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2017, Vol.32, No.32

  • 1.

    A Study on the Locality of the Funeral Institution in the Bronze Age - Focused on the Human Bones -

    신석원 | 2017, 32(32) | pp.1~46 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    There were many cases that the existing researches on the funeral institution in bronze age approached fragmentarily and subsidiarily without which most of them properly examined the human remains. To overcome this problem, this study attempted the approach to the funeral institution of bronze age in South Korea by having the research subjects as 126 pieces of human remains that were excavated from the remains of bronze age. Among all elements of the funeral institution, first of all, it classified a burial method & procedure, head direction and a posture available for being confirmed in a human bone of a buried person. As a result, all of 6 types could be divided from a burial method & procedure. And the head direction was divided into 8 bearings. A posture was classified into Shinjeon-jang(伸展葬) and Gul-jang(屈葬). As for each of the sorted elements, a burial method & procedure, head direction and a posture were analyzed depending on the basin that was classified by water system. As a result of the analysis, it could confirm the aspect, which is shown in common in the former, and the differential aspect, which is divided by region. Through these analytical results, it figured out the social aspect of bronze age in relation to locality. First of all, in the locality of the funeral institution, a burial method was prevailed burial and cremation in common. With regard to head direction, an idea of avoiding west of the sun declining was confirmed to have existed. Also, the limitation to the latter part of bronze age led to what Songguk-ri culture sphere and other areas are indicated with the mutually different image in a burial method & procedural type. Even in the inside of each region, a different aspect was identified according to the basin that was classified by water system.
  • 2.

    Review on Record of 『Samkukyusa(History of Three Kingdoms)』 on Bulsari Introduced by Monk Jajang

    Han joung ho | 2017, 32(32) | pp.47~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Bulsari (Buddha’s sarira) that was introduced by Monk Jajang from Tang Dynasty is the only case known with its place of enshrinement from the sarira of Sakyamuni that is handed down to Korea. Furthermore, it is a valuable material that may display the trend of Bulsari faith and Buddhist art of Korea with its rich bibliographical data with respect to the process after its introduction. As a result of analyzing the record of 『Samkukyusa』 with respect to Bulsari introduced by Jajang, part of the contents is known to be embellished at a later time. In particular, types of sariras that brought in by Jajang was mainly the sarira of 100 pieces originally, but following the flow of time, the Buldugol (Buddha’s skull) and Bulah (Buddha’s tooth) were seemed to be added. And as for the background of such embellishment, it is presumed to be the change of sarira faith revised on the basis of the Buldugol (Buddha’s skull) and Bulah (Buddha’s tooth) from the mid-9th century to 13th century. As a result of analyzing a number of records related to the personal observation of the sarira where it is enshrined on Tongdosa stairs, the stone cover of Tongdosa stairs is in the structure with easier opening and closing and it is confirmed with the cases of carrying out the Sugye ceremony by taking out the sarira. And, as a result of surveying Tongdosa stairs with the cue for consciousness related record, it was able to disclose the fact to allocate the stairs to climb up the original steps in 5 places. And, <Taehwasaji Sipijisang Saritap> that was discovered around Taehwasaji in Ulsan shows the characteristics that opening and closing of sarigong would be easy structurally that is different from the ordinary stone-bell shaped budo (pagoda where sarira or bones of priest is kept). Looking into the cases of Tongdosa stairs and personal observation of sarira, the Taehwasaji Saritap may have the possibility to be the saritap where the sarira is enshrined in its structure. Lastly, the type of Tongdosa stairs stone cover was depicted in the kettle (Boo, Hoek) shape until the later time of the 13th century and then the expression is changed as a stone-bell shape as it is shown for the present appearance in the later period of the 14th century. Through this effort, Tongdosa stairs had massive heavy repairing in the 14th century, and the shape of the stone cover prior to repairing could be assumed as similar shape with the sarira system discovered in the 3-story stone pagoda of Gameunsaji. And, the Gameunsa Sarigi that is continued with disputes on its origin and name displays to modify the type of stairs depicted in 『Gyedandogyeong』 into the sarigi.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Toseong of Busan Area

    il Gab Lee | 2017, 32(32) | pp.73~98 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In Busan, there are Myeongi-dong Toseong, Tanggong-dong Toseong, Goryeo Toseong and Chuang-gong, and Toseong in the castle classification. The planar forms of Mt. Myeongdong, Georgi Toseong, Tanggongdong, Toseong, and Gulangdong in Busan are classified into formulations and ellipses. Among the Toseong in Pusan ​​area, Goo-eup is built on a flat or gentle hilly area. As shown in the Doctrine of Toseong, Gyangjang Acid, Myeongyidong Toseong, and Deacidification, it shows complementary relationship with the characteristic of strong acidity and evapotranspiration in the rear. A common feature that appears in the construction method of Toseong in Pusan ​​area is that it is constructed as a basement of stonemasoned stonework with stone base. At this time, the gypsum used in the base was three long rectangular stones, which are longer than the thickness, and it is confirmed in Toseong in Busan area as well as in other gypsum in Gyeongnam area. In Mt. Toseong, Mt. Moon, Toseong, Gongryeong, and Toseong, which are estimated to be plainsolite in Toseong in Pusan ​​area, it seems to have been added or subtracted based on the interval of 400m. However, in the case of Gulang-gil, Baeksan-ri and Toseong, which are considered to have played a role of Boru, 50 ~ 60% of the total width of Toseong is 550cm, 520cm and 450cm respectively. As a result, the width of the existing athletic body decreases. "Nephrology Dongguk Ryuji Seungam" The Busan area is the only place where pylons and tiles are mixed in the Gyeongsang area. Therefore, it can be identified as a distinctive building pattern of Toseong in Busan area with time and locality.
  • 4.

    Research on the Activities of Monk Keumyong Ilseob in Daegu

    Eunryung Choi | 2017, 32(32) | pp.99~140 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Monk Keumyong Ilseob is self-made man who left big footprints in Korean modern Buddhist art history. Ilseob made many Buddhist art works including Buddhist statures, Buddhist paintings, and Dancheong (traditional multicolored paintwork on wooden buildings) and did not spare effort to train his followers. He left "Chronology", a work journal recording his works. His "Chronology" is an important material for the study on Ilseob as it helps us to understand his works, life, family, friendship, art world, the location and his activities related to his works. In this study, his activities from 1950 to 1970s in his “Chronology” were chronologically summarized to identify what he did in Daegu. Through his activities in Daegu, overall processes of Buddhist services such as characteristics of Buddhist rituals at that time, period of production, production process, treasurer of the project and composition of painters could be identified. Keumeo Ilseob worked at various Buddhist services in Jeolla Province, Jeju Island, Gyeonggi Province and Gangwon Province based in Gimje Buyong Temple from 1938 before the 1950s. From the 1950s to the end of his life, he led Buddhist services in Busan and Gyeongsang provinces based in Daegu JangsuTemple. Activities after 1950s based in Daegu are meaningful in that he did not limit his activities to a certain region but to expand it to cover the whole country. Among the Buddhist services Ilseob was involved in, there were statues for shaman’s house, monastery and the Moral Association. He utilized new materials such as plaster and cement to make Buddhist statues. Just as many contemporary and early modern monk painters wondered on the boundaries between religion and creativity, Monk Painter Ilseob had same agony. It seems that those works were result of his agony to come closer to the people in 1950s when life was hard and the neighborhood was war-torn.