Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2015, Vol.27, No.27

  • 1.

    Construction Techniques and Characteristics of Gangmundong Earthen Fortress in Gangneung

    Sim, Jeong-Bo | 2015, 27(27) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Gangmundong Earthen Fortress is located on the Jukdo peak and the address of the area is 265, Gangmun-dong, Gangneung City, Gangwon Province. Before the fortress was found, Hyundai Hotel Gyeongpodae was constructed and run. As the hotel was considering its extension before the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, an archaeological study was carried out, thus leading to the discovery of the fortress. The earthen fortress meets the East Sea in its east and the Gyeongpo lake in its north and west. In its south, the Gyeongpo creek flows from the Gyeongpo lake to the East Sea. From the top of the Jukdo peak to the bottom of the slope, the semi or real rammed earth technique was used for the construction of the fortress body and land formation. As for the western end of its south wall, a wall stiffener was installed in the outer wall of the fortress body in order to increase the size of the earthwork or to form the gate site, a technique that is similar to Iseongsanseong Fortress in Jeungpyeong. In another part of Gangmundong Earthen Fortress, the fortress body was constructed by adding materials to the inner and outer walls of the main earthwork, as in the case of Pungnap Earthen Fortress, thus meaning an affinity with Baekje. The fact that further demonstrates such an affinity is the discovery of five large flask-shaped storage sites in the earthen fortress; such storage characterizes Baekje’s fortresses. This earthen fortress would have been reconstructed extensively between 505 when General Yi Sa-bu was appointed as the governor of Siljik Province and 512 when Yi founded Haseula Province to serve as its governor. During this period, combat ship building and military training would have taken place at the same time. This explains how Yi was able to conquer the State of Usan soon after he became the governor of Haseula Province in 512. According to the historical document Samguksagi Akji, A poem by Choi Chi-won called “round lump of gold” says that “pure gold calms the sea.” This poem leads us to infer what the people of Silla believed. In the same vein, the gold ring that were excavated in Gangmundong Earthen Fortress would have been buried there when combat ships went into battle, in an attempt to calm the sea. Ritual objects such as gidaes and gobaes that were discovered with the gold ring in the earthen fortress also serve as precious archaeological evidence because they further strengthens the argument that Yi would have held a rite in thie fortress before the battle, wishing for conquering the State of Usan.
  • 2.

    Introduction to Punching Stone Footing Found at the Building Remains of Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju

    이형재 | 2015, 27(27) | pp.33~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is known that Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju was established by initiative by KIM, DAESEONG, the Prime Minister of Unified Silla Period. Then, it has underwent repeated repair and maintenance work. In 1976, there was the middle build among buildings which are being seen at the present. With regard to the process of the middle build, there were approximately 106 pieces of punching stone at the bottom part of the footing stone considered to be founded at Chosun Dynasty. Thus, I collected, researched and analyzed various punching stone hinges of door stones in similar figure found across the nation. As a result, I found that the punching stone found at Bulguksa Temple was a kind of footing stone and was special foundation structure designed to take action against external force, cross force and puller force which are given to wooden column from column leg. That's because it is seen as reinforcement structure for the column leg, which was installed for earthquake resistant capacity, by way of processing the leg part of the wood column and combining it to punching stone. Therefore, I confirmed the fact one more time that punching stone found at Bulguksa Temple was punching stone footing. I also found that this kind of footing stone was commonly used across the nation. And, it is considered that this kind of footing stone had used for a long period of time from the fourth century until the nineteenth century.
  • 3.

    A Consideration on the Ansang pattern of Stone Pagoda in Unified Silla Period

    Kim Ji Hyun | 2015, 27(27) | pp.61~104 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis grasped the aspect of development and classification of type of Ansang pattern that appeared in stone pagoda at Unified Silla Period, and comprehensively examined causes, introduction and changes that Ansang pattern in stone pagoda appeared later than other works, and relationship between stone pagodas that carved Ansang pattern based on this. The stone pagoda in the early Unified Silla Period when Ansang was carved was the Mujangsaji stone pagoda created at late 8th century, and about 19 units of stone pagoda carved with Ansang pattern were identified. I could solve several questions regarding Ansang pattern stone pagoda through aspect of development and classification of type of Ansang pattern carved on these stones. First of all, the late 8th century, the time of appearance that Ansang pattern appeared at stone pagoda might be regarded to be later than Ansang pattern that appeared in various kinds of artworks since the period of the Three States. Such late appearance is closely related to development of typical stone pagoda of Unified Silla Period. That is, stone pagoda of the typical form that newly appeared at Unified Silla Period was created at the time when the form was established following the stone pagoda of the early times. It is connected to stabilization of joint structure of traditional form of stone pagoda. After the 8th century when the foundation of traditional form of stone pagoda was stabilized and joint structure was established, appearance of reliefs on stone pagoda is outstanding. In addition, at the late or end of 8th century, change of lower foundation was explored out of stabilized foundation, soldier pile at the upper foundation decreased from 2 weeks → 1 week. Such decrease brought in appearance of new icons called Palbujungsang at the upper foundation. Ansang pattern appeared over the change of omitting 1 unit of soldier pile as well as 2 units of corner pillar. In addition, the reason why Ansang pattern appeared later than other patterns carved on stone pagoda was estimated to be, in part, soldier pile and corner pillar which were fixated in the form of stone while no actual functions. Second, there is one remarkable part in terms of the aspect of development and classification of Ansang pattern carved on the stone pagoda. While early Ansang pattern appeared at the upper foundation of stone pagoda, this form is not normal type but Ansang form carved on the lower foundation was very popular in the stone pagoda of the 9th century. And the Ansang pattern that appeared at the upper foundation of Mujangsaji is the form of the Ansang pattern that could not be found in existing works. Form of Ansang pattern that appeared first at stone pagoda showed only similar aspect as the table legs(床脚) of King Seongdeok tomb so that Ansang pattern of stone pagoda at the initial phase was borrowed from the stone table of royal tomb. In addition, it can be inferred that the Ansang imitated the table legs(床脚). It is directly related to symbolism of Ansang pattern that appeared first at stone pagoda. It could be confirmed that Ansang pattern of all stone pagodas did not necessarily express the shape of the table legs(床脚) through Ansang at stone pagoda that implemented wood pagoda of the Joseon Dynasty and relief statue of Ansang. At last, form of Ansang pattern that appeared at upper foundation, different from Ansang pattern at the lower foundation, showed aspects of change based on form of Ansang pattern of stone pagoda of Mujangsaji at the early phase, but intention not to lose initial form was clearly reflected in the form of peak and arc of Ansang. Through this, 7 units of stone pagoda carved with Ansang pattern at the upper foundation were found to have affected each other directly and indirectly when 7 units of stone pagodas were created. It can be also checked at the connection structure of the foundation. In particular, west stone pagoda of Suljeongri was found to have been created under direct and close relations and effects of stone pagoda of Mujangsaji, Gyeongju. Further Ansang pattern of stone pagoda's lower foundation in Unified Silla unlike them of stone pagoda's upper foundation borrowed from the Aansan pattern which were carved at the pedestal of statue of the Buddha and had a great vogue
  • 4.

    A study on construction time and the sculptor for Wooden seated Bodhisattva of Gimchoen Daehyusa

    Choi SunIl | 2015, 27(27) | pp.105~127 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study about monk sculptor Hacheon, who made Wooden seated Bodhisattva enshrined main hall of Gimcheon Daehyusa at Gyeongsangbukdo province. A dedicative inscription “Juengmyeong(證明) Sujeong(修淨)” on the sealed Yellow Fabric of Sealing Huryeongtong (黃綃幅子) and "Bonggoksa(鳳谷寺)" on the Sutra installed inside a statue were revealed. Bonggoksa has a wooden tablet written a inscription which shows monk sculptor Hacheon(夏天), Seokjun(碩俊) made a triad seated Buddha and Arahant. Monk sculptor Hacheon, born in late 17th century, participated in various Buddhist sculptures rendering projects. Hacheon and leader sculptor Seaknan(色難) made Wooden seated triad Buddha and four Bodhisattva enshrined at Gurye Hwaeomsa Gakhwangjeon in 1703, Wooden Samantabhadra at Hadong Ssanggyesa in 1706, molding clay of Buddha at Jeonnam Goheung Neunggasa in 1707, Wooden Bodhisattva at Jeonnam Goheung Geumtapsa in 1709. Following leader sculptor Ilgi(一機), he participated paint mending progect at Suncheon Songgwangsa in 1720. Then he took charge of gold mending project at Jaheung Borimsa Neunginjeon in 1722 and reparing Arhats at Jaheung Borimsa. Also, as a leader sculptor, he made two Wooden seated Bodhisattva at Goheung Geumtapsa Bukdaeam(now enshrining at Seoul Jijangam) and Munsuam (now enshrining Goheung Songgwangam) in 1726, Wooden seat triad Buddha at Deagu Donghwasa Deawungjeon in 1727. Furthermore, he produced Wooden seat triad Buddha at Gimcheon Bonggoksa in 1730(now one Bodhisattva enshrining at Gincheon Daehyusa), Wooden seated Buddha at Chnagnyeong Dharma Propagation Center(布敎堂) in 1727 and took charge of reparing triad Amitabha . His activity period turned out so far is from in 1703 to in 1730. Wood seated Bodhisattva, whose height is 76.0cm and grafted mid-size statue. Its upper body is slightly bended forward. This Bodhisattva has an oval face, slightly open and slant upward eyes, triangular shape nose, and quiet smile. It has typical features of made late Joseon dyanasty Bodhisattva, but narrow shoulder for head and high knees for body. The shape of garment drapery is simplified by several lines. The features of Garment drapery like this sculptor is similar with buddha sculptor made by monk sculptor Saeknan working in late 17th century. For this paper, I can present that Hacheon belonged to monk sculpture school’s pedigree: Saeknan(色難), Ilgi(一機) → Hacheon(夏天), Pilyeong(弼英), Seokjun(碩俊), Seongchan(成澯), Jonghye(宗慧), Geongcheok(宏陟).