Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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pISSN : 1975-6852
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2018, Vol.33, No.33

  • 1.

    A Study on World tree ornament from the Khazar burial of the Eurasian steppe in the European part of Russia

    lee ji eun , Vdovchenkov Evgeny | 2018, 33(33) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is known that the idea of the World tree is distributed in the Eurasian steppe including Korea. From the burial No.2 of the 6th Kastyrysky barrows were found the bone case with the simple geometric patter of tree. On the bone case it was engraved the schematized trees and birds, and the trees are connected to the upper and lower pattern tape. So it can be assumed that it is related to the idea of the World tree which connects the three worlds : heaven-ground-underground. Because it was found the women skeleton with the bone case, eye beads and iron disk, so it maybe possible to suppose that person buried in this grave might be symbolic meaning and religious role. Due to there are some archaeological cases of evidence about the connection between world tree and female, it was allowed to guess the idea of the World tree appeared not late than 1st century BC and the related tradition to the World tree was continued until 9th century AD by maternal lineage in this area.
  • 2.

    Reconsidering the terms of the Wae fortress and the Jeung fortress

    Sim Bong Keun | 2018, 33(33) | pp.27~51 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The term Wae(Japanese) fortress generally indicates the fortresses constructed by the Japanese forces during the period of Japanese invasion (1592~1597). Rarely, it was called either Jeung fortress or Jeung mountain fortress. In fact, the term Wae fortress means the Japanese fortress. In the case of Japan, the fortress built at the time usually called the fortresses in the age of civil wars or the modern fortresses. Recently, the author refuted the existing argument that the name of Busan was derived from the Jeung mountain. In the process of collecting materials for proving the argument, the author found out the fact that the locations of the Jeung mountain and Jeung mountain fortress coincided with where most Japanese fortress located. Therefore, this essay analyzes the materials regarding the connection between Wae fortress and Jeung fortress. Then, it re-examines the generality of using the term Wae fortress and the meaning of Jeung fortress. Moreover, this essay also reviews the origins of Wae fortress and the modern Japanese fortress. The results are as follow. First, this essay goes over the term Wae fortress. This term generally indicates the fortress constructed in the Korean peninsula by the Japanese forces during periods of the Japanese invasion. According to the official records of the Joseon dynasty, they distinguished the Wae fortresses from the Japanese fortresses located in Japan. As a result, it seems that the court of the Joseon dynasty defined the term Wae fortress as a fortress constructed in the Korean peninsula by the Japanese. Second, it is interesting that the meaning of Jeung fortress or Jeung mountain became different before and after the Japanese invasion. According to the records written before the Japanese invasion, these terms were generally named after the cauldron-shaped of the mountain. Therefore, based on the its Chinese characters, the fortresses were called either Jeung fortress or Jeung mountain fortress. On the other hand, it seems that these terms were used as another name for the Wae fortresses during the period of the Japanese invasion. The word Jeung was originally from a Japanese word for a castle(shiro). Therefore, the Korean people started to use the word shiru(steamer), which had a similar pronunciation with the Japanese word shiro. Last, this essay also examines the beginning of the modern Japanese fortress that had been regarded as an origin of the Wae fortress. Many scholars also argue that the modern Japanese fortress represented the Japan’s unique style. However, according to the aerial view of the Azuchi fortress-the first modern Japanese fortress, the styles of their construction were very similar to that of the European in the 15-16th centuries. As a result, the modern Japanese fortresses were influenced by an inflow of the Western culture into the Japan at the time. For this reason, the Wae fortresses constructed by the Japanese also has similar characteristics which the modern Japanese fortresses had.
  • 3.

    A study on the Ucchusma Icons in Guardian Paintings the Modern Era

    김재영 | 2018, 33(33) | pp.53~72 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sinjungdo (paintings of the guardian deities) are Buddhist paintings made based on ritual guides, but new icons were added as time passed. In particular, those paintings were greatly influenced by surrounding countries, especially Japan. Buddhist mission work stations from Japan were established in Korea after opening the ports, which increased the influence of Esoteric Buddhism. Naturally, Japanese Buddhist icons entered Korea, and Buddhist paintings began to feature Acala (Budong Mingwang) and Ucchusma (Yejeok-geumgang) that had not been found before. There are 24 pieces featuring Japanese Buddhist icons in modern Sinjungdo, and 2 of them portrayed both Acala and Ucchusma, while 22 pieces portray only Ucchusma. Ucchusma is a Japanese Buddhist icon that is relatively more emphasized, showing new patterns of layouts, attires and features in the 20 th century in addition to the many-sided cremation form. These changes are to lay more stress on Ucchusma. Sinjungdo featuring Acala and Ucchusma had been made actively since the 20 th century all over the nation regardless of region. Most Ucchusma featured in Korean Sinjungdo are many faces and many arms icons, seemingly changed into a more Korean style after the inflow. However, as a result of examining Ucchusma of Sinjungdo in the Daegwangjeon Hall of Pyochungsa Temple built in 1930, it was discovered that they were depicted almost in the same way as Mahakala of esoteric Buddhism in Tibet.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Formation of Japan’s Ethnic Assimilation Policies and Busan Art Group - About the Joseon Art Exhibition -

    Baejinyoung | 2018, 33(33) | pp.73~98 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Art of an age reflects the history of that time. Therefore, to understand contemporary art properly, both its artistic point of view and its historical point of view must be used together. Nevertheless, it is true that until now, when we studied art in Busan, we focused only on the artistic point of view. Such a problem had to do with the lack of materials, which led to a limitation in the understanding of the formation of a group of Busan artists. The above the Chosun Governor-General's office this paper are Japanese occupation in order to solve the problem of ethnic assimilation policies, Busan, about this, and about the Joseon art exhibition, Studied how response to a group of art. To that end, the research was carried out on the winners of the Joseon Art Exhibition from Busan. In addition, through the Busan Art Exhibition, we saw how the group of Busan artists formed. As a result, I found out that Busan painters responded to Japanese national assimilation policies in various ways. Lim Eung-gu and others thoroughly adjusted to it. And Ki Ui-byuk resisted based on socialism. Woo Shin-chul emphasized the uniqueness of Busan. Seo Tae-ro was out of the way of the times, drawing still life. On the other hand, Yang Dal-seok tried to portray the reality of Joseon's farming villages and people. The diverse movements formed the background of the Busan artist group's independent trend after liberation, and then paved the way for the birth of the native realism based on the form art.