Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2017, Vol.31, No.31

  • 1.

    Study on the Settlement in the Taman Peninsula of the Bronze Age

    А.В. Кияшко | 2017, 31(31) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Summary The Taman Peninsula (Taman) is located between two seas: the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea and it is extended towards the Crimean peninsula which is separated from the Kerch Strait. Due to this geographical position Taman has always been at the crossroads of trade routes and at the junction of ancient cultures and civilizations. There are some archeological sites of different periods in this area. The most ancient of them refer to the Paleolithic Age. But the constant and mass colonization of Taman has been fixed since the Bronze Age. Before the archeological excavations of 2015-2016, associated with the large-scale construction of railways and highways on the Taman peninsula, there had been only initial and prospecting data about most of the sites of the past. But excavations which were held in this period actually opened the Bronze Age of the Taman Peninsula. In this article it is going to be said about fully discovered settlement of the Bronze Age called Balka of Lisovitskogo which has the total square about 40000 м2. There were found two rows of dwellings elongated in the latitudinal direction on this site, where the stone bases remained. Inside of building complexes it is possible to allocate the areas for residential and commercial purposes and there are economic pits are suited near them. Large ceramic containers for storage of supplies, a variety of dining pottery decorated with the relief ornament were revealed there. It corresponds to the traditions of sabatinovskoy culture, which main sites are known in the northern Black Sea coast and the Crimea. The other found things made of clay, bone, bronze and stone support this cultural definition of settlement of Balka of Lisovitskogo. This site is also interesting because of found hoard of bronze items and a few clay figurines of animals. Finds of tools related to agriculture, tanks for storage of supplies combined with the collection of animal bones with a predominance of cattle indicates the settled agricultural way in the conjunction with the house cattle breeding. The settlement of Balka of Lisovitskogo, according to the treats of findings, had been existed during all period of sabatinovskoy culture and can be provisionally dated 16-13 centuries, BC. . The appearance of the sites of this culture on the Taman Peninsula is a discovery and shows the migration of carriers of this culture on the Taman from the Northern Black Sea region through the Crimean peninsula.
  • 2.

    Charcteristics Study on Ancient Fortress Relics in Busan and Tasks

    Sim Bong Keun | 2017, 31(31) | pp.27~49 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There are ancient castles built in the eras from Silla to Goryeo such as Bae Mountain Fortress (盃山城), Gijang Mountain Fortress (機張山城), Mang-Mi-Dong Fortress (望美洞城) and Gyo-Ri Fortress (校里城) in Busan; as they are in accordance with the center of Dongrae-gun (東萊郡) and Gijang-hyun (機張縣) in Samguksagi Jiriji (三國史記地理志) from a spatial and temporal perspective (時空間的), this study assumed that the characteristics had something to do with Chi-So Fortresses (治所城) of gun and hyun (郡縣). During the Silla Dynasty, Busan was considered a strategic city for marine defense (海防). It is presumed that gun and hyun system (郡縣制度) was established and fortresses were started to be built during the period of King Shinmun (神文王代) in the city: Bae Mountain Fortress in Yeonje-gun and Gijang Mountain Fortress in Gijang-gun. These were constructed at the top of mountains in Temoe type or Pogok type and in coursed masonry with rectangular stones; inside them are affiliated structures including well areas for revetment, collecting wells and building sites. They are assumed to be made in the 7th century since the excavation of relics of cups with short legs, which were popular after the late 6th century. Given that they share the same characteristics as mountain fortresses in Gyeongsangnam-do from the Silla Dynasty such as Hwa-Wang Mountain Fortress (昌寧 火旺山城) in Changnyeong, Dun-Deok-Gi Fortress (巨濟 屯德岐城) in Geoje, Georyu Mountain Fortress (固城 巨流山城) in Goseong, Sung Mountain Fortress (咸安 城山城) in Haman, Gohyun Mountain Fortress (南海 古縣山城) in Namhae, Bun Mountain Fortress (金海 盆山城) in Gimhae, etc., and most cognize them as Chi-So fortresses (治所城) in gun and hyun (郡縣) in the Silla Dynasty, Bae Mountain Fortress and Gijang Mountain Fortress can also be considered Chi-So Fortresses of Dongrae-gun and Gijang-hyun. Moreover, based on the recent study that mountain fortresses from the Silla Dynasty located in Gyeongsangnam-do formed separated castles or cities at the foot of the mountains or valleys, their relationships between Bae Mountain Fortress and Mangmi-dong Fortress and Gijang Mountain Fortress and Gyori Fortress in Busan can be considered the same.Although Mangmi-dong Fortress and Gyori Fortress are fortresses, relics excavated inside them at the beginning showed little difference from those discovered in mountain fortresses; which implies that they were built in the same era of the Silla Dynasty. Certainly, it should not be overlooked that a lot of relics uncovered from fortresses continued to the Goryeo Dynasty. Thus, they are considered to have typical features of gun and hyun fortresses (Chi-So Fortresses) in the Silla Dynasty. At that time in Busan, as for classification of locations for Chi-So, gun and hyun fortresses with distinct characteristics of Gwan-Bang Fortress (關防城) were constructed to protect changed regions against Japan despite the unification of Silla; later, as the relationship between the two countries came to a state of lull, they are considered to have been moved to flatlands.
  • 3.

    Study on Connection Methods of Rafters in Korean Traditional Timber Structure

    이형재 | 2017, 31(31) | pp.50~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the technical book, issued in 1988, on Korean wooden architecture the 'double rafter' was defined as an informal construction to reduce the building load factor and this kind of construction had been adopted in 17-18 centuries, in the period of decline in Korean architecture. Nowadays it is suggested to classify the 'double rafter' by function into 'double rafter' and so-called 'rafter with deflected slope( weigh on roof beam)'. Rafter is one of the sloping beams that supports a pitched roof, therefore it is seriously influenced by weather condition and it is needed to repair and replace every 15-30 years in average. So the remained traditional buildings may not be an evidence for the occurrence of 'weigh on roof beam'. In order to estimate its occurrence it was needed to check the roof pitch in degrees, mechanism of weigh on roof beam, girder division etc. While in the traditional Korean buildings with cross-connecting rafters the roof pitch of long rafters are 27°, short rafters - 40°, in the buildings with 'weigh on roof beam', long rafters have 20° and short rafters - 27°. In China the narrow rafters are belonged to the more older types. An roof slope of the long rafter of Honganji in Horyuji is 20 degrees. Moreover, it is interesting that on the roofs of house-figure pottery in Han dynasty and Tamamushizushi in Horyuji can see the early type of 'double weigh on roof beam'. One of the distinct characteristics is rate of divide girder. There are not only 3 divide girder and 4 divide girder, but also girder with 1:1.5:1 division and 1.5:1:1.5 division. Consequently, investigated and analysed in this time structure is needed to call as "rafter weigh on beam" and it was established before the Kore dynasty, taking the similar structural factors from the traditional building.
  • 4.

    Funeral Plays Performed at House of Mourning at the Eve of Funeral Procession

    OH IM SUK | 2017, 31(31) | pp.73~97 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Funeral is the ritual conducted at the border between life and death. Author believes the most unique traditional culture in Korea is funeral rites culture, particularly, the funeral plays. However, traditional funeral plays are barely seen in modern society, This study aims to analyze various types of funeral plays peformed at house of mourning at the eve of funeral procession. The study examined various types of funeral plays performed at house of mourning at the eve of funeral procession to see how the culture was settled and how it was transformed. Also, the study contemplated on the definition of each functions and the role of people participating in funeral plays. Funeral is the ritual of death and the deceased is the main character of the ritual even though one does not exist. One stands on the door step of afterlife, but plays role as the main character of the funeral. In other words, borrowing the mouth of chief mourner or "seonsorikkun" of the play, the sorrow, sadness and fear of leaving this life is unraveled. Eve of the funeral is the last day of the deceased staying at home. Village people gather at the house of mourning to exorcise, play with empty bier, tie up son in law or console the mourner by becoming fake mourner and perform various types of funeral plays like a festival. Such aloud mood, such festive play at the eve of funeral is unfit with quiet and reverent ritual which is quiet shocking to us. Funeral play performed at the eve of funeral is enjoyed by people life festival with music and clowning, but it actually contains function reviewing the funeral procession the they before to conduct the procession according to plan. Such funeral play is the ritual of death, the ritual for the deceased, and the ritual of life and the ritual of the living in the end.