Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2016, Vol.29, No.29

  • 1.

    Bronze Age culture and local Goseong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea submitted a midongguk (古資彌凍國) fetal movement (胎動)

    Sim Bong Keun | 2016, 29(29) | pp.1~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Goseong is the center of Gojamidongguk during the Samhan Period and its culture during the quickening period can be identified only through archaeological materials during the late Bronze Age and early Samhan Period in Goseong Area. And the quickening period is estimated to be around 300 BC in time. In the Bronze Age Culture, polished stone tools, dolmens, moat, residence of the Songgok-ri type residence stage are highlighted and Museon-ri and residence, moat, patternless earthenware and triangular stone blade excavated together are evaluated as late materials. As one of types of tombs used in the earliest time in Goseong, a stone-coffin tomb is a preceding cultural element and a stone dagger is the material to help interpret the Bronze Age but its disadvantage is to present an obstacle to estimating absolute age when used through recycling or during Jeonse Period. As everyone knows, artifacts that represent the early Samhan Period include Korean type dagger and geometric-design bronze mirror, round clay stripe double-rimed pottery, long-necked pottery etc. In Goseong, Yayoi-style pottery chronicled as the first half of mid-term in Japan with triangulated clay-stripe pottery in Goseong-eup Seongnae-ri and Songhak-ri pit, indicating those are one stage later than round clay-stripe pottery. Therefore, no remains where round clay-stripe pottery corresponding to the early days of Gojamidongguk is excavated in Goseong have been identified so far and it may be one of the challenges to overcome. There is no choice but to wait for future growth of data but it can be seen that there is a certain gap as long as round clay-stripe pottery duration between Songguk-ri stage of Bronze Age Museon-ri and Seongnae-ri triangulated clay-stripe double-rimed pottery during the Samhan Period. In adjacent Sacheon Bangjiri, complex life remains were discovered recently and periods can be classified into round clay-stripe pottery stage, round clay-stripe and triangulated clay-stripe pottery duplicate stage and triangulated clay-stripe double-rimed pottery stage. The remains passing through the same stage as Bangjiri ruins are determined to be located also in the quickening period of Gojamidongguk. Also, the center is guessed to have been moved from Yuldae-ri during the Bronze Age to current Goseong-eup where there is Songhak-ri or Seongnae-ri during the Samhan Period. Bronze daggers excavated in Hai-myeon Seokji-ri and light gray soft pocket-shaped jars, patternless earthenware, iron swords and stone coffin tombs in Hail-myeon Songcheon-ri Solseom are the materials telling that local residents also settled in rural areas in the early Samhan Period following the Bronze Age. And remains with the internationality such as bronzeware and earthenware collected in Goseong-eup Dongoe-dong shell mound are interpreted as the result reflecting the response of local residents according to temperature change or absorption of the new culture shock.
  • 2.

    A Study of China porcelain Excavated from underwater near offshore Korean peninsula in the Song and Yuan Dynasties

    SONG DONG LIM | 2016, 29(29) | pp.45~66 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Kind of China porcelain excavated from underwater near offshore Korean peninsula is very diverse, including the Yue Kiln(越州窯), Yaozhou Kiln(耀州窯), Cizhou Kiln(磁州窯), Jingdezhen Kiln(景德鎭窯), Longquan Kiln(龍泉窯), Jian Kiln(建窯), Jizhou Kiln(吉州窯), Fujian Kiln(福建窯), Dehua Kiln(德化窯), Xicun Kiln(西村窯). In the Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty found Yue Kiln’s porcelain, Yaozhou Klin’s porcelain and cizhou Klin’s porcelain. In the Southern Song Dynasty and Y uan Dynasty, Longquan Klin, Jingdezhen Klin, Fujian Klin produced porcelain occupies most of excavated porcelains. This would had a difference of imported porcelain from time to time, features seen through the excavated porcelain is as follows: First, excavated Chinese porcelain in the Korean Peninsula waters it can be divided three points artifacts. In the Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty found the first point is located in the north Gyeonggi and Chungcheong sea area. In the Southern Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty, Chinese porcelain will be excavated at 1, 2, 3 points, the quantity has increased greatly. Compared with the model being excavated on the Korea peninsula, excavated in the first point Qing-bai ware dish has been confirmed in several ruins of the Korean Peninsula, most of the other Chinese porcelain can not find. It is especially characteristic Longquan Celadon is invisible viscosity. The Second point is Jeolla-do sea area. Among them, Excavated porcerain is most concentrated in Sinan sea area. The two most common are Jingdezhen Qing-bai ware and Longquan celadon. The third point is Jeju-do sea area. especially, concentrated in East China Sea south of Jeju, Except for one spot excavated Celadon. Second, we reproduce the routes that were used primarily by period based on the record excavated point and ancient manuscripts. Prior to starting the 1074 northern route from the Shandong Peninsula was used as a formal Root, A southern route around Ningbo occurred after the political and military issues that became the official route. Starting at this contemporary changes in Ningbo near Jingdezhen Klin and Longquan Klin porcelain emerged as the main varieties of export. Third, the estimated about excavated porcelain destination for waters near the Korean Peninsula. Numerous Chinese porcelain seen in waters near the Korean peninsula is the most difficult to see on the peninsula find their looks. In particular, a special anomaly only in the Japanese Archipelago seems to be excavated in various places second point. Through the position of excavated Chinese porcelain, most appear to have departed from Ningbo, that destination seems to Japan. Path is largely divided into two routes, one route goes through the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula, the other is likely to take the monsoon in Ningbo with direct routes destined directly to Hakata.
  • 3.

    Use of Chopsticks during Joseon Dynasty reflecting the archaeological evidences

    Euido Jung | 2016, 29(29) | pp.67~102 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The biggest social event during the novel Joseon Dynasty would be the introduction of the Neo-Confucianism to the social system and political ideology, and there must have been several attempts to accept the new concept in their society. The tradition of Goryeo which buried diverse objects such as spoons, chopsticks and celadon to the tombs had been commenced since Goryeo was highly involved with the Northern people in China. According to the Confucian Ritualism, however, which was main initiative of Joseon idealism of that time, the tradition of Goryeo was not in accordance with the Joseon. In the meantime, the tradition of the funeral had kept changed since Goryeo, and this took more than 200 years to settle the funeral system of Joseon. During the late Joseon, the tradition of funeral had been changed which buried less spoons or few white celadon and coins into the tombs. To a certain extent, no more burial goods were usually found in the tombs. Although the funeral system had been changed, it should be highlighted that spoons were still the main utensils of dining during the Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, the primary dining composition was still rice, soup and dishes. From the evidence found in the tombs, the usage of chopsticks of early Joseon was quite rare. After the Japanese Invasion, Manchu Invasion and Great Famine, Joseon’s cuisine from the ingredients to diet, preserving techniques and publication of new recipe had been introduced in 18th Joseon. Given the painting which was drawn in this period, people who hold chopsticks were the solid evidence that chopsticks were highly used in this period. Also it is presumed that chopsticks were developed with the normalization of auspicious confucian ceremony. During the ceremony, the utensils such as dishes, tools and foods seem to be unified which resulted the requisite use of chopsticks for the ceremony.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Placement of Buddhist Temple Mural Paintings from Late Joseon Dynasty in Gyeongsang Province

    韓政鎬 | 2016, 29(29) | pp.103~130 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Because Buddhist temple mural paintings maintain the location of the works and their production, they serve as crucial data that can accurately provide vyuha (decorative, 莊嚴) intentions of the corresponding Buddhist sanctum at the time of its construction. As a result of analyzing the placement of murals centering on Buddhist temples in Gyeongsang Province where most abundant works have been preserved to this day, it was confirmed that the method of mural placements changed according to the vertical and horizontal construction of the architecture and the direction of the building. First, the wall built vertically in the building was utilized as a way to express the vertical ranks of sacred Buddhist images. The representative of this style is the Buddhist painting by Amitabha (阿彌陀說法圖) found in the west wall of the Daegwangjeon in the Sinheungsa temple in Yangsan, south Gyeongsang Province. The painting divides the long vertical wall into three parts and featured, from bottom and up, the painting of Multiple Deities (Sinjungdo, 神衆圖), the painting of Bodhisattva (Bosaldo, 菩薩道) and the painting of Buddha Triad (Samjondo, 三尊圖) as they naturally expressed the differentiated rank of the sacred images. And, the painting of Buddha(如來圖) or the painting of Bodhisattava painted as bracket-wall paintings(包壁畵) were not used to merely decorate the margin but functioned as an important element to reflect the vertical ranks of sacred images and the nature of the Buddhist temple. If the placement of wall paintings according to the vertical structure of the Buddhist temple connoted the ranks of sacred images, the horizontal structure was related to sacred images of equal status or the arrangement of Buddhist paintings consisting of various epic-style scenes. The arrangement of murals painted along the horizontal wall spaces were, depending on the theme, showed various styles, as it went from left to right or right to left, or at times it followed the Somoksik(昭穆式) style, or the arrangement used in Confucian rituals. What’s interesting was: in case of the mural painting in the Yeongsanjeon in the Tongdosa temple, the order of storytelling in the wall painting depicting Sakyamuni Buddha’s whereabouts and the wall painting depicting Disciples’ whereabouts was reversed. Through such a change of left and right in the arrangement, it showed that a method of differentiating the ranks of sacred images did exist. The direction of wall spaces according to the direction of the Buddhist temple also showed changes in the placement of sacred deities related to defense, such as Medicine Buddha(藥師佛), Amitabha(阿彌陀佛) or Four Buddhist Guardians(四天王). The painting of Medicine Buddha and the painting of Amitabha in the east-facing Yaksajeon in the Tondosa temple and Daeungjeon in the Beomeosa temple were placed in the southern and the northern wall respectively due to limited wall space. This phenomenon coincided with the rule in which when defense-related sacred images were moved from right directions to in-between directions, they were moved counter- clockwise. Conclusively, the two paintings that have gained special attention due to their peculiar placement of Four Buddhist Guardians - the Bonghwangmun (鳳凰門) gate in the Sutasa temple in Hongcheon and the painting of Four Buddhist Guardians in Myeongbujeon in the Daeseungsa temple in Mungyeong - were the result of them being in the west-facing Buddhist temples.