The water system of Hangang River covers the middle part of the western Taebaek Mountains, from the western Gangwon province, Geonggi province and Seoul Metropolitan City to the northern Chungcheongbuk province. In the east, bounded by the Taebaek Mountains it is divided by the coastal area (Yeongdong region) of the middle part of the East Sea. In the west, bounded by the Hangang River downstream, it is divided with islands and coastal areas of the middle part of the Western Sea. This paper divides the water system of Hangang River into four areas―the Bukhangang River and the Namhangang River in the upstream, the Mainstream of the midstream and downstream, and the Imjingang River that joins the downstream. Based on the structural characteristics of Neolithic dwelling-site, the paper analyses similarities, differences, and correlations by each water system, and studies the characteristics and developments of dwelling-site and mutual exchanges among each other.
In the former period (～3600 B.C.), the "Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers” and the "Mainstream and Imjingang River” show similarities respectively in terms of the location; the scale of settlement; the floor plan, area and flooring of dwelling-sites; and the floor plan of brazier-sites. However, there are differences in terms of pillar holes, entrance, and the site&structure of brazier-sites. Therefore it seems that the upstream of the Hangang River and the mid- and downstream of the River are originated from different cultural background. Regarding the middle period (3600～3000 B.C.), no research has been made about the Imjingang River, which makes it hard to grasp the whole situation. In terms of the location, the scale of settlement, flooring and pillar holes, the Namhangang River and the Bukhangang River share similarities. In terms of the floor plan and area of dwelling-site, and the floor plan and structure of brazier-site, the Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream share similarities. It means that there had been exchanges between the water system of Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream, influencing other water systems. In the latter period (3000～1600 B.C.), the Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream share similarities in terms of the location and size of settlement. The Bukhangang River and the Hangang River mainstream share similarities in the floor plan and area. The Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers and the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River share similarities in flooring respectively. In case of the floor plan of brazier site, the Bukhangang River, the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River share similarities in the predominance of circular shape. Here, the Bukhangang River shows much diverse floor shapes of brazier-site. The Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers are similar in the widespread location of brazier-sites; the Bukhangang River, the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River are similar in the diversity of location and quantity; and the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers and the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River are similar in the structure of brazier-sites respectively. In case of pillar holes, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Rivers are similar in the diversity of structure; the Hangang River midstream and Imjingang River are similar in the predominance of four-pillar type. During the latter period, the four water systems share similar and different aspects each other. It seems that the unique culture of each water system formed until the middle period had spread to other water systems along with the Hangang River, and ultimately formed one single cultural area.
During the early Neolithic period, each region has kept its own culture in its settlement in Korea. As people started moving by the river or sea, there happened active cultural exchanges. In the process, the Hangang River water system shows slight difference in the location and structures of dwelling sites by water system and period. However, it seems that they are within the same cultural area. Active migration and exchanges by the Hangang River created unique but combined culture in each water system. On the broader perspective, the cultural diffusion through exchange has laid the foundation for forming a single cultural area of the water system of Hangang River. On the narrower perspective, "the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers” and "Hangang River mainstream and the Imjingang River" can be categorized as the same cultural area respectively.
As was studied, the water system of Hangang River is a very important area to study cultural exchanges, development phases, and interrelations in the Neolithic period of Korea because the water system is situated in the center of Korean peninsula where various local culture could exchange each other. However, studies are not sufficient for the former and middle period of the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers in the Hangang River upstream, and for the middle period of the Imjingang River in the downstream. It is not right to conclude any specific characteristics and developments as final for the time being. In the future, considering the geographic characteristics of the water system of Hangang River, further studies on the characteristics and trend of the Neolithic culture in the central part of Korea after comparing and analyzing various aspects of Neolithic culture from excavated relics as well as dwelling-sites in the coastal area of the central East Sea (Yeongdong region), the islands and coastal areas in the central Western Sea, the south central inland area (the water system of Kumgang River), the southern inland area (the water system of Nakdonggang River), the islands and coastal areas in the Western Sea and South Sea, and the water system of Daedonggang River.