberance is high; it has round, central Geaju. For clothing method, jacket(偏衫) is worn inside and over it, robe(大衣) is put on - this is called revised shoulder type(變形通肩式). And underwear(內衣) and Gun clothe(裙衣) are put on, and strip knot is bound to Gun clothe. Especially, dressed appearance seems like putting on very thick clothes. The clothes wrinkles are three-dimensional and natural. In the end part and side of robe in inverted triangle in the front of left arm, clothes wrinkle lines in three layers were expressed in a graphic way. Main characteristics shown on face, body of Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple, expression based on clothing method are very similar to Buddha images in the 14th century of later Goryo and the 15th century of first half of Chosun. Compared to Buddha images of later Goryo, Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple shows more formalization and graphing of clothes wrinkle so that the image can be presumed as work in the 15th century of first half of Chosun. For foundation background of Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple, it is guessed that the image was built before ruin of the temple in 1468 based on records of temple history that during repeated reconstruction and decay in Chosun, the temple was ruined in 1468; in 1679, there was a movement for reconstruction. In characteristics in style of Buddha image, the image corresponds to the 15th century of first half of Chosun. Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple shows common points in material, manufacturing technique, and characteristics in style with Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Jukrim temple in Naju, Jeonnam, Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Ssanggea temple in Hadong, Gyeongnam. This implies possibility of same producer(製作者) or same producing group along with building time. Especially, the Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Silsang temple shows same specific characteristics as Seated image of Amitābha Buddha with dry lacquer in Ssanggea temple. Along with common points of three Buddha images, there exist a number of Buddha images with dry lacquer in Jeolla areas. This can be related to major production center of lacquer to date, Jeolla areas centered on Namwon are famous for wood lacquer craft. Silsang temple is embracing long history as one of Nine Mountains school of Sŏn. After Im-jin invasion, there had been vanishment and reconstruction of halls throughout the monastery and now academic excavation is under progress from 1996. So it is expected that Silsang temple can recover its old appearance of the times of foundation for right preservation and recovery of Buddhist cultural property.
  • 4.

    The Feature of the Gwaebul(掛佛) Representing the Crowned Bodhisattva Style(戴冠菩薩形) in Chungcheong Province in the 17th Century of Joseon Dynasty

    Eunkyung Pak | 2013, 23(23) | pp.91~120 | number of Cited : 3
    Among the ninety paintings of the Gwaebull(掛佛) of Joseon Dynasty existing, there are around twenty paintings of the Gwaebu representing the crowned bodhisattva style(戴冠菩薩形), putting a splendid crown on the head and decorating a body uniquely. The Gwaebul representing the crowned bodhisattva style appeared in the 17th century, the advent period of the Gwaebul. Moreover, the Gwaebul are distributed in Chungcheong province with Magok-temple and its sub-temple. At that time, the main Buddha of the Gwaebul were the crowned bodhisattva with The Dharma talk of Mudra(說法印) which is an upturned palm or grasping a stem of lotus flower. This icon of the crowned bodhisattva style as the Nirmanakaya(化身)-Shakyamuni Buddha(釋迦牟尼佛) or Sambhogakaya(報身)-Locana Buddha(盧舍那佛) is a typical example of a unified Avatamsaka(華嚴) and Saddharmapundarika(法花) idea. In addition, the icon of grasping a stem of a lotus flower blended Dhyana idea symbolizing the Holding a flower with a smile(拈花微笑 or 拈華示衆) appears with them. The icon of the crowned bodhisattva style means that Trikaya who are Dharmakaya(法身)-Vairochana Buddha(毘盧舍那佛), Sambhogakaya(報身)-Locana Buddha(盧舍那佛), and Nirmanakaya(化身)-Shakyamuni Buddha(釋迦牟尼佛) are one body or two buddha who are Dharmakaya and Nirmanakaya are one body. It is a multiple icon that the perspective of the Buddha body in Avatamsaka and Dhyana idea of the Holding a flower with a smile were combined in the world of space and time of The Vulture Peak assembly of addharmapundarika. This multiple icon was produced at the temple related to Avatamsaka of Chungcheong Province as a lead , and it did a role of a guide. After that, it is supposed that the icon proliferated to Gyeongbuk and Gyeongbuk province in the 18th century. Furthermore, there are some interesting points for the form of the crown, pattern of golden color in the Gwaebu representing the crowned bodhisattva style in the 17th century. The First, a splendid crown put on the head of main Buddha is very characteristic which metallic witdth-bands stretch on the crown symmetricall such as the Gwaebu of Muryang-temple(1627) and Sinwon-temple(1664). This kind of form had been developed from traditional crown form of bodhisattva in the late of Goryeo dynasty and the early of Joseon Daynasty. The other is rarely that the crown is consist of 1~2 stage up and down such as the Gwaebul of Magok-temple(1687) and Janggok-temple(1673). It is supposed that the point of this crown is from Yüan and Ming. The second, some posh gold leaves were partially utilized on a halo and patterns of clothes, also, instead of gold or gold leaf, the yellow pigment conjectured a gamboge and similar gold color was used in there actively. especially, the chrysanthemum-group-pattern of the gold leaf was a trend of design technique in the 17th century. After that, it proliferated to the 18th century. The Third, there is a dark navy blue pigment of cobalt blue line which the glint is strong on painting clothes and all sorts of accessories. To use the dark navy blue is verified in the Gwaebul of Muryang-temple(1627), the Gwaebul of Gap-temple(1650), the Gwaebul of Sinwon-temple(1664), the Gwaebul of Magok-temple(1687), and so forth. Moreover, this pigment was used in common and intensively in the Gwaebul of Chungcheong province in the 17th century. There is a good chance that the pigment is the dark blue pigment checked by Jungcheong(重靑) including silver. At any rate, it is related to the regional characteristics of the Gyeonggi and Chungcheong province in the 17th century.