Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2015, Vol.28, No.28

  • 1.

    A Study on the Cremation Grave in the Unified Silla Period

    손병국 | 2015, 28(28) | pp.1~44 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is a study on the cremation grave which possesses many distinct characteristics among various methods of burial during the unified Silla period. Despite the fact that there have been many cases of cremation graves in historic ruins from the unified Silla period identified, compared to other periods, there had not been sufficient comprehensive studies conducted. based on new data and existing study results, an analysis was made of the location and structural type of the cremation graves from unified Silla period. And an understanding of detailed characteristics and regionality were obtained by analyzing development of cremation and others through literature materials. Based on this, we sought to draw a comprehensive assumption regarding the development background and transition process as well as character of the buried persons. Structural type of cremation grave from the unified Silla period were classified into 6 types by analyzing confirmed cases in each regions. Largely, it can be classified into singular type(type I) and dual type(type II) and the singular type can be subdivided into pit type(IA), earthenware type(IB), stone lined type(IC), and the dual type can be subdivided into stone coffin type(IIA), earthenware type(IIB), and stone case type(IIC). In terms of the transition process of cremation grave, it entered towards the end of the 6th century or the 7th century and cremation graves started to appear in the capital, and there were various structural types and exclusive cremation pottery found from the 8th century which leads to an assumption that cremation was prevalent during this period. In addition, during the 8th~9th century, the construction of cremation graves expanded out to even the countrysides. Starting towards the end of the 8th century, there were differences in the structure and material quality of cremation pottery between the capital and the countryside and those differences became further intensified entering the 9th century. Images of constructing cremation graves in groups in county sides via cases of gathering in countrysides being distributed while maintaining the cremation grave in regular intervals can be seen as a characteristic of the 9th century. The character and class of the buried persons indicated in the literature records can be summarized as kings, Buddhist monks, and yookdoopooms. As a result of analyzing the method of burial, structure of the cremation grave and composition of the cremation pottery, excavation of human bone, it can be assumed that the buried were people of power above a certain level of economic power and status, as opposed to general public and the literature records and human bone analysis data indicate that the cremation was performed without distinction of gender.
  • 2.

    A Study of the Character of Muryangsujeon Hall of Buseoksa-Yeongju

    Kim,taehyung | 2015, 28(28) | pp.45~71 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Muryangsujeon Hall of Buseoksa-Yeongju, which is National Treasure #18, has been widely known as Korea's best wooden structure, but considered a Buddha Hall inside Buseoksa Temple in terms of its character as a religious structure. However, the position of Amitabha enshrined inside Muryangsujeon (無量壽殿:Amitabha hall) or the traffic of worshippers are very different from that of other temples. Muryangsujeon is facing south and in case of Daewoongjeon, which is usually the Buddha Hall, the Buddhist statue was generally enshrined at the front. In case of Muryangsujeon of Buseoksa Temple, the Buddhist statue is enshrined to the west without any bodhisattvas or other statues, making it very unusual. These characteristics of the building are not found in other Buddha Halls of other temples. Therefore, I have focused on the tiles engraved with 'Lecture hall' and compared them with the related literature and engravings related to lecture halls to review and reinterpret various historical resources. As a result, I have come to argue that Muryangsujeon of Buseoksa Temple is a lecture hall, not a Buddha Hall. Along with this, it has been verified through a field study that the current boundary of Buseoksa was not just on a longitudinal axis, but also on a latitudinal axis. Unlike what has been suggested in regards to the scale of Buseoksa at the foundation, it seems that most of the buildings and facilities such as ‘Massive stone walls’ were built from around 676 to complete the view of a Big Temple before the early or mid 8th Century. Any studies related to Buseoksa Temple were concentrated on the spaces around Muryangsujeon, which is the central structure. As a result of my study, however, it has been found that Buseoksa Temple has an hermitage zone and a another temple zone that lead from east to west in addition to the central zone on the longitudinal axis. In particular, based on the Stele for State Receptor Oneyung(圓融::964~1053) in Buseoksa Temple, which is Gyeongbuk Intangible Cultural Asset #127, it was emphasized that the enshrinement of Buddhist statues in Muryangsujeon is a specific product of Huayan Yana(華嚴一乘) succeeded from Chi Yan (602-668) to Uisang (625-702). It was assumed that there were many problems raised and debates in regards to the layout of the temple back in the 11th Century. As a Buddha Hall was needed a separate hall could have been built at the temple site in Bang-dong Bukji-ri Buseok-myeon Yeongju-si with the stone seated Buddhs of Bukji-ri Yeongju-si, which is Treasure #220. In regards to the functions of Muryangsujeon of Buseoksa Temple, the records of Stele for State Receptor Beopin(法印:900~975) of Bowonsa Temple Site, Seosan, which is Treasure #106 and Ennin's 『Ennin and the Tang Patrol』 showed an aspect a Buddhist ritual that was performed at Muryangsujeon, which was a lecture hall. Therefore, it has been assumed that Muryangsujeon is not a place for lectures, but a place for practical training including Buddhist prayers and worshipping rituals.
  • 3.

    Painter Lee Hong-Kyu Whereabouts and Activities after the Jeongmi Dispatch

    이정은 | 2015, 28(28) | pp.73~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This dissertation explores a comprehensive study of painter Lee Hong Kyu accompanied by Jeongmi Dispatch who are dispatched to Japan in the late Jeongmi Dispatch. This study deals with the family backgrounds, domestic activities, and the role as painter accompanied by Tongsinsa. Additionally, it covers again their domestic activities after coming back from the dispatch. The activities of painters accompanied are recorded in Record of Dispatch. This study also explores the traces of those painters and examines their painting remaining in Record of Dispatch in terms of pattern. Their activitie during the dispatch have a strong influence on their domestic activitie after coming back to Korea, which can be seen from the fact that they participate in making national ceremonial archives. Those painter are more frequently drafted to the position of making national archives after coming back from the dispatch. In other words, any painter who participate in making national ceremonial archive become the best painter in Court Academy of Painting. By means of this power, they make it possible to select their relatives as painters accompanied by Tongsinsa. The draft of painter accompanied could be one of the most important elements in building famous painting families.
  • 4.

    A Study on <Seoyugido> Painted in Yonghwajeon of the Tongdosa Temple

    최민아 | 2015, 28(28) | pp.93~132 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Temple wall painting is to express the Land of Buddha, in which Buddhist ideas or themes are reflected, on temple walls provided their structure and properties considered. Temples usually have paintings of different sizes on their walls. Temple wall paintings made in the late Joseon period include a variety of expressions related to Buddhist doctrines, Buddha and other subjects. This study pays special attention to <Seoyugido> painted in Yonghwajeon of the Tongdosa Temple. Unlike other buildings of that temple, Yonghwajeon has 2 layers of gongpo inside, This provides a large wall space between the two layers, allowing lots of paintings to be made on that space. Inside Yonghwajeon, actually, the east and west sides have 7 pieces of <Seoyugido>, each has its own theme, painted on them. Considering the fact that illustrations shown in <Seoyugido> are set based on a Chinese classic novel, 『Seoyugi』, this study tried to clarify the origin of that painting by comparing and reviewing different versions of that novel which were published in the Ming and Ching periods, especially focusing on a version with 100 illustrations that was made by Oh Seung-eun(1500~1582) in the Ming period. Some researchers claimed that <Sedeokdangbon> is the very origin of <Seoyugido>. But the two paintings are quite different in terms of icon and composition. Therefore, this study examined the composition and expression of backgrounds and the diversity and placement of characters that are can be seen in <Seoyugido> of Yonghwajeon, and provided a new suggestion that <Seoyugido> originated from a version of the Ming period, that is, <Lee Tak-oh’s Criticism of Seoyugi>. And this study tried to determine and understand how illustrations found in novels influenced paintings of the late Joseon period including general paintings, folk paintings, engravings and Temple wall paintings like <Seoyugido>. As they were introduced in earnest around the Joseon-Japan War, that is, Imjinwaeran, Chinese novels influenced Joseon of that time. Under this circumstance, similarities are found between illustrations of the Chinese novels and paintings of the late Joseon period in terms of composition, character expression and the location and depiction of building structures. This is supported by lots of engravings, general paintings including life drawings, folk paintings whose theme was based on novel 『Samguk Jiyeoneui』, the illustrations of hunting images and other Temple wall paintings, all of which were made at that time. Presumedly, those illustration had great effects on perceptions about painting that official and amateur painters and even general people had at that time. This fact is indirectly supported by <Imitative Paintings of the Illustrations of Chinese Stories>. The classic novel, 『Seoyugi』 consists of 100 parts or, specifically, the appearance of Sonokong and his meeting with Hyeonjang from part 1 to part 7, reasons why Hyeonjang leaves for the teachings of Buddha from part 8 to part 12 and 81 kinds of difficulties that Hyeonjang and his companies experience whiling going to obtain Buddhist scriptures from part 13 to part 100. Among these 100 parts, <Seoyugido> painted in Yonghwajeon has illustrations of parts 11 and 12 in the center and those of parts 81, 84, 87 and 94 in the other space. These illustrations imply how to reach the very principle of Buddhism through asceticism, aiming to enlighten the public. This cause is most remarkably reflected by a section of the Yonghwajeon wall painting, that is, ‘Hyeonjang Byeong Seonggeon Daehoido’ which illustrates Suryukjae. It also complies with the characteristics of Yonghwajeon itself. Yonghwajeon is a place to worship Maitreya who relieves people with whom he has relations after reaching emancipation under Yonghwasu. This strongly suggests that <Seoyugido> was painted with the ultimate purpose of enlightening the public. Finally, this study compared stylistic features of ‘Hyeonjang Byeong Seonggyeon Daihoido’, which illustrates the images of Syrukjae, a Buddhist ritual depicted in <Seoyugido>, with those of <Gamrodo> painted in the late Joseon period, and presumedly found that <Seoyugido> was painted between 1730 and 1790. By reviewing ancient records, 「Daegwangmyeonjeon Samseonggong Pilhu」 and 「Yangsan Tongdosa Munsujeon Jungchanggi」, this study presumed that when Yonghwajeon was burnt down when Daegwangmyeonjeon and Munsujeon were done so because the former was located between the latter two and that Yonghwajeon was reconstructed together with the other two buildings. Thus, this study concluded that <Seoyugido> of Yonghwajeon was painted in 1758 when the reconstruction was made, not in 1798 when <Yonghwajeon Mireukhubulhwa> was painted.