Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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pISSN : 1975-6852

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2016, Vol.30, No.30

  • 1.

    Study of the Neolithic Dwelling-site in the Water System of Hangang River

    Jeong Seong Hee | 2016, 30(30) | pp.1~56 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The water system of Hangang River covers the middle part of the western Taebaek Mountains, from the western Gangwon province, Geonggi province and Seoul Metropolitan City to the northern Chungcheongbuk province. In the east, bounded by the Taebaek Mountains it is divided by the coastal area (Yeongdong region) of the middle part of the East Sea. In the west, bounded by the Hangang River downstream, it is divided with islands and coastal areas of the middle part of the Western Sea. This paper divides the water system of Hangang River into four areas―the Bukhangang River and the Namhangang River in the upstream, the Mainstream of the midstream and downstream, and the Imjingang River that joins the downstream. Based on the structural characteristics of Neolithic dwelling-site, the paper analyses similarities, differences, and correlations by each water system, and studies the characteristics and developments of dwelling-site and mutual exchanges among each other. In the former period (~3600 B.C.), the "Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers” and the "Mainstream and Imjingang River” show similarities respectively in terms of the location; the scale of settlement; the floor plan, area and flooring of dwelling-sites; and the floor plan of brazier-sites. However, there are differences in terms of pillar holes, entrance, and the site&structure of brazier-sites. Therefore it seems that the upstream of the Hangang River and the mid- and downstream of the River are originated from different cultural background. Regarding the middle period (3600~3000 B.C.), no research has been made about the Imjingang River, which makes it hard to grasp the whole situation. In terms of the location, the scale of settlement, flooring and pillar holes, the Namhangang River and the Bukhangang River share similarities. In terms of the floor plan and area of dwelling-site, and the floor plan and structure of brazier-site, the Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream share similarities. It means that there had been exchanges between the water system of Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream, influencing other water systems. In the latter period (3000~1600 B.C.), the Namhangang River and the Hangang River midstream share similarities in terms of the location and size of settlement. The Bukhangang River and the Hangang River mainstream share similarities in the floor plan and area. The Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers and the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River share similarities in flooring respectively. In case of the floor plan of brazier site, the Bukhangang River, the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River share similarities in the predominance of circular shape. Here, the Bukhangang River shows much diverse floor shapes of brazier-site. The Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers are similar in the widespread location of brazier-sites; the Bukhangang River, the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River are similar in the diversity of location and quantity; and the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers and the Hangang River midstream and the Imjingang River are similar in the structure of brazier-sites respectively. In case of pillar holes, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Rivers are similar in the diversity of structure; the Hangang River midstream and Imjingang River are similar in the predominance of four-pillar type. During the latter period, the four water systems share similar and different aspects each other. It seems that the unique culture of each water system formed until the middle period had spread to other water systems along with the Hangang River, and ultimately formed one single cultural area. During the early Neolithic period, each region has kept its own culture in its settlement in Korea. As people started moving by the river or sea, there happened active cultural exchanges. In the process, the Hangang River water system shows slight difference in the location and structures of dwelling sites by water system and period. However, it seems that they are within the same cultural area. Active migration and exchanges by the Hangang River created unique but combined culture in each water system. On the broader perspective, the cultural diffusion through exchange has laid the foundation for forming a single cultural area of the water system of Hangang River. On the narrower perspective, "the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers” and "Hangang River mainstream and the Imjingang River" can be categorized as the same cultural area respectively. As was studied, the water system of Hangang River is a very important area to study cultural exchanges, development phases, and interrelations in the Neolithic period of Korea because the water system is situated in the center of Korean peninsula where various local culture could exchange each other. However, studies are not sufficient for the former and middle period of the Namhangang and Bukhangang Rivers in the Hangang River upstream, and for the middle period of the Imjingang River in the downstream. It is not right to conclude any specific characteristics and developments as final for the time being. In the future, considering the geographic characteristics of the water system of Hangang River, further studies on the characteristics and trend of the Neolithic culture in the central part of Korea after comparing and analyzing various aspects of Neolithic culture from excavated relics as well as dwelling-sites in the coastal area of the central East Sea (Yeongdong region), the islands and coastal areas in the central Western Sea, the south central inland area (the water system of Kumgang River), the southern inland area (the water system of Nakdonggang River), the islands and coastal areas in the Western Sea and South Sea, and the water system of Daedonggang River.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Historical & Cultural Character & the Conservation-plan of a Duplicate Woodblock & Re-Engraved Woodblock that have been Included among the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks(海印寺大藏經板)

    CHOY YOUNGHO | 2016, 30(30) | pp.57~89 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempt to totalize the substance & character of a duplicate-woodblock & re-engraved-woodblock that have been included among the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks, and diagnosticate the practical ways that can adjust the total-number of the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks again. The total-number of the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks have been investigated by 81,258 woodblocks in the 1914. thereafter, the total-number have been investigated by 81,350 Blocks in the 1999~2008 year, and have been increased by 81,352 woodblocks in the 2013 year. because 2 woodblocks of the Najeonsuhameumso-Sutra(內典隨函音䟽) have been discovered in the 2013 year. therefore, we have conducted an objective investigation that can newly adjust the total-number in the 2012~2013 & 2015 year. as a result, we have confirmed a re-engraved- woodblocks of 118 woodblocks that have been included among a duplicate-woodblocks of the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks. The total-number of the Haein-temple-Tripitaka Printing Blocks can be newly adjusted in three ways. among three ways, the best way is intended for 81,352 woodblocks that included in the re-engraved- woodblocks & the duplicate-woodblocks. because the historical & cultural character of the re-engraved-woodblocks & the duplicate-woodblocks can be reflected, and present conservation-form of the Haein-temple- Tripitaka Printing Blocks can be considered.
  • 3.

    Ceremony of the light and changing patterns as medieval Buddhist ceremony

    Choi YeonJu | 2016, 30(30) | pp.91~116 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Ceremony of the light is ceremony to watch the light. Ceremony of the light is linked to Buddhism Ceremony Yeondeungheo(燃燈會). Yeondeungheo and Palgwanheo(八關會) have held since Goryeo Dynasty, Two celebration’s methods are igniting the lights which is decorated and hanging the lights in the special stage. In celebration, lights and other decorations were luxuriously installed at temple as well as palace. so they provide various attractions. Yeondeungheo and Palgwanheo might have been big festivals for duration of Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty when leisure culture was not developed. During the event, King and the people watched the lights and enjoyed the performance together, so they made bonding. But, Ceremony of the light was linked to Buddhism had changed through the Joseon Dynasty. Joseon Dynasty started to suppress Buddhism and to force Confucianism. These policy brought about New dynasty’s legitimacy. So, Yeondeungheo had been recognized a kind of customs after the middle of Joseon Dynasty when Confucianism established oneself. Yeondeungheo which civilians or buddhist monk held would have been small size in respective locality or temple, not enormous size. Buddha's Birthday which civilians held succeeded SangwonYeondeung(上元燃燈) and Yeondeungheo on Buddha's Birthday(佛誕日 燃燈會) which had continued through Silla, Goryeo and the former of the Joseon Dynasty. Nevertheless, Contents was linked to Buddhism might had created new formation or changed relatively with faith to pray for a blessing. Ceremony of the light was gradually established as villager’s safety and luck rather than religious meaning.
  • 4.

    A Study of the Bongraesuchangrok and Dongraebuchido

    lee hyun ju | 2016, 30(30) | pp.117~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Bongraesuchangrok is a collection of poems and paintings containing 35 sheets of paper. It was arranged by Dongraebu Magistrate Seokmyeong Cho in March of the lunar calendar, 1725 and includes poetry with paintings the Magistrate and his acquaintances recited in Dongraebu. On the opening page of the collection are large characters, Bongrae and Suchang by Diplomat Seong Hong, which is followed by Dongraebuchido, preface by Seokyou Cheong from Seongju and Jaesa, introductory remarks whose title is known by. In the body part of the collection, 55 poems by Seokmyeong Cho, Seokyou Cheong, Seong Hong, Junmyeong Cho and Monk Jonggak of Boemeo Temple were transcribed in the semicursive style of writing by JungGwan Lee. At the end was a postface by Seong Hong. In 1725 (King Youngjo 1st year), Dongraebu Magistrate Seokmyeong Cho was thinking of withdrawing from his office of Dongrae. He made the collection for recalling the experiences in Dongrae later and hoping that offsprings of 4 families involved would read it. Dongraebichido is especially noticeable in Bongraesuchangrok. While most known pictures of Dongraebu at this time are with the latter part settings of Dongrae Eupsung, this picture in Bongraesuchangrok reflects the time before EonSeop Cheong built the latter part settings of Dongrae Eupsung in 1731. Moreover, it was verified that governmental facilities and space arrangement in the picture are considerably accurate and realistic. There is a very strong possibility that the picture Dongraebuchido was produced by Muimhwasa in Dongraebu, given the fact that described governmental facilities are in great detail; the painting style of Muimwhasa in Dongraebu in the 18th century is shown; its orderer is Dongraebu Magistrate. This paper covers overall contents of Bongraesuchangrok with a bibliography. This collection is a very historical source not only for checking a poem recitation in Dongrae and the background of producing the collections of poems and paintings, but also for discovering new Dongrabuhwasa.
  • 5.

    Values of Kim Du‐ryang’s Sapsal‐dog Painting in the Painting History Shown in Yeongjo’s Works

    이정은 | 2016, 30(30) | pp.159~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kim Du‐ryang’s Sapsal‐dog painting is a wok securing a regular degree of meaning not only in the pictorial perspective but also in the political perspective. Yeongjo’s works occupying the subject of pertinent paintings have metaphorical suggestions. Therefore, this picture has to be interpreted in the context of political situations in 1743 in Yeongjo era. This study aims to identify the suggestions in the following three perspectives. Firstly, this study analyzes Yeongjo’s works and a monochromatic ink calligraphy work of Jegamyeongpunhwacheop, and secondly, examines the Sapsal‐dog painting in a context of political situation in 1743. Thirdly, this study attempts to identify the features of Sapsal‐dog painting completed by Yeongjo’s works and Kim Du‐ryang’s painting. Through the research above, it is hoped that this study may provide a chance to have active interdisciplinary interactions between history and art including studies of works and Magpies of painters as well as Kim Do‐ryang in the 18th century.