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2014, Vol.25, No.25

  • 1.

    Exchanges between Korea and Northeast China in Terms of Harness

    Chang, Yoon-Chung | 2014, 25(25) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The starting point of harness culture in the southern region of Korea is the northeastern region of China. Nevertheless, however, there's too lack of information about harness discovered in the Chinese region despite the relics of horse equipment found in northeast China explain culturally and considerable the harness culture of this country. To overcome these limitations, this study also discussed some pieces of harness that were left over by the Huns who went beyond the northeastern region of China and advanced further to the Mongolian region around before and after Christ. The study found that the shape of the bit string, the shape of the connection ring to which that string is connected and the way of fixing the bridle were closely linked between the two regions. First of all, bridles discovered in the northern region of Asia, which was dominated by the Huns in the ancient times, usually had 2 holes, each 0.5~1.0㎝ in diameter, but were diverse in dimension. While, bridles found in Korea were made in the Proto-Three Kingdoms Period and in most cases had holes each 0.4~0.8㎝ in diameter. Bridles of the northern Asia and this country are very similar to each other in that they were used as the bit string itself or passed through the 2 holes of the bit string in which the width and thickness of the bridle was regulated depending on the size of the hole. Next, the shape of the bit string, the shape of the connection ring to which that string is connected and the way of fixing the bridle became various as the Three Kingdoms Period began. The bit strip of that period largely two main shapes, that is, rod shape(metal, organic bridle bit) and flat shape. Similarly, the connection ring also had two main shapes, rod and flat. Like the bit string, the connection ring first had the rod shape and then the flat one. While, bit strings of rod shape found in Korea were in most cases about 3㎝, below 4㎝ in miximum bridle width when the bridle sticked to the bit string, the connection ring metal of leather-tied rod style which was compatible with the organic bridle bit, the flat connection ring of double-hole style and the connection ring metal of iron-nailed flat style were examined and compared in terms of shape and dimension. The connection ring of flat shape allowed a space for the bridle narrower than the connection ring of rod shape, making presumable that the former ring was less in size tolerance. Meanwhile, bit strings of flat shape were discovered from Ancient Tomb No. 154 at the Anyang Hoymindun remains and the Crown Prince Win's Tomb in the Joyang remains, both of which were formed in the northeastern region of China in the 4th century. Those strings were 1.6~1.8㎝ in connection ring size. Bit strings of flat shape found in Korea were all below 2㎝ in connection ring size, except those from Ancient Tomb No. G-6 at the Imdang remains in Gyeongsan. Other bit strings of oval and round shapes that were discovered in the country were also below 2㎝ in connection ring size. This indicates that in the country, the shape and dimension of the bridle was standardized or generalized. This change presumedly began since Wolseongro Ancient Tomb No. 6 was formed in Gyeongju in the Shilla Period and Daeseongdong Ancient Tomb No. 41 in Kimhae as the herb of Geumgwan Gaya.
  • 2.

    A Study on the form of Sila Buddhist Pagodas and the pagoda reliefs of Vajrapani

    Kim Ji Hyun | 2014, 25(25) | pp.33~72 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper considered the meaning of the pagoda relief of Vajrapani, which is sculptured on Sila Buddhist pagodas, in the form and the structural relationship of a Buddhist pagoda. From among existing Buddhist pagoda reliefs, the Images of Vajrapani is an icon manufactured in the earliest period. On the left and right of the four-sided altar of the first body of the Bunhwangsa(Bunhwangsa temple) stone pagoda created in 634, a total of eight the Images of Vajrapanis are placed in pairs. This pagoda is a masonry stone pagoda created by brick-shaped piling stone materials; thus, its appearance is similar to a brick pagoda. Also, although it is a stone pagoda, it may be a Buddhist pagoda of the brick pagoda group. The Bunhwangsa stone pagoda has an altar and an actual stone gate. Accordingly, if an icon is sculptured, the Images of Vajrapani, which played the role of a doorkeeper among various statues, may be the most appropriate; however, it is too natural and plain to conclude that the Images of Vajrapani was placed simply in the role of a doorkeeper on the relief of the stone pagoda at Bunhwangsa, which was established as a monumental Buddhist temple after Queen Seondeok rose to the throne. Sila, which adopted Buddhism as the official religion the latest among three kingdoms, highlighted consistently the direct relationship with India, the birthplace of Buddhism, along with the endowment of an image of Sila as a Buddhist land. The high point may be a factor that the name of the father of Queen Seondeok can be compared with Baekjeong, her mother’s name can be compared with Mayaro, and Queen Seondeok can be compared with Gotama Siddhartha. In other words, Sila under the rule of Queen Seondeok becomes a nation of Buddha. It may not be a coincidence that there appears an affinity between the stone pagoda of a Buddhist temple established at the time of the coronation of Queen Seondeok with such symbolism and an Indian stupa. A masonry stone pagoda, which requires more effort and financial resources than a brick pagoda even though it can be established as a brick pagoda, may be thought of in the continued context of working on creating legitimacy which demonstrates that Sila is a Buddhist land as the Buddhist pagoda in awareness of the Indian stupa. It cannot be denied that a brick pagoda and the sculpture style of the times in China had a direct effect on the type of the Bunhwangsa stone pagoda and the Images of Vajrapani, the symbolism of an Indian stupa, and the emphasis on the subsequent legitimacy also cannot be excluded. Through this, the altar of the Bunhwangsa stone pagoda and the Images of Vajrapani can be connected to the formation of a stupa that borders the Buddhist pagoda on which the sarira is enshrined and the remaining space. Furthermore, it is possible to identify indirectly that the Bunhwangsa stone pagoda had the character of an early Buddhist stone pagoda, which was revered as a symbol of sarira faith. Beginning in the United Sila period, there appears newly a general type stone pagoda of the regular style, which is represented by the Gameunsaji stone pagoda. Provided that the general type stone pagoda of the regular style is a new type of Buddhist pagoda, the brick pagoda, wooden pagoda, and masonry stone pagoda before the United Sila period may be considered to be old fashioned Buddhist pagodas. Many more Images of Vajrapani reliefs were created in the old fashioned Buddhist pagodas compared with the new type of Buddhist pagoda. This is closely related to the structural change of a general type stone pagoda of the regular style that appears after the United Sila period. That is, as the size of the first body becomes smaller than for previous Buddhist pagodas, there is a lack of space for sculpturing. This caused a formative disharmony with the Images of Vajrapani. Also, the omission of an altar and the replacement of this with a door plate along with the absence of an internal space provide a fundamental reason why the Images of Vajrapani, which played the role of a doorkeeper at the first body later, did not have to be established. This is in the same context that the Images of Vajrapani was created in the Buddhist pagoda in the brick pagoda group, and disproves that the Images of Vajrapani is a relief closely related to the type of Buddhist pagoda. Furthermore, the Images of Vajrapani exhibits a regional characteristic which is confirmed in the time area and Andong, where brick pagodas are well preserved, along with time, which was barely sculptured in Buddhist pagodas after the early 9th century. This is because the Images of Vajrapani, which was prepared as a pagoda relief, is a relief that appeared in the form of the early Buddhist pagoda. The early Buddhist pagoda is directly related to regional limitation, namely to the Gyeongju area, which showed rapid acceptance of Buddhism, and time, which does not appear after the early 9th century. Along with the prevalent faith of the times and scriptural idols, the expansion of the 9th century brick pagoda type stone pagoda nationwide brought about the result that the Images of Vajrapani was abandoned as a relief.
  • 3.

    The Characteristics of Seowonsulseong Fortress and Seowonkyeongseong Fortress of the Silla

    노병식 | 2014, 25(25) | pp.73~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    According to Samguk Sagi(三國史記), it is after King Munmu when the Silla entirely dominated the central area of Cheongju and King Munmu constructed Seowonsulseong Fortress in 673. After the unification of three kingdoms, King Sinmun established Seowonsokyeong (minor capital unit) in the August of 685 and built Seowonkyeongseong Foretress in 689. Seowonsokyeong retained both political and military characteristics. Seowonsulseong Fortress is speculated to be the present Cheongju Sangdangsanseong Fortress. The construction of Seowonsulseong Fortress was achieved before the establishment of Seowonsokyeong. After the unification the expansion of territory, the increase of population, and the change of the aspect of battles demanded new defense system and it led the expansion of the Fortress. It was only after 16 years from the construction of Seowonsulseong Fortress when Seowonkyeongseong Fortress was built and it is assumed to be the Uamsanseong Fortress in the same region. Seowonkyeongseong Fortress was probably constructed to relieve the discomfort caused by the location of Seowonsulseong Fortress which was far from the urban area. Seowonsulseong and Seowonkyeongseong Fortresses are perhaps the evidence that the Silla early recognized the importance of Cheongju region as an important traffic hub and economically prosperous region and after the unification in considering the reorganization of the defense system constructed fortresses behind the city to strengthen the defense system outside and governance system inside. Seowonsulseong Fortress was built around the mid to late 7th century before and after the unification of the three kingdoms by King Munmu as the part of reorganization of defense system completing the outskirts defense line with the capital as the center and the large fortresses in the major cities considering the safety and govern of the provinces. Seowonkyeongseong Fortress is compared with the fortresses built in the late 7th century by King Sinmun after the unification of the three nations. It is an enhanced fortress built in the period of King Munmu and related to the completion of a ruling system after the unification.
  • 4.

    The utilize of the cultural content and The Tripitaka Koreana

    Choi YeonJu | 2014, 25(25) | pp.107~129 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Buddhist cultural heritage of Korea's representative for The Tripitaka Koreana is necessary to develop a variety of content. Recent developments in digital technology and cultural products, digitize material online, the barriers between each area and each can break down barriers between cultural products. Considering this point, The Tripitaka Koreana is very likely that development. The Tripitaka Koreana compared to other digital-based cultural heritage is quite established. Content Production→Production→Distribution→Consumption continues to grow through that cycle, because the structure strategy is needed for each step. In particular, it is urgent that the securing of professional staff. So that the excavation and support for human resources should have a lot of interest. The Tripitaka Koreana is a wooden plank that is hardware count as content is well-established infrastructure. Lots of software to be developed in terms of the variety of ways in the future should be applied. Tripitaka written in Hangul is easy to understand. Many modifications are needed to existing content. And experts or investigators should be excavated and actively. Based on this, such as the creation of various sectors should come out. Finally, as The Tripitaka Koreana is cultural content and applications can be developed and utilized to support measures to be ensured.
  • 5.

    A Study on Spatial Analysis of Busanpo and Busanjin Fortress

    Sim Bong Keun | 2014, 25(25) | pp.131~159 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Busan had been used to be written with Chinese characters 'Busan(富山)', but it has changed to 'Busan(釜山)' since the first December under the rule of King Seongjong. According to many old documents including 'Dongkukyeojiseunglam', 'Busan(釜山)' came from a cauldron-shaped surrounding mountain and Busanpo was located below it. Although the dominant view is that 'Busan(釜山)' indicating 'Jeungsan(甑山),' a hill located in Jwacheon-dong, Dong-gu, had been used after Beomcheonjeungsanseong Fortress(凡川甑山城) was constructed during Imjin War, it is not related to 'Busan(釜山)' the name that has been used since the early King Seongjong period. Many numerical reviews were conducted on the relevant documents, but they weren't a great help. In addition, the phrase '山勢亞如釜 城門臨水開…波濤拔地廻 使華留滯日 登眺共徘徊' of 'Deungbusanchanasanun(登釜山次螺山韻)', written by Shinyu in 1643, which has been widely cited for the Jeungsan theory, is useful material to understand Busanjin Fortress after Imjin War, but it is not relevant to the fortress before Imjin War. One of useful materials is 'Dongraebusanpo map' of 'Haedongjegukgi(海東諸國記)'. This map was attached to Yejojawrang(禮曹佐郞) Namje's report for the fire of Sampoweho and the result of census of Japanese people living in Korea in the fifth year of King Seongjong(1474). The map is relatively well describing Youngcheong, rivers, mountains, islands and sea surrounding Jaseongdae Park and the mouth of Beomcheon. Especially, it is the only data that describes pre-Imjin War Busanpo including Gyeongangsa Temple(見江寺) located in the northeast of Jaseongdae Park, Jowalam in the east of it, buildings densely built around the mouth of Dongcheon and Dongcheon Bridge. Therefore, it indicates that Jaseongdae Park signifies Busan since there are no mountains, except the mountain in Jaseongdae Park, around Busanpo on the assumption that Busanpo is located below the cauldron-shaped mountain called 'Busan(釜山)'. In addition, Mokjangseong Map made in 1663 showed that individual wooden fences were installed at Octuplicate Ridgeof Jaseongdae Park and the shore under it, and that the fortress with trenches was marked around the shore. 'Busan(釜山)' is marked with Chinese ink on the top of it, which indicates the location of Busan again. Next is the location of Busanjin Fortress. The location of Busanjin Fortress is divided into the pre-Imjin War location and the post-Imjin War location. Therefore, it is assumed that Busanjin Fortress was located in the valley or the lowland adjacent to the coastline in the northeast of Bongsaeng Hospital on Jwacheon-dong which was marked as Youngcheong in 'Haedongjekukgi' before Imjin War. The current location of Jeonggongdan would be the northwestern boundary. Although most of maps made in the late Joseon Dynasty indicates that the fortress is located to the top of Jeungsan above Jeonggongdan, it does not satisfy geographical conditions of the fortress of naval force. 'Painting of the Battle of Busanjin Fortress' made later marks Jeungsanseong Fortress in Jeungsan and ramparts (Busanjin Fortress later) including the castle gate around Jaseongdae Park and shows Busanjin Fortress in the middle of it. It would be no difference with the prediction mentioned before, even considering the coastline crowded with vessels, Japanese fortress on the top and seaside fortress. Meanwhile, Japanese people constructed Beomcheonjeungsanseong Fortress (Japanese castle) in the hill of Jwacheong-dong and the coastline below Jaseongdae Park of Beomil-dong after Busan Castle had been fallen during Imjin War. However, since the Japanese forces who were defeated in Jeongyu War left, Jaseongdae was remodelled a part of Japanese castle in Jaseongdae Park which is in the middle of Beomcheonjeungsanseong Fortress and used it as Busanjin Fortress. Japanese residents were shifted to the west, and Gaeunpojin and Dumopojin were moved to Jowacheong-dong and Sujeong-dong. Busanjin Fortress was settled around Jaseongdae Park. The neighborhood of Jaseongdae Park is marked as Busanjin Fortress in Saroseungudo, Painting of Younggadae of Jinjehwacheop, Local Maps in the Late Choseon Dynasty. In addition, the reason why the plane of Busanjin Fortress is polygonal instead of oval, round or square is the result of partial use of Japanese castle. Therefore, it is obvious that the current rampart around Jaseongdae Park is not a small castle of Busanjin Fortress but the location of Busanjin Fortress after Imjin War. In other words, the original downtown of Busan(富山) in the Choseon dynasty is the neighborhood of Jaseongdae Park of Beomil-dong at the mouth of Dongcheon which used to be the location of Busanpo. Moreover, the cauldron-shaped mountain Busan(釜山), the name changed from Busan(釜山) in the early King Seongjong period, is the mountain where Jaseongdae Park is located in. In case of Busanjin Fortress, it used to be located in the northeastern coastal lowland of Bongsaeng Hospital on Jwacheon-dong before Imjin War and its location changed to the current Jaseongdae Park on Beomil-dong after Jeongyu War. Hence, it is desirable that the current name 'Jaseongdae' should be changed to Busan, its original name, in terms of restoration of the original downtown of Busan.
  • 6.

    Neolith of Eastern Transbaikalia of East Siberia

    알킨 세르게이 | 2014, 25(25) | pp.161~191 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The article is devoted to the results of the study of the archaeology of the Neolithic period the Eastern areas of the Zabaikalsky Krai in Siberia (Russia) during the last century. The characteristic of different types of archaeological sites of this period, including sites, separate burials and burial grounds, petroglyphs. The existence of burial complexes is a feature of the researched region, whereas they are rare in basin Amur river of the Neolithic, which belongs to the Eastern Transbaikalia. Economic-cultural type of the Neolithic population of the region was determined by the landscape-climatic conditions. In taiga zone they were hunters of deer, elk, roe deer. In the steppe zone were also hunters. They hunted koulan, horse, Mongolian Gazelle and saiga. Hunting was carried out with the use of a bow, including composite design. In the coastal zone of rivers and lakes people were engaged in fishing. Time of appearance of ceramics in Eastern Transbaikalia is seventh Millennium BC. Typical pottery was the vessels with a round bases and narrow bases. The article concludes that today in the Russian archeology does not exist commonly cultural and chronological scheme of the Neolithic period in Eastern Transbaikalia. It is connected with the irregularity of the researching of the territory. However, it is possible to identify some local peculiarities.