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2013, Vol.24, No.24

  • 1.

    A Study on the Correlation between the Scale of Buddhist Temples and Statues of the Buddha in ancient East Asia

    Han joung ho | 2013, 24(24) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 5
    A Buddhist temple is a structure to enshrine Buddhist statues, so the scale and form of the Buddhist statue are the preconditions to set up the space inside the Buddhist temple. This article considers how the scale of the Buddhist statue influences the establishment of the space inside an ancient Buddhist temple in East Asia. First of all, according to the result of examining the scriptures and ancient literatures about the size of Buddhist statues, generally the Buddhist statue with the smallest scale enshrined as the main statue of a Buddhist temple is Deungsinbul(等身佛). And it may differ by what material is used, but when the Buddhist statue bigger than the scale of Jangyuk(丈六) Buddhist statue is to be enshrined in main hall, in many of the cases, the Buddhist statue is enshrined before building main hall. And Deungsinbul has greater meaning as a Buddhist statue constructed identically as the body of a certain figure rather than its meaning as a Buddhist statue in the scale of the human body. In order to figure out the correlation between a Buddhist statue’s scale and the space where it is enshrined, the study analyzes Seokgulam(石窟庵). According to the result, it has been found that the space of the main room in Seokgulam was planned and built correspondingly to the size of the main statue. The facade of the main room in Seokgulam was set up as being twice as high as the main seated statue with the pedestal as the starting point. The width of the plane does not violate it, either. As a human being’s residential space should secure the smallest height higher than a person’s height and the plane where a person can lie down, we can analyze that the internal space of the Buddhist temple is to be set up applying the same preconditions according to the size of the Buddhist statue. In order to verify the possibility that the principle of Buddhist statue enshrinement figured out by the analysis on Seokgulam may have been generally applied to ancient Buddhist temples in East Asia, the study focuses on the sacrarium part in ancient Buddhist temples. The sacrarium part of a Buddhist temple is the space built purely for Buddhist statue enshrinement, and it is distinguished from the space for Buddhist service. According to the result of comparing the plane of the sacrarium part in the existing ancient Buddhist temples of East Asia and the size of the main statue, twice of the Buddhist statue’s height or the Buddhist statue’s height including the pedestal tends to correspond to the width of the side of the sacrarium part, and even if it does not correspond, it never exceeds it. And about the height of the facade in the sacrarium part, when the main statue is a seated one, twice of the Buddhist statue’s height never deviates from the height of ridge beam of the Buddhist temple. Also, it has been found that this principle is also applied to the Buddhist temples in the era of Tōdai-ji in Japan whose Buddhist statue’s height is up to 16 meters. This supports that it was applied as the precondition for building ancient Buddhist temples. The correlation between the space of the sacrarium part in ancient Buddhist temples and the scale of Buddhist statues which has been figured out through above consideration reflects ancient people’s consciousness of Buddhist statues. We can understand that the Buddhist statues were not mere sculptures replacing Buddha but demanded spatial consideration to maintain their divinity as a divine statue with life.
  • 2.

    A Study on Panchuk Mud Wall of Coastal Regions in Gyeongsang Province in the late Silla and early Koryo

    김갑진 | 2013, 24(24) | pp.33~66 | number of Cited : 3
    As the recent excavation cases of the panchuk mud wall distributed in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province are increasing, it is considered that understanding of its general character is important. This study has the purpose to understand and generalize the functions and characteristics of the panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province based on locations, scales and construction methods for the analysis of 8 medieval panchuk mud walls distributed in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in which academic investigation has been made so far and examine one side of the castle's character during the late Silla and early Goryeo Dynasty. As a result of analysis of the panchuk mud walls' characteristics in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in the late Silla and early Koryo, they are located in strategic points of the coast and in addition, most of them were confirmed to have the plane type of a square. The composition of the base has high frequency to utilize quadrangle stones and the tendency to have a high frequency to add reinforcing walls to the mud walls appears. In addition, the panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province are possible to be regularly classified through the wood frame space and castle wall width and this is confirmed to have close relationship with the functions of each castle. The panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in the functional aspect can be largely divided into fort and castle. Based on the plane circumference, they can be divided into A type with over 2,000m (Kimhae Goeupseong), B type with 1,000~2,000m (Masan Hoewon Hyunseongzi, Sacheon Seonjinriseong, Dongrae Goeupseong, Danggam Dongseongzi) and C type with less than 1,000m (Ulju Hwansan-ri Seongji, Ulsan Bangu-dong Mud Wall, Busan Gurang Dongseongji) and furthermore, it was confirmed that they have differences by characteristics in wood frame space or castle wall besides plane circumference. It is considered that by location, the castles located in inland regions had the administrative central function in the regions and the forts located near to the coastal regions focused the military function for coastal precaution, guard and check. Moreover, according to the judgment from the differences shown in the plane circumference, altitude and wood frame space, it is thought that periodic changing aspects appear. Furthermore, characteristics aspects such as high frequency to add a reinforcing wall to a mud wall and appearance of the stair type inside wall are shown. The construction purposes of these castles are considered to internally complete a ruling system and externally keep up with forces invading from the coast such as Japanese pirates and Eastern Jurchen.
  • 3.

    A Study of grade standard of Ceramic Factory in Geography Monograph of King Sejong - Focus on Gyeongsang-do -

    장동철 | 2013, 24(24) | pp.67~96 | number of Cited : 2
    In Geography Monograph of King Sejong(『世宗實錄地理志』), there are 139 places of ceramic factories(磁器所) in the eight provinces(八道) and the number, the location, and the grade of the ceramic factories. Therefore, the record is a very important text of understanding situation for production of ceramics in the early of the Joseon Dynasty. As the investigation processed by regional groups, studies of ceramic factories have determined the features of the ceramics classified by the grade, so far. However, the study of how the standard of the grade as high, middle, and low quality is selected has been insufficient, until now. There is a purpose in this thesis which are to study the grade standard of the ceramic factory in Geography Monograph of King Sejong according to compare and analyze ceramics with reference to literature record for a grade standard of high, middle, and low-quality ceramic factory with focusing on quality and used place of ceramic. As a result of finding the meaning of ‘poom(品)’ in some literature records, the meaning of the letter is quality in the records of ceramic, paper, iron, sulfur, tax of farmland, and so forth. An object of the study is the grayish-blue-powdered celadon discovered at the 20 ceramic factories in Gyeongsang-do in Geography Monograph of King Sejong: the two high-quality ceramic factories, the seven middle-quality ceramic factories, and the eleven low-quality ceramic factories. And some points, model of ceramic, technique of pattern ornament, pattern, clay, glaze color, inscription, the instrument used in kiln, and so far, are examined by the objects. The clay and glaze color are related to the quality of the ceramic among the different points of the Grayish-blue-powdered celadon’s quality. In the case of the clay, the first, high-quality ceramics do not have stoma and is elaborated. The second, middle-quality ceramics have a little grain of sand but is detailed. The last, low-quality ceramics are not elaborated for a lot of stoma and grain of sand. In the case glaze color, high and middle-quality ceramics are greenish gray, but low-quality ceramics are yellowish brown. The reason of the difference of the quality is that the low-quality ceramics are worse condition than the middle-quality ceramics are though comparison with the Grayish-blue-powdered celadon from middle and low-quality ceramic factories in Chungchong-do. Therefore, the grade standard of the ceramic factory in Geography Monograph of King Sejong is considered by the quality of the ceramic. There could be divided a royal family and a government office for a used place of ceramic with reference to the Grayish-blue-powdered celadon and the White porcelain from literature record and Geography Monograph of King Sejong. So, it is bound to that the White porcelain for the royal family are from Gwangju(廣州), Goryeong(高靈), and Sangju(尙州) as a high-quality ceramic factory. The reasons are that the White porcelain from the high-quality ceramic factory are patternless, intaglio, and inlaid work porcelain without a inscription of a government office. The time of the using the White porcelain in royal family is from 1433(15years of King Sejong) to 1447(29years of King Sejong), however, the time of production of the White porcelain in the high-quality ceramic factories such as Gwangju(廣州), Goryeong(高靈), and Sangju(尙州) is from 1425 to 1460s. The case of the ceramics in used the governmen office is checked by the Grayish-blue-powdered celadon with inscription. The Grayish-blue -powdered celadon with Neseom inscription(內贍銘) is from the middle and low-quality factories in Jeonla-do. Yebin-si(禮賓寺銘) and Neja-si inscriptions(內資寺銘) are from the middle-quality ceramic factories in chungcheong-do. Jangheung-go(長興庫) and Insu-bu inscriptions(仁壽府) with name of province are from in the middle and low-quality ceramic factories in Gyeongsang-do. As a result, Each middle and low-quality factories in the eight provinces payed tributes such as the Grayish-bl ue-powdered celadon and the White porcelain to each the government office. Therefore, the other grade standard of the ceramic is considered by used places of ceramics.
  • 4.

    The History and Construction of Gupo Waeseong

    Donguck Na | 2013, 24(24) | pp.97~140 | number of Cited : 2
    Construction of Gupo Waeseong was started in early July in the 26th year of King Seonjo (1593) and was completed by September 25th of the same year, during the Imjinwaeran(壬辰倭亂) Period. Chief Director Kobayagawa Takakage and five Japanese generals cooperated to construct it. During the Jeongyujaeran (丁酉再亂) Period, in March in the 31st year of King Seonjo (1598), it was temporarily repaired by Mori Hidemoto but was abolished when the Japanese army evacuated in May of the same year. Location-wise, it can be called󰡐Riverside type󰡑since it is located in the mainstream of Nakdong-River and is mainly divided into a main castle of the northern part and a outwall of the southern part. Considering its layout, the main castle is to be called a mixed type of Rinkakushiki(the type of castles with concentric moats) and Teikakushiki(the type of castles with ladder-shaped compound plan) while the outwall is understood to be Rinkakushiki. Like other Japanese castles its wall was constructed without space by using natural stones and splitting ones properly. The height of its wall is about 1.5-7m and the gradient of the wall is about 65-70 degrees. Except for the northern wall and southern wall of the east part of the main fortress of the main building, the building method of the Anoutsumi(穴太積) type which is shown in other Japanese castles was used. A method of Cross piling called Sangitsumi (算木積) is used at the corners of the castle wall where traces of repair can be observed. This is understood to be related to construction during the Jeongyujaeran period. Furthermore, it uses Hasami-stone pebbles or natural stones in-between the square stones in constructing the corner part of the castle tower in the northwestern side buildings of the main fortress. It is identical with the construction methods in the Densho(天正, 1573~1591) and Bunroku(文祿, 1592~1596) Period. The gates of Uchi-masugata(the type of walled compound, in the shape of a square measuring box inside the entrance to a defensive installation), Soto-masugata(the type of masugata built outside the castle entrance), and By pass type(平形) were built, but the type of Guichigai(喰僞形) was not identified. In general, the features show that a relatively complex form of Masugata was used on the outer part while a relatively simple form was used which allows easy access to the between fortress. As roof tiles were collected around the gates, it is understood that there were a Tamon-yagura(多聞櫓) on the top of them. In the main fortress of Gupo Waeseong, it is not confirmed that the castle had Horikiri as many other Japanese castles did, except for the Horikiri in the northeastern part of the fourth castle which was constructed in order to have a rupture with the northern ridge. It is assumed that it can become an independent geographical feature by cutting a part of the geographical line descended from Geumjeong-san mountain from the north while the Nakdong River-side can become a natural Horikiri in the south where there is a good view. Meanwhile, a Dateisigaki(竪石垣) connects the southeastern part of the main fortress with an outbuilding, and southwestern parts with the Nakdong-River side. This is because, as evident in other Japanese castles, Gupo Waeseong was assumed to be constructed in order to secure a withdrawal route of the Japanese army and a waterway near Nakdong River.