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2014, Vol.26, No.26

  • 1.

    A study in Western Gyeongnam cist of the Bronze Age

    김동규 | 김병표 | 노재헌 and 1other persons | 2014, 26(26) | pp.1~25 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    In the Bronze Age, there are a variety of ways to bury a body. In particular, very small-size cists are frequently found while the way to build them and their shape are similar to a traditional stone coffin tomb. These cists are too small in size for an adult body to fit. The functions of such small cists are not clearly defined since clear criteria are not set up yet and there are a variety of sizes. In this work, we defined a small cist as a tomb whose size is less than 100㎝ in length so that an adult body cannot fit. This definition is based on the height of people in the Bronze Age and Koreans of nowadays. Depending on the length of the cists, they are categorized into three types. Type I is a cist for children, which shows that the Bronze Age is a hierarchical society with hereditary succession. Type II shows the possibility of second burial and has the largest population. Type III is less than 60㎝ in length and is presumed for burial after cremation. Especially the Margarita remains in Fukuoka, the northern region of Japan, are very similar to the cists found in Tojin-Li, Pyeongtaek in terms of size and burial methods.
  • 2.

    A Study on Yangsan Singiri mountain Castle

    il Gab Lee | 2014, 26(26) | pp.27~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Yangsan city, Gyeongsangnam-do Singiri acidic mountain town Singiri 20, bukjeongdong acid 20, which is located in San hogyeri 112,260 Street, is situated in the province and its adjacent areas in normal sulfuric 157,074㎡ area. January 21, 1963 has been designated as Historic Site 97. Were identified before and after the Unified Silla period in Singiri acid dongbyeok identity is part chochuk walls. Building a proper layer of conducting 品 shaped exterior walls have been installed and the air mass bochuk this was confirmed conducted ethnic brought about by 5㎝ distance from the proximal end toward the inside wall height 1.7m (total 3.2m) about this. According to the status of the remaining walls is estimated to be composed of at least three times over the outside shot, but can differ depending on the period since the chochuk reconstruction. Thus, as early as the time chochuk itgetda can be estimated in the mid to late 05 century to 07 century. In addition, it is estimated that maintaining the functionality of the castle until the Joseon period, when viewed as being presumed to be retroactive to rectify togipyeon Silla and Unified Silla period in the province of giwapyeon artifacts, and the minutes of the Goryeo Dynasty giwapyeon cheongsagi pieces, porcelain pieces, including a large amount of and is identified as consisting of at least three times the number of renovations since chochuk. Therefore, it is estimated to have been used by the captain continued, Ulsan, ipbo of Eonyang Longshan county property (入堡用山城) through shipbuilding and electricity, as well as the Unified Silla period considered, including the production period is used to geumjeongsan castle built Singiri acid production is. It was found that occupies a very important position to identify the remains Singiri acid based between Silla, go, the Nakdong River basin of bleach fight sahoesang time when the review process and comprehensive view more details. Itgetda can also note that the non sapryang occupied an important position in the value fired in defense and attack south of Silla go Singiri Acid production.
  • 3.

    Fragmentary consideration about East-Asia origin of ‘Stone Brick Pagoda’

    Kim, Joon-Yeong | 2014, 26(26) | pp.65~97 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    When people often mention Chinese stone pagodas, they show the Four-Gates Pagoda(四門塔(611)) as a typical example. This has been known as the oldest pagoda in the Chinese brick and stone pagodas which have been handed down until now as a one-storied stone pagoda. By the way, the Chinese stone pagodas created by the stacking method before the 8th century were limited to the size which did not exceed two stories even after this pagoda was built, while high-rise pagodas were all created by brick pagodas. These characteristics are compared with the Stone Pagoda of Bunhwnagsa Temple which was built almost contemporarily in the Silla Dynasty and by the multistory type (多層高塔形). Probably, it is thought that this is related to awareness about the new pagoda pattern called stone brick pagoda and it’s because it eventually came form awareness about bricks and square stone. Many Indian pagodas mentioned in 『The Record of Travels to Western Lands』(Da Tang Xi-Yu-Ji : 大唐西域記) include a lot of pagodas which accumulate square ashlar as Ayuwangta, but they were created by other materials, not stone, to meet climate and natural environment of each area. As the Indian pagodas are spread out to China, The pagodas which used square ashlar like ‘the Four-Door Pagoda’. And square ashlar and plastic stone were, at least, called ‘boulder stone(塼石)’ and ‘bricks(甎石)’ until the middle of the 7th century. And Dayan Pagoda(大雁塔) which was built in the middle of the 7th century originally tried to be created by the stone pagoda with a new Indian architecture method. It was inevitably changed and built to the brick pagoda by an order of the king who was worried about difficulties of construction work. It is thought that Chinese technical skills to create high rise stone pagodas by the method which accumulates ashlar were not secured until the middle of the 7th century. Therefore, for this reason, the tower types which used boulder stone(塼石) were limited to the size which is less than two stories. It is thought the method which accumulates square ashlar and create pagodas and the one-story Indian stupa type transferred in the foreign negotiation process of Su(隋)’s royal family in the beginning of the 7th century had an effect on creation of Chinese pagodas as they were recognized as the origin of the method to build pagodas.
  • 4.

    Examination on the Validity of Records about the Foundation of Seokgulam in 『Samgukyusa』 from the Perspective of Art History

    Han joung ho | 2014, 26(26) | pp.99~127 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This thesis examines critically the validity of Buddhist sculptures in Seokgulam as unified Silla’s reference works of Buddhist art in the mid-8th century. The basic reason why Seokgulam’s Buddhist sculptures are set up as unified Silla’s reference works of Buddhist art in the mid-8th century is that they identified the records about the foundation of Bulguksa in 『Samgukyusa』 compiled at the end of the 13th century with the foundation of Seokgulam. However, the records about Seokgulam in 『Samgukyusa』 were written as grounded on <Hyangjeon> which even the compiler, Il Yeon, did not rely on as historical fact, and according to the result of analysis, it was figured out as a tale that was formed with Jeomchal religion in Goryeo as its background. In addition, <Bulguksaseoseoktapjungsugi> recently released records the period of founding Bulguksa with Cheonbo Wonnyeon (742) and presents a new ground with which we can advance the period of founding Seokgulam that has been identified with that of Bulguksa’s foundation. Unified Silla’s Buddhist sculptures from the late 7th century till the early 8th century such as Chaeyusinjangsangjeon excavated from Sacheonwangsaji, Sacheonwangsang from Gameunsaji Seoktap Geumdongsarioeham, and Geumdongsamjonpanbul excavated from Wolji were developed with no significant time difference from the icons or expression patterns in China or Japan during the same period. With regard to that tendency, it has been pointed out as a matter that can be hardly acceptable that there was a big time difference in Seokgulam’s sculptures of the mid-8th century. According to the result of analyzing the research results of art history circles about Seokgulam’s Buddhist sculptures that have been accumulated so far, it has been commonly pointed out that compared with the Buddhist sculptures of China and Japan in the mid-8th century, the icons and patterns seem more conservative. But the concept of conservativeness can be applied only when the time of production is certain. When the records of Seokgulam’s foundation in 『Samgukyusa』 and Seokgulam’s sculpture patterns are approached separately, this study keenly states that there is possibility that Seokgulam sculptures’ conservative tendency can be reinterpreted as a universal pattern of the time.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Human Network & Ideological Nature of the Bak Ik(朴翊)

    CHOY YOUNGHO | 2014, 26(26) | pp.129~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper attempts to analyze into the human network & ideological nature of the Bak Ik(1332~1398). the core text of this paper was utilized as 『the miscellany of Songeun』 the he had written, and ruins & artifacts that were discovered in his tomb's mural-paintings(壁畵墓). His Jaho(字號) was called the Songeun(松隱) & Taesi(太始), he was active as the literary intellectual from the Koryo(高麗)-Dynasty's end to the early Joseon(朝鮮)-Dynasty. he was active as a bureaucrat in the Koryo-Dynasty, but was denied the offices in the Joseon-Dynasty. he kept a honor in the Koryo-Dynasty to the last. in the course of his activities, he build a social network. first, his wife kinsmen & maternal family were also included in a clan that was already grown the senior officials of the central government from the Koryo-Dynasty's end. next, his political & social familiar figures were included in the literary intellectual & the soldier-offices & the Buddhist-intellectuals. among the figures, he was most familiar with the Jung Mongjoo(鄭夢周) & the Lee Saek(李穡) & the Gil Jae(吉再). his familiar figures were included in the Neo-Confucianism(性理學) & Buddhism intellectual who kept a honor in the Koryo-Dynasty. on the other hand, they were included in the offices who participated in the establishment of the Joseon-Dynasty. He noted to the Neo-Confucianism in practical politics. his phase of that coeval was evaluated as the founder of the Neo-Confucianism, like the Jung Mongjoo & the Lee Saek. in addition, he also embraced the Buddhism(佛敎) & the Taoism(道敎). in this fact, his the academic & ideological tendency was like with the Jung Mongjoo & the Lee Saek & the Gil Jae. therefore, he can be evaluated by the flexible literary intellectual who comprehensively embraced these ideas.
  • 6.

    A Study on Memorial Stone Boxes in the Joseon Dynasty

    OH IM SUK | 2014, 26(26) | pp.155~180 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Once born, people are bound to die someday and there are some people trying to leave traces of their lifetime after death. A memorial stone is one of the means leaving traces of their lifetime. A memorial stone can be said to be the history of a person because a lot of information including the social status or lineage, marital status etc. of the buried person is recorded in it from birth to burial after death. In Korea, memorial stones appeared from the Three Kingdoms Period but the memorial stone culture bloomed in earnest as many ordinary people participated in the Joseon Dynasty. In the Joseon Dynasty unlike Goryeo, a memorial stone box was prepared in many cases to store a memorial stone safely rather than burying it in the ground. First, materials of a memorial stone box appear to be various such as stone material, ceramics material, soil material, wood material etc. However, the analysis by rank shows that it was mostly produced limited to senior officials of 3rd rank or higher. And 『Annals of King Sejong』, 『Gukjooryeeui』, 『Jujagarye』, 『Sangryebiyo』, 『Saryebyoenram』etc. reveal that memorial stones are produced and buried in front of or near the shed on a burial day. Therefore, it can be said that a memorial stone box for storing a memorial stone safely was also prepared during the funeral period and buried in front of or near the shed on a burial day. This memorial stone box appeared from the 15th century but was produced only for some royal and senior officials in the contemporary atmosphere at that time. This implies that the importance of 『Jujagarye』 was emphasized at the national level but did not reach the complete settlement stage. And then, it hardly appeared in the 16th century and increased after the 17th century and significantly increased around in the 18th and 19th centuries, showing the aspect of changing its form from the previous stone box to ceramics box. Especially in the 19th century, their own unique disk-shaped memorial stone was all the rage among senior officials. Mostly, a separate box for storing a memorial stone was made and the box was produced according to the shape and size of the disk-shaped memorial stone. In addition, a memorial stone box also played a role of title statement and these examples are very interesting because they can be found in ceramics, soil box including stone material box.
  • 7.

    Study of Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’ of Beomeosa Temple in Busan

    PARK EUNKYUNG | 2014, 26(26) | pp.181~204 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    A great deal of Buddhist paintings were created on various subjects during the Joseon dynasty. Buddhist paintings depicting numerous stars strewn across the sky, the North Star and the Big Dipper as Buddhist and Taoist images are called Chilseong Painting. Approximately more than 100 pieces of Chilseong Painting paintings were created during the Joseon dynasty, and about 10 of them remain in Beomeosa Temple in Busan. This study examined the very early work of Chilseong Painting housed in Beomeosa Temple in Busan, Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’ of Beomeosa produced in 1891, to discover its characteristics, style and significance of creation. Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’ of Beomeosa Temple displays an ordinary format of the 19th century Buddhist painting with a rectangular screen and a two-step composition of placing images in the top and bottom. However, in terms of arrangement and expression of images, devout prayers to Buddha in the top, distinguished expression of the Great Bear that is an image of Taoism, placed below the Great Buddha Great Bear are the only characteristics found in Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’. The style of painting portrays a style of Suryongdang mechanism that was active in the entire area of Busan and Gyeongnam in the 19th century with regard to color and design technique. The relationships between Mingyu as a leading monk painter and Jeonghak and Deoklim as assistant monk painters who participated in this work and various monk painters who worked on other projects with them are presumed to be that Mingyu did not work with Gigeon, but learned of his style. Also, the painting story suggests Gaphoegye members joined in the production of Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’ by donations. Around the late and end of the Joseon dynasty, Taoism and Chilseong faiths were prevalent while the spread of Chilseong faith led to the formation of the Chilseong Faraternity. The Gaphoegye(Gap Faraternity) of Beomeosa Temple was understood to be in the same context, and this ‘gye’ was part of production of other Buddhist paintings of Beomeosa Temple proving to be a source of finances to Buddhist paintings of Beomeosa Temple. Guekramam ‘Chilseong Painting’ confirms that the active formation of gyes in the 19th century of Joseon provided financial support in producing Buddhist paintings and played a major role in religious activities.